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had none but actual settlers voted, the Free State candi- the Council and a Representative, and its vote was condates would have been elected by a large majority. trolled by the illegal vote cast there. The census shows From a careful examination of the testimony and the | 39 votes in it-37 votes were cast, of whom a majority records, we find that from 200 to 225 legal votes were voted the Free State ticket. polled out of 835, the total number given in the precincts
IXTH DISTRICT. of the Vth District., of the legal votes cast, the FreeState candidates received 152.
Fort Riley and Pawnee are in this District. The iat
ter place was selected by the Governor as the tempo. VITH DISTRICT--FORT Scott.
rary capital, and he designed there to expend the sums A company of citizens from Missouri, mostly from appropriated by Congress in the construction of suitable Bates County, came into this District the day before the houses for the Legislature. A good deal of building was election, some camping and others putting up at the then being done at the fort near by. For these reasons, public-house. They numbered from 100 to 200, and came
a number of mechanics, mostly from Pennsylvania, came in wagons and on horseback, carrying their provisions into this district in March, 1855, to seek employment. and tents with them, and were generally armed with pis. Some of these voted at the election. The construction tols. They declared their purpose to vote, and claimed of the capital was first postponed, then abandoned, and the right to do so. They went to the polls generally in finally the site of the town was declared by the Secre. small bodies, with tickets in their hands, and many, if tary of War to be within the military reservation of not all, voted. In some cases, they declared that they
Fort Riley: Some of the inhabitants returned to the had voted, and gave their reasons for so doing. Mr. States, and some went to other parts of the Territory. Anderson; a Pro-Slavery candidate for the Legislature, Your Committee find that they came as settlers, intend. endeavored to dissuade the non-residents from voting, ing to remain as such, and were entitled to vote. because he did not wish the election contested. This
Xru DISTRICT. person, however, insisted upon voting, and upon his right to vote, and did so. No one was challenged or In this district, ten persons belonging to the Wyandot sworn, and all voted who desired to. Out of 350 votes
tribe of Indians voted. They were of that class who east, not over 100 were legal, and but 61 of these under the law were entitled to vote; but their residence named in the census taken one month before by Mr. was in Wyandot Village, at the mouth of Kansas River, Barber, the candidate for Council, voted. Many of the and they had no right to vote in this district. They Free-State men did not vote, but your Committee is sat-voted the Pro-Slavery ticket. Eleven men recently from isfied that, of the legal votes cast, the Pro-Slavery candi- Pennsylvania voted the Free State Ticket. From the dates received a majority. Mr. Anderson, one of these testimony, they had not, at the time of the election, so candidates, was an unmarried man, who came into the established their residence as to have entitled them to District from Missouri a few days before the election, vote... In both these classes of cases, the judges examand boarded at the public-house until the day after the ined the voters under oath and allowed them to voie. election. He then took with him the poll-lists, and did and in all respects the election seems to have been connot return to Fort Scott until the occasion of a ba bacue ducted fairly. The rejection of both would not have the week before the election of October 1, 1855. He changed the result. This and the VIIIth Election D'strict voted at that election, and after it left, and has not since formed one representative district, and was the only one been in the D strict.
S. A. Williams, the other Pro- to which the invasion from Missouri did not extend. Slavery candidate, at the time of the election had a
XITH DISTRICT. claim in the Territory, but his legal residence was not there until after the election.
The IXth, Xth, XIth and XIIth Election Districts,
being all sparsely settled, were attached together as a VIIT: DISTRICT,
Council District, and the Xlth and XIIth as a RepreFrom two to three hundred men, from the State of sentative District. This Election District is 60 miles north Missouri, came in wagons or on horseback, to the elec- from Pawnee, and 150 miles from Kansas City. It is the tion ground at Switzer's Creek, in the VIIth District, and northwest settlement in the Territory, and contained, encamped near the polls, on the day preceding the 24 were voters. There was on the day of election no election. They were armed with pistols and other wea white settlement about Marysville, the place of voting, pons, and declared their purpose to vote, in order to secure the election of Pro-Slavery members. They said for 40 miles, except that Marshall and Bishop kept a they were disappointed in not finding more Yankees store and ferry at the crossing of the Big Blue and the there, and that they had brought more men than were
California r: ad. Your Committee were unable to pronecessary to counterbalance their vote. A number of
cure witnesses from this district. Persons who were prethem wore badges of blue ribbon, with a motto, and the
sent at the election were duly summoned by an officer, company were under the direction of leaders. They de- and among them was E. J. Marshall, the member of the clared their intention to conduct themselves peacefully, arrested and detained, and persons bearing the names
On his return, the officer was unless the residents of the Territory attempted to stop of some of the witnesses summoned were stopped near them from voting. Two of the judges of election appointed by Governor Reeder refused to serve, where Lecompton, and did not appear before the Committee. apon two others were appointed in their stead by the The returns show that, in defiance of the Governor's crowd of Missourians who surrounded the polls. The proclamation, the voting was viva voce, instead of by Dewly-appointed judges refused to take the oath pre
ballot. 328 names appear upon the poll-books as voting, scribed by Governor Reeder, but made one to suit them and by comparing these names with those on the census
Andrew Johnson requested each voter to swear rolls, we find that but seven of the latter voted. The it he had a claim in the Territory, and if he had voted in person voted for as Representative, F. J. Marshall, was another district. The judges did not take the oath pre
chief owner of the store at Marysville, and was there scribed, but were sworn to receive all legal votes. The sometimes, but his family lived in Weston. John Don. Missourians voted without being sworn. They sup
aldson, the candidate voted for the Council, then l.ved
in Jackson County, Missouri. ported H. J. Stickler for Council, and M. W. McGee for Representative. They left the evening of the election. 30 men from Weston, Mo., was on the way from Marys
On the day after the election, Mr. Marshall, with 25 or Some of them started on horseback for Lawrence, as they said they could be there before night, and all went had formerly resided at Weston, that they were up at
ville to the State. Some of the party told a witness who the way they came. The census-list shows 53 legal voters in the District. 253 votes were cast; of these 25 were Marysville and carried the day for Missouri, and that residents, 17 of whom were in the District
when the cen- bill at that point for the party;
they had voted about 150 votes. Mr. Marshall paid the Some of the residents present at the polls did not vote, declaring it useless. Candidates de into that district in March, 1855, after the census was
There does not appear to have been any emigration clined to run on the Free-State ticket because they were unwilling to run the risk of so unequal a contest-it be taken, and, judging from the best test in the power of ing known that a great many were coming up from Miss your Committee, there were but seven legal votes cast in Nearly all the settlers were Free-State
the district, and 321 illegal. men, and 23 of the 25 legal votes given were cast for the only Free-State candidate running. Mobiller McGee, The election in this district was conducted fairly. No who was declared elected Representative, had a claim-a complaint was made that illegal votes were cast. saw-mill and a house in the Territory-and he was there part of the time. But his legal residence is now, and was then, near Westport, in Missouri, where he owns and Previous to the day of election, several hundreds of conducts a valuable farm, and where his family resides. Missourians from Platte, Clay, Boone, Clinton, and How.
ard counties, came into the distries in wagons and on VIIITH DISTRICT.
horseback, and camped there. They were armed with Whils was attached to the VIlth District for member of guns, revolvers, and bowie-knives and had badges of
sus was taken.
souri to vote.
hemp in their button-holes and elsewhere about the'r to vote without being sworn-some of them voting as persons. They claimed to have a right to vote, from the many as eight or nine times; changing their hats and fact that they were there on the ground, and had, or coats, and giving in different names each time. After intended to make, claims in the Territory, although their they had voted, they returned to Missouri. The Free families were in Missouri.
State men generally did not vote, though constituting a The judges appointed by the Governor opened the majority in the precinct. Upon counting the ballots in polls, and some persons offered to vote, and when their the box and the names on the poll-lists, it was found votes were rejected on the ground that they were not that there were too many ballots, and one of the judges residents of the district, the crowd threatened to tear the of election took out ballots enough to make the two num. house down if the judges did not leave. The judges then bers correspond. withdrew, taking the poll-books with them. The crowd
WOLF RIVER PRECINCT. then proceeded to select other persons to act as judges, and the election went on.' Those persons voting who The number of voters in the district by the census was were sworn were asked if they considered themselves 834 --of these 124 voted. The testimony shows that quite residents of the district, and if they said they did, they a number of persons whose legal residence was in the were allowed to vote. But few of the residents were populous county of Buchanan, Mo., on the opposite side present and voted, and the Free State men, as a general of the river, had claims in the Territory. Some ranged thing, did not vote. After the Missourians got through cattle, and others marked out their claim and built a voting, they returned home. A formal return was made cabin, and sold this incipient title where they could. by the judges of election setting out the facts, but it was They were not residents of the Territory in any just or not verified. The number of legal voters in this district legal sense. A number of settlers moved into the district was 96, of whom a majority were Free-State men.
Of in the month of March. Your Committee are satisfied, these — voted. The total number of votes cast was 296. after a careful analysis of the records and testimony, XIVTH DISTRICT.
that the number of legal votes cast did not exceed 200
out of 727. It was generally rumored in this district, for some days
XVTH DISTRICT, before the election, that the Missourians were coming over to vote. Previous to the election, men from Mis
The election in this district was held in the house of a souri came into the district, and electioneered for the Mr. Hayes. On the day of election, a crowd of from 400 Pro-Slavery candidates. Gen. David R. Atchison and a to 500 men collected around the polls, of which the great party controlled the nominations in one of the primary body were citizens of Missouri. One of the judges of elections.
election, in his testimony, states that the strangers comBURR OAK PRECINCT.
menced crowding around the polls, and that then the Several hundred Missourians from Buchanan, Platte,
residents left. Threats were made before and during the and Andrew counties, Mo., including a great many of the
election day that there should be no Free-State can. prominent citizens of St. Joseph, came into this precinct didates, although there were nearly or quite as many the day before, and on the day of election, in wagons
Free-State as Pro-Slavery men resident in the district. and on horses, and encamped there. Arrangements were
Most of the crowd were drinking and carousing, cursing made for them to cross the ferry at St. Joseph free of
the Abolitionists and threatening the only Free State expense to themselves. They were armed with bowie-judge of election. A majority of those who voted wore knives and pistols, guns and rifles. On the morning of hemp in their button-holes, and their password was, the election, the Free-State candidates resigned in a
"all right on the hemp.” Many of the Missourians were body, on account of the presence of the large number of
known and are named by the witnesses. Severa armed Missourians, at which the crowd cheered and speeches were made by them at the polls, and among hurrahed. Gen. B. F. Stringfellow was present, and was
those who spoke were Major Oliver, one of your Comprominent in promoting the election of the Pro-Slavery mittee,
Col. Burns, and Lalan Williams, of Platte County. ticket, as was also the Hon. Willard
P. Hall, and others Major Oliver urged upon all present to use no harsb of the most prominent citizens of St. Joseph, Mo. But words, and expressed the hope that nothing would be one of the judges of election, appointed by the Governor, said or done to harm the feelings of the most sensitive on served on that day, and the crowd chose two others to
the other side. He gave some grounds, based on the supply the vacancies.
Missouri Compromise, in regard to the right of voting, The Missourians said they came there to vote for, and
and was understood to excuse the Missourians for voting. secure the election of, Major Wm. P. Richardson. Major Your Committee are satisfied that he did not vote. Col. Richardson, elected to the Council, had a farm in
Burns recommended all to vote, and he hoped none Missouri, where his wife and daughter lived with his son
would go home without voting. Some of the Proin-law, Willard P. Hall, he himself generally going home Slavery residents were much dissatisfied at the interto Missouri every Saturday night. The farm was gene- ference with their rights by the Missourians, and for that
reason-because reflection convinced them that it would rally known as the Richardson farm. He had a claim in the Territory, upon which was a saw-mill, and where he
be better to have Kansas a Free-State—they “fell over generally remained during the week.
the fence.” The judges requested the voters to take an Some of the Missourians gave as their reason for voting oath that they were actual residents. They objected at that they had heard that eastern emigrants were to be at first, some saying they had a claim, or “I am here." that election, though no eastern emigrants were there.
But the Free-State judge insisted upon the oath, and his Others said they were going to vote for the purpose of associates, who at first were disposed to waive it, coinmaking Kansas a Slave State,
cided with him, and the voters all took it after some Some claimed that they had a right to vote, under the grumbling. One said he cut him some poles and laid them provisions of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, from the fact that in the shape of a square, and that made him a claim; and They were present on the ground on the day of election. another said that he had cut him a few sticks of wood, The Free-State men generally did not vote, and and that made him
a claim. The Free State men did not those who did vote, voted generally for John H. White- vote, although they believed their numbers to be equal head, Pro-Slavery, for Council, against Major Wm. P. to the Pro-Slavery settlers, and some claimed that they Richardson, and did not vote at all for members of the had the majority... They were deterred by threats Lower House.
throughout by the Missourians, before and on the day of The parties were pretty nearly equally divided in the election, from putting up candidates, and no candidates district, some being of opinion that the Free State
were run, for this reason-that there was a credited party had a small majority, and others that the Pro- rumor previously that the Missourians would control the Slavery party had a small majority. After the election election. The Free State judge was threatened with exwas over and the polls were closed, the Missourians re- pulsion from the polls, and a young man thrust a pistol turned home. During the day, they had provisions and into the window through which the votes were received. liquor served out, free of expense, to all.
The whole number of votes cast was 417; of the names
on the poll-book, but 62 are in the census-rolls, and the DONIPHAX PRECINCT.
testimony shows that a small portion, estimated by one The evening before the election, some 200 or more
witness at one.quarter of the legal voters, voted. Your Missourians from Platte, Buchanan, Saline, and Clay
Committee estimate the number of legal voters at 80. counties, Missouri, came into this precinct, with tents,
One of the judges referred to, certified to the Governor music, wagons, and provisions, and armed with
that the election was fairly conducted. It was not con
guns, rifles, pistols, and bowie-knives, and encamped about tested, because no one would take the responsibility of two miles from the place of voting They said they came doing it, as it was not considered safe, and that if to vote, to make Kansas a Slave State, and intended to
another election was held, the residents would fare nu return to Missouri after they had voted
better. On the morning of the election, the Judges appointed
XVITH DISTRICT. by the Governor would not serve, and others were For some tiine previous to the election, meetings were appointed by the crowd. The Missourians were allowed held and arrangeinents made in Missourl to get up cuir
panies to come over to the Territory and vote, and the conducted, and not contested at all. In this district, the lay before, and on the day of election, large bodies of Pro-Slavery party had the majority. Missourians from Platte, Clay, Ray, Charlton, Carrol, Plinton, and Saline counties, Missouri, came into this
XVIIITH DISTRICT. listrict and camped there. They were armed with pistols und bowie-knives, and some with guns and rifles, and
Previous to the election, Gen. David R. Atchison of bad badges of hemp in their button-holes and elsewhere Platte City, Missouri, got up a company of Missourians, about their persons.
and passing through Weston, Missouri, went over into On the morning of the election, there were from 1,000 the Territory: He remained all night at the house of to 1,400 persons present on the ground. Previous to the and then exhibited his arms, of which he had an abunde'ection, the Missourians endeavored to persuade the two
He proceeded to the Nemaha (XVIIIth) district. Free-State judges to resign, by making threats of personal On his way, he and his party attended a Nominating Con. violence to them, one of whom resigned on the morning vention in the XIVth District, and proposed and caused of election, and the crowd chose another to fill his place to be nominated a set of candidates in opposition to the But one of the judges, the Free-State judge, would take
wishes of the Pro-Slavery residents of the district. the oath prescribed by the Governor, the other two
that Convention, he said that there were 1,100 men deciding that they had no right to swear any one who coming over from Platte County, and if that wasn't offered to vote, but that all on the ground were entitled enough, they could send 5,000 more that they came to
The only votes refused were some Delaware vote, and would vote or kill every G-dd-d Abolitionist Indians, some 3:1 Wyandot Indians being allowed to
in the Territory.
On the day of election, the Missourians, under AtchiThe Free-State men generally did not vote at that elec- son, who were encamped there, came up to the polls in the tion; and no newly-arrived Eastern emigrants were there. xvillth District, taking the oath that they were residents The Fi ee-State judge of election refused to sign the re
of the district. The Missourians were all armed with turns until the words " by lawful resident voters" were pistols or bowie-knives, and said there were 60 in their stricken out, which was done, and the returns made in company. But 17 votes given on that day were given
The election was contested, and a new elec- by residents of the district. The whole number of votes tion ordered by Gov. Reeder, for the 22d of May. The testimony is divided as to the relative strength of
R. L. Kirk, one of the candidates, came into the disparties in this district. The whole number of voters in trict from Missouri about a week before the election, and the district, according to the census returns, was 355; boarded there. He left after the election, and was not at and, according to a very carefully prepared list of voters, the time a legal resident of the district in which he was prepared for the Pro-Slavery candidates and other Pro- elected. No protest was sent to the Governor on account blavery men, a few days previous to the election, there of threats made against any who should dare to contest were 305 voters in the district, including those who had the election. lains but did not live on them. The whole number of
The following tables embody the result of the examina. rotes cast was 964. Of those named in the census 106 tion of your Committee in regard to this election. In roted. Your Committee, upon careful examination, are
some of the districts, it was impossible to ascertain the satisfied that there were not over 150 legal votes cast, precise number of the legal votes cast, and especially in eaving 814 illegal votes.
the XIVth, XVth, and XVIth Districts. In such cases,
the number of legal and illegal votes cast is stated, after XVIITH DISTRICT.
a careful reëxamination of all the testimony and records The election in this district seems to have been fairly concerning the election :
ABSTRACT OF CENSUS, AND RETURNS OF ELECTION OF MARCH 30, 1855, BY
1 2 3
heel No. of Voters.
ne Pro-Slavery Votes.
TO STESEM sure Total of Legal Votes.
No. persons resd'ts ale | Sea Total of Illegal Votes.
6 7 8 9
781 818 866
78 877 199 74 84 815 211 17 23 27
4 12 283 313
57 256 412 899 43 45
232 80 82 15 18 75 32 104 100 25 37 75 48 28
7 11 33 12
98 104 850 234 37 75 69 23 328 11 38 239 346
78 306 417 964 59 62
23 17 52 42 21
810 118 83 86 151
10 8 9 10
6 30 15 2
9 10 11 11 12 13 14
15 16 17 18
873 1183 150 99
208 385 50 28
By the election, as conducted, the Pro-Slavery candi-, them, in both the Council and the House, did not “reside dates in every district but the VIIIth representative dis-in" and were not "inhabitants of” the district for trict, received a majority of the votes ; and several of I which they were elected, as required by the organic law.
By that act it was declared to be the true intent and Your Committee here felt it to be their duty not only to meaning of this act to leave the people thereof perfectly inquire into and collect evidence in regard to force and free to form and regulate their domestic institutions fraud attempted and practiced at the elections in tho in their own way, subject to the Constitution of the Territory, but also into the facts and pretexts by which United States,
this force and fraud has been excused and justified; and So careful was Congress of the right of popular for this purpose your Committee have allowed the declasovereignty, that to secure it to the people, without a rations of non-resident voters to be given as evidence in single petition from any portion of the country, they , their own behalf, also the declarations of all who came removed the restriction against Slavery imposed by the up the Missouri River as emigrants in March, 1955, Missouri Compromise. And yet this right, so carefully whether they voted or not, and whether they caine into secured, was thus by force and fraud overthrown by a the Territory at all or not; and also the rumors which portion of the people of an adjoining State.
were circulated among the people of Missouri previous to The striking difference between this Republic and other the election. The great body of the testimony taken at Republics on this Continent, not in the provisions of the instance of the sitting Delegate is of this character. constitutions and laws, but that here changes in the ad. When the declarations of parties passing up the river ministration of those laws have been made peacefully and were offered in evidence, your Committee received them quietly through the ballot-box. This invasion is the first upon the distinct statement that they would be excluded and only one in the history of our Government, by unless the persons making the declarations were by other which an organized force from one State has elected a proof shown to have been connected with the elections. Legislature for another State or Territory, and as such it This proof was not made, and therefore much of this class should have been resisted by the whole executive power of testimony is incompetent by the rules of law, but is of the National Government.
allowed to remain as tending to show the cause of the Your Committee are of the opinion that the Constitu- action of the citizens of Missouri. tion and laws of the United States have invested the The alleged causes of the invasion of March, 1855, are President and Governor of the Territory with ample included in the following charges : power for this purpose. They could only act after re- I. That the New England Aid Society of Boston was ceiving authentic information of the facts; but when re- then importing into the Territory large numbers of men, ceived, whether before or after the certificates of election merely for the purpose of controlling the elections. That Were granted, this power should have been exercised to they came without women, children, or baggage, went its fullest extent. It is not to be tolerated that a legisla- into the Territory, voted, and returned again. tive body thus selected should assume or exercise any II. That men were hired in the Eastern or Northern legislative functions; and their enactments should be States, or induced to go into the Territory, solely to vote, regarded as null and void; nor should the question of and not to settle, and by so doing to make it a Free State. its legal existence as a legislative body be determined by III. That the Governor of the Territory purposely postitself, as that would be allowing the criminal to judge of poned the day of election to allow this emigration to his own criine. In section twenty-two of the organic act arrive, and notified the Emigrant Aid Society, and perit is provided, that " the persons having the highest num- sons in the Eastern States, of the day of election, before ber of legal votes in each of said Council-districts for he gave notice to the people of Missouri a: d the Territory. members of the Council, shall be declared by the Governor That these charges were industriously circulated ; that to be duly elected to the Council, and the persons having grossly exaggerated statements were made in regard to the highest number of legal votes for the House of Repre-them; that the newspaper press and leading men in sentatives, shall be declared by the Governor duly public meetings in Western Missouri, aided in one case by elected members of said House." The proclamation of à Chaplain of the United States Army, gave currency the Governor required a verified notice of a contest when and credit to them, and thus excited the people, and
was made, to be filed with him within four days induced many well-meaning citizens of Missouri to marı:h after the election. Within that time, he did not obtain into the Territory to meet and repel the alleged Eastern information as to force or fraud in any except the fol- paupers and Abolitionists, is fully proven by many ritlowing districts, and in these there were material defects nesses. in the returns of election. Without deciding upon bis But these charges are not sustained by the proof. power to set aside elections for force and fraud, they In April, 1854, the General Assembly of Massachusetts were set aside for the following reasons:
passed an act entitled “ An act to incorporate the HassaIn the 1st District, because the words "by lawful resi- chusetts Emigrant Aid Society.” The object of the S ciety, dent voters," were stricken from the return.
as declared in the first section of this act, was " for the In the Ild District, because the oath was administered purpose of assisting emigrants to settle in the West.” by G. W. Taylor, who was not authorized to administer an The moneyed capital of the corporation was hot to Dath.
exceed five millions of dollars ; but no more than fi ur per In the IIId District, because material erasures from the cent. could be assessed during the year 1854. and no printed form of the oath were purposely made.
more than ten per cent. in any one year thereafter. No In the IVth District, for the same reason.
organization was perfected, or proceedings had, under In the VIIth District, because the Judges were not sworn
this law. at all.
On the 24th day of July, 1854, certain persons in BosIn the XIth District, because the returns show the ton, Massachusetts, concluded articles of agreement and election to have been held viva voce instead of by ballot. association for an Emigrant Aid Society. The purpose of
In the XVIth District, because the words “by lawful this association was declared to be “ assisting en igrants residence" were stricken from the returns.
to settle in the West." Under these articles of #ssocia.
tion, each stockholder was individually liable. To avoid ABSTRACT OF THE RETURNS OF ELECTION OF this difficulty, an application was made to the General MAY 22, 1855.
Assembly of Massachusetts for an act of incorporation, which was granted. On the 21st day of February, 1855. an act was passed to incorporate the New England Emigrant Aid Company. The purposes of this act were declared to be “directing emigration westward, and aiding and providing accommodation for emigrants after
arriving at their place of destination." The capital PLACES OF VOTING.
stock of the corporation was not to exceed one million of dollars. Under this charter, a company was organized.
Your Committee have examined some of its oficers, and a portion of its circulars and records, to ascertair, what has been done by it. The public attention at that time was
directed to the Territory of Kansas, and emigration natu• 1 Lawrