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then attacked the heights of Keruza, which for its wealth and beneficence. Its hospitality command Canea, but were repulsed. Subse- and charity have been extended to all nations quently the Turks were reënforced by the ar and creeds alike. Every conqueror hitherto rival of 8,000 Egyptians, seven Turkish bat- has spared it—the Spanish, the Arabs, the Vetalions, and considerable artillery. On a netians, and even the Janizaries. During the newal of the battle, the Greeks were obliged to present insurrection it had frequently given fall back upon the mountains of Sphakia. At shelter to refugees from the Turks, and was this period the insurrection was reported to be used by the Greeks as a storehouse for provispreading in the eastern part of the island, and sions and ammunition. On the 18th of Novemto have broken out in four districts, which had ber Mustapha Pacha arrived at the town of previously taken no part in it. On the 24th of Retimo, and made preparations for marching September the Cretans addressed another ap- upon the convent. Collecting all the troops he peal to the great powers through the resident found there, to those brought by him from consuls. It alludes to the robberies and mur- Canea, he mustered a force of sixteen thousand ders which the Turks were constantly commit- men, according to the Greek statement. He ting, and asks the Christian powers to afford then sent forward Suleiman Bey to cut off comprotection to the defenceless old men, women, munications with the Greek forces and prevent and children, or else to furnish vessels on which their reënforcing the convent, which they atthey could be transported to Greece. The tempted to do as soon as they heard of the atbarbarities, according to the testimony of the tack, but were held in check by these detachmost trustworthy witnesses, were enacted to a ments of the Turkish force. After these bad a frightful extent, especially in the provinces taken position, the Generals Ali Pacha and chiefly inhabited by the Turks. It was esti- Ismail Pacha marched to attack the convent, mated that, by the end of September, over a and on the 21st Mustapha Pacha himself arthousand defenceless people had been murdered, rived and took chief command. The Turkish and that in Heracleion alone more than three account says that the forces immediately enhundred had been massacred !
gaged in the siege consisted of only 4,000 OttoOn October 5th the Turkish commissioner is- man infantry and artillery, Egyptian infantry, sued another proclamation extending the period Cretan mounted volunteers, and Albanian light for submission to October 10th. The Cretans, infantry. Within the monastery were about however, remained firm, and from October 9th 700 persons, of whom from 250 to 300 were to 12th had fought another four days' bat combatants, the remainder women and children. tle in the neighborhood of Canea, the result of A surrender having been demanded and refused, which, according to Greek accounts, was the on the morning of the 20th the bombardment retreat of Mustapha Pacha. About the end of began. In the afternoon more artillery and October the Turks claimed to have won a victory men were sent for, and on the 21st twenty-six near Oresta, the Cretans losing 700, besides heavy guns and two mortars were playing upon 3,000 drowned in a cave. In the beginning of the doomed monastery, and the tower which November the Turks repeatedly circulated the defended the approach to the main building was report that all the chiefs of the insurgents had reduced to ruins. For two days and nights an offered their submission and that the insurrec. incessant cannonade was continued, at the end tion was at an end. All these reports proved, of which time a breach was effected, and the however, to be inventions, and the Cretan gen- Turks rushed to the assault. By their own acerals, especially Coroneos and Zimbrakakis, count three mines were sprung upon them as were vigorous in prosecuting the war, while the storming party mounted the breach. Ono the mountainous district of Spahkia was held out of these, they say, exploded upward with no to all the defenceless people of the island as a effect. Another inward, with damage to the refuge. At the same time, however, the Cretan garrison only. The other was effective, and Assembly made another appeal to the Christian staggered the head of the attacking column, powers, through their ambassadors at Constan They admit that the attack lasted all day, and tinople, to provide protection or means of trans claim that five to six hundred rebels were killed, port for the helpless population of the island. among whom were the members of the Cretan They were represented as suffering from famine, Assembly from the province, and the
abbot of as well as exposed to outrage ; for the Turks the monastery. They captured forty-two indestroyed not only houses and provisions, but surgents; and ninety women and children were even agricultural iinplements and other means found in the magazines and sent to Retimo, of obtaining a subsistence.
where they were put under the care of the None of the incidents of the war made so Greek bishop. The Turkish loss is stated by profound and painful a sensation throughout the them at fifty-eight killed and one hundred and civilized world as the capture of the monastery fifty-three wounded. By the Greek account it of Arkadi. This monastery is situated in the appears that after the assaulting party entered midst of a large and fertile plain, in the eastern the breach resistance was kept up by the Crepart of the province of Retimo, about two tans firing from the cells which surrounded the hours journey from the southern coast of the court, until their fire-arms were disabled by inisland. It was built in the reign of the Em- cessant use, and many of the garrison were peror Heraclius, and has always been famous killed and wounded. The remainder then as
sembled in the large hall, under the Superior Zurva, where they were prepared to fight a of the convent, Father Gabriel, and resolved to great battle, without any engagement. Accord blow up the buildings. The powder was de- ing to the accounts sent to Athens, 6,000 troopa posited in the cellars, and the match was ap were collected at Zurva. On the 29th of Da. plied by Emanuel T. Oulas, a monk of twentycember, the Russian frigate Grand Admiral, ar years of age. The explosion left one wing of rived in the Piræus with more than 1,000 refu. the building standing, in which thirty-nine men gees on board, who were embarked at Tripiti
, and sixty women and children escaped with on the eastern shore of the province of Selinos, some wounds. The large and beautiful church near the southwestern precipices of the Sphawas also left uninjured; but this the Turks sub- kian mountains. A Turkish frigate was watchsequently plundered and burned. It is said that ing the coast, and the captain called upon the the wounded were slaughtered by the Turks, Russian to observe the blockade and not comafter applying torches to their faces to ascertain municate with the insurgents, but the Russian if they lived. The Greeks claim that more than captain replied, that he had orders to embark two thousand Turks were killed and over one the non-combatants on the coast, and the Turk thousand wounded by the explosion, and that then withdrew. The Greeks look upon the their army was greatly dispirited by this event. forcing of the blockade by the Russian frigate, A brother-in-law of Mustapha Pacha was among not as an act of humanity only, but also as a the killed. The Greek accounts say that the deliberate act of intervention.” Turks mutilated the Grecian dead in an obscene The insurrection of the Cretans had from the manner, and left them unburied, in consequence beginning found the most enthusiastic sympaof which the vicinity of the convent became uu- thy in Greece, and in those Turkish provinces approachable on account of the stench. and islands which are chiefly inhabited by
In the early part of December the Cretan Greeks. Large numbers of volunteers were General Assembly issued another proclamation flocking from Greece to Candia, being mostly to the people, encouraging them not to submit, transported there by the Greek steamer Panbut to persevere in the struggle of independ- hellenion, which made regular trips between ence, and holding out the hope that ships would Candia and the neighboring Greek island of soon arrive to carry away their women and Syra. Public opinion in Greece even urged the children, and then they would only have to hold government to risk an open war in behalf of the out a little longer, and the Christian nations Cretans, but thus far the Greek Government would interfere in their behalf. “The three did not' venture to proceed. Insurrectionary great protecting powers, aided by America, movements were attempted in Epirus, Thessaly, that friend of humanity, labor for a prompt in- and several islands, for the purpose of aiding tervention."
the Turks, but they had not the desired effect. The Turkish Government in so far yielded to (See TURKEY.) In Russia, public opinion was the representations made by the Christian gov- also very emphatic in expressions of sympathy, ernments, as to allow foreign ships-of-war to and the emperor and all the members of the imcarry away such persons as desired to leave the perial family forwarded their subscriptions to island, and thousands of women and children the committees organized for the aid of the sufwere thus sent to Greece. The Turkish Gov- ferers in Candia. Equally divided was the symernment repeatedly endeavored to enter into pathy of the liberal party throughout Europe, and negotiations with the insurgents, and was un- stirring appeals in behalf of the insurgents were sparing in its promises of reform, but it was un- issued by Victor Hugo and Garibaldi. Of the successful. The military operations during the friends of the latter, a number went as volunmonth of December were mostly confined to teers to Candia, and Garibaldi himself expressed the western part of the island, lying beyond his desire to follow them. In the United States Canea, which is divided into two provinces, the sympathy with the Cretans was also extenKissamos to the northwest, and Selinos to the sive, but it did not begin to manifest itself on south. On the operations in the last week of a grand scale until the beginning of the year December, the Athens correspondent of the 1867. The Governments of France and Eng. London Times (in a letter dated January 3, land showed more sympathy with the mainte1867), reported as follows: “The steady ad- Dance of the Turkish rule, than the success of rance of Mustapha Pacha is subjecting all the the insurrection, but declared their readiness to western part of Crete, which has hitherto been join the other powers in urging the Turkish the stronghold of the insurrection, to the Otto- Government to give new guarantees for the man arms. He has reëstablished the authority execution of the reforms which many years ago of the Porte in the province of Kissamos, and had been promised to the Christians by the is now with his army in the heart of Selinos. Hatti-Humayum. His knowledge of the interests as well as the CASS, Hon. LEWIS, an American statesman, feuds of the Greek Mussulmans and Greek born at Exeter, N. H., October 9, 1782 ; died in Christians in the different provinces has retard- Detroit, Mich., June 17, 1866. He was the ed and modified the military operations of the eldest son of Jonathan Cass, who at the age of Ottoman troops. He has now forced his way nineteen entered the ranks of the Continental into Selinos and compelled the insurgents and army, and served through all the arduous camGreek volunteers to abandon their camp at paigns of the Revolution, attaining the position
of captain. At the establishment of peace he The number of white inhabitants throughout received a commission in the army as major, the Territory was scarcely six thousand; no foot and was assigned to duty under Wayne in the of land had been yet sold by the United Stater, territory northwest of the Ohio River, his fam- and the interior of the Territory was a vast ily remaining at Exeter. During this time young wilderness, affording ambush for forty thouLewis was attending the academy in his native sand hostile savages. The Indian proprietorship town, and laying the foundations of a substan- still continued, and settlers could obtain no tial education. In 1799 the family removed to certain titles to their locations. No surveys Wilmington, Del., where Major Cass was tem- had been made, no roads opened inland, and tho porarily stationed, and where the subject of barbarous savages, led by their powerful chiefthis sketch obtained occupation as a teacher. tain Tecumseh, were implacable in their hatred! The following year, having decided to locate of the whites, and terrible in their atrocities. Westward, the family travelled thither partly on Under these discouraging circumstances Govfoot and partly by boat, reaching Marietta, the ernor Cass assumed the responsibilities of Gorpioneer settlement of Southern Ohio, in Octo- ernor, and ex-officio Superintendent of Indian ber. Major Cass soon removed to a tract of Affairs, his jurisdiction extending over the land granted him by the Government for his whole Territory, and continued in the discharge military services, situated on the Muskingum of these duties for eighteen years. During this River, near Zanesville, while Lewis remained at period his management of Indian affairs was Marietta, engaged in the study of law. In 1802 conducted with the utmost wisdom and pruhe was admitted to the bar, being but twenty dence. He negotiated twenty-two distinct years of age, and commenced the practice of treaties, securing the cession by the various his profession in Zanesville. His abilities as a tribes to the United States of the immense rejurist and pleader speedily manifested thein- gions of the Northwest, instituted surveys, conselves, built up for him a lucrative business, structed roads, established military works, orand gave him a wide-spread reputation in the ganized counties and townships, and, in short, thinly settled district north of the Ohio. Be- created and placed in motion all the machincoming well established in his profession, in ery of legitimate government and internal im1806 he married a Virginia lady, and shortly provement and prosperity, of which we are toafter entered upon his public career by taking a day enjoying the results. In the administration seat in the Ohio Legislature. Being placed on of the extensive financial trusts incident to his the committee instituted to inquire into the position, Governor Cass displayed the most movements of Colonel Burr, his hand drafted scrupulous honesty, never permitting even the the law which enabled the local authorities to small sum allowed him by the Government for arrest the men and boats engaged in that en contingent expenses to be transferred to his terprise on their passage down the Ohio. He private account until the vouchers had been also drew up the address to Mr. Jefferson, em formally signed and transmitted to Washington.. bodying the views of the Ohio Legislature on As yet the Northwestern regions were very the subject. In 1807 Mr. Cass was appointed imperfectly known, and at his suggestion an marshal of the State, a position which he filled expedition was planned in 1820, in which he until 1813. In the war of 1812 he volunteered himself bore a conspicuous part. Accompanied to join the forces at Dayton under General by the celebrated geologist, Schoolcraft, and Hull, and was named colonel of the Third Ohio six other gentlemen, with the necessary Indian Volunteers. Colonel Cass commanded the ad guides, they left Detroit in three bark canoes, vanced guard when the army crossed from for the exploration of the upper lakes and the Detroit into Canada, and drew up the proclama- head-waters of the Mississippi, and traversed tion addressed by the general to the inhabitants 5,000 miles. The results of this and other subof that country on their arrival in it, and com- sequent expeditions were published in the manded also the detachment which dislodged North American Revier in 1828–29, and addthe British forces posted at the bridge over the ed in no slight degree to the well-earned fame Aux Canards. Shortly afterward Colonel Cass of the author. In 1831, when President Jackwas included in the capitulation which en son reconstructed his cabinet, Governor Cass was sued on the signal defeat of the American army, appointed Secretary of War, and cordially inand after making his report at Washington, dorsed all the distinctive features of that adwas appointed to the Twenty-seventh regiment ministration. In the nullification troubles be of infantry, and after a short interval, promoted occupied the high patriotic ground of his chief, to the rank of brigadier-general. He took part and the nullifiers derived no benefit from in the pursuit of General Proctor, and in the tri- his presence in the War Department. In 1836 umph at the Moravian Towns. At the close of Gen. Cass submitted a rather celebrated report the campaign he was left in command of Michigan, to Congress upon our military and naval defences, with his headquarters at Detroit, a command hé embracing an elaborate résumé of our existing exchanged for the post of Civil Governor over martial resources, both offensive and defensive. the same State in October, 1813. In 1814 he His recommendations were the erection of a was associated with General Harrison in a com- strong chain of toast fortifications, and the buildmission to treat with the Indians, who had been ing of a powerful navy. Subsequent events hostile to the United States during the war. have established the wisdom of his suggestions,
Shortly after this, finding his health impaired, tions for the chief magistracy, and he remained he resigned his secretaryship, to the great re a member of the Senate until the expiration of gret of President Jackson.
his term. In 1857, when Mr. Bucbanan entered In 1836 he accepted the appointment of upon his adıninistration, General Cass accepted minister of the United States to France, and the position of Secretary of State. In the disafter dispatching some important business with union movements that followed Mr. Lincoln's that Government, he, in 1837, embarked at election, he was, as in 1850, a friend of comMarseilles for a voyage in the frigate Constitu- promise, sustaining especially the resolutions of tion to Egypt, by way of Constantinople, fol. his former colleague, Mr. Crittenden. He also lowing the coast, and stopping at the principal originally in the Cabinet approved (or at least ports, whence he made excursions into the in. did not pronouncedly disapprove) President terior. He was on excellent terms with Louis Buchanan's message, denying the existence of Philippe, of whose character he gave a friendly any power in the Constitution by which the and favorable account in his “King, Court, and General Government could coerce a State. Government of France,” published in 1840. Eight days later (December 14, 1860), howThe most remarkable incident of his diplomatio ever, he reasserted the Jacksonian principles career occurred just at its close, in his attack on of 1832–33, and upon Mr. Buchanan's refusal the quintuple treaty for the suppression of the to dispatch troops and supplies South, to reslave-trade, and which resulted in his resigna- enforce Major Anderson and reprovision Fort tion in 1842. Upon his return he found his Sumter, he promptly resigned. His resignacountry in a state of political excitement; his tion was the closing-up of a public career name had been mentioned as a Democratic can- of fifty-six years' duration. After that period didate for the presidency, and at the public re- he dwelt among his family, mingling little in ceptions, in honor of his return, his opinions society save in the exercise of the hospitalities upon the important questions of the day were of his own home. During the war his symeagerly sought. In the Democratic National pathies were always with the national arms, Convention of 1844, however, after repeated and the prolongation of his days to witness ballotings, James K. Polk received the nomina- the ultimate triumph of the Government he tion, and was elected to the presidency in the considered among the greatest blessings of bis following November. In January, 1845, he life. General Cass was a man of great natwas elected by the Legislature of Michigan to ural abilities, a prudent, cautious legislator, a the Senate of the United States, which place scholar of fine attainments, of the purest inhe resigned on his nomination, in May, 1848, as tegrity, temperate in all his habits, and persona candidate for the presidency by the political ally popular throughout the country. As an party to which he belonged. After the election orator, he was successful, though not famous. of his opponent, General Taylor, to that office, His speeches were always effective, whether behe was, in 1849, reëlected to the Senate for the fore popular assemblies or upon the floor of the unexpired portion of his original term of six Senate, but none will ever be preserved as reyears. Here he wielded a powerful influence. markable models of eloquence. The selection He was a strong advocate of compromise, be- of live topics, a clear and appropriate system came the chief ally of Henry Clay, and opposed of argument, and animated delivery were the both the Southern rights dogmas and the Wil- chief features of his oratory, and he always mot Proviso. The latter of these he had been commanded attention in a body that daily listinstructed by the Legislature to support, but he ened to the splendid periods of Webster and declared in the Senate that he should resign his the impassioned voice of Clay. His wealth seat in case this direct conflict came between was largely the result of his fortunate original his duty and his principles. Originally General investment in real estate, but the steady increase Cass was the most prominent candidate for the of his property in value has been also due to chairmanship of the Committee of Thirteen, able management. In all enterprises of public but himself urged the appointment of Mr. Clay improvements-railroads, highways, and other to that position. The passage of the resolution systems of internal development-he willingconstituting that committee was, by the testi- ly participated, and in matters of charity, mony of its mover, Henry Stuart Foote, chiefly though not a miscellaneous giver, no meridue to his prompting and assistance. He sup- torious and substantiated appeal ever failed of ported the various ineasures that it originated a response. save the Fugitive-Slave Law, on the passage of Besides his published works mentioned, and which, in the Senate, he declined to vote, though another, entitled “History, Tradition, Lanpresent in his scat.
guages, etc., of Indians in the United States," Being reëlected a Senator from Michigan for Mr. Cass's contributions to contemporary literaa second term of six years from March, 1851, ture were comparatively few in number, and he still continued a prominent Democratic can- confined to magazine articles upon topics in didate for the presidency, but, in 1852, as in regard to which he possessed peculiar sources 1844, he was unsuccessful, and Franklin Pierce of inforination. They were, therefore, rather was selected as a compromise among the con- designed as vehicles of useful knowledge than flicting interests as the candidate of that party. as models of the essayist's art. Their style was This defeat terminated General Cass's aspira- lucid and ornate, the essential facts and statis
tics being presented in an attractive garb of feared that the war in Austria and Italy, by rhetoric. In 1830 be received the degree of causing the movement of great numbers of catLL. D. from Hamilton College.
tle to supply the army commissariats, would CATTLE PLAGUE, or RINDERPEST. This propagate the plague extensively; but the war epizootic continued to make terrible havoc was so brief, that this does not seem to have in Great Britain and some of the Continental been the case. There was a severe outbreak states of Europe, till the earlier part of the au- of the plague among the bovine and cervine tumn of 1866. It made its appearance in Ire- animals of the Jardin d'Acclimatation in Paris, land, but was “stamped out " there with the where it was carried by two gazelles from loss of but a few head of cattle. In Holland it London on the 14th of November. Thirtyraged with great severity, and occasioned heavy five valuable animals were lost by the disease. losses, and near the close of the year was re The following table, published officially by the ported as still increasing, having already caused British Government, shows the extent of the the death of 71,000 head of cattle. It was ravages of rinderpest in Great Britain :
In the United States there was, during the by order of the Government, under the direcyear, no invasion of rinderpest. Other epizootics, tion of the priest Ospina, it amounted to 1,180,however, proved largely fatal to domestic ani- 000. The country is divided into the following mals. In the Western States, and particularly seventeen departments: Guatemala, Sacaltepec, in Indiana and Kentucky, an epizootic disease, San Marco, Chimaltenango, Suchiltepec, Escuknown as the “Texas fever," and said to have intla, Amatitlan, Santa Rosa, Mita, Solola, been communicated by a drove of cattle brought Totoniacapan, Guegnetenango, Quesaltenango, from Texas, proved very fatal to cattle. Its Chiquimula, Vera Paz, Salama, and Izabal. symptoms, so far as described, seem to have The capital, Guatemala, had, in 1865, 40,000 borne considerable resemblance . those of the inhabitants. The public debt was estimated, rinderpest. The "hog cholera," a fatal disease, in 1865, at 1,500,000 dollars. Value of im which seems to affect swine alone among the ports in 1863, 727,042 dollars; in 1864, 1,414,domestic animals, has occasioned the death of 904 dollars ; of exports, in 1863, 894,712 dolmany thousands of hogs throughout the West. lars; in 1864, 1,818,516 dollars. The imports, A solution of sulphate of iron (copperas), mixed in 1864, camé chiefly from Great Britain ($1,with a bran-mash, is recommended by some 119,586); France ($186,889); United States veterinarians both as a preventive and remedy ($45,722). Movement of shipping in 1864 (enfor it.
trances and clearances); in the Atlantic ports, CENTRAL AMERICA. There are at pres- 53 vessels, together of 1,952 tons. In Pacific ent in Central America the following five inde- ports, 62 'vessels, together of 33,312 tons (of pendent Republics :
which 29 vessels, with 25,254 tons, were from 1. GUATEMALA.*—President, Vincente Cerna the United States). (1865–1869). Area, 44,500 square miles. Popu 2. SAN SALVADOR*.—President, Fr. Duesias lation was estimated, in 1858, at 850,000; ac- (April, 1865, to April, 1869). The Legislative cording to a census, taken in September, 1865, Assembly, which holds biennial sessions, con
sists of 12 Senators, and 24 Deputies. The For the names of State ministers, U. 8. minister in republic is divided into 10 (formerly 8) deGuatemala, and Guatemalean minister 'in Washington, and the latest statistics of finances and the army, see ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for 1865.
• For other Information, seo ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for 1865.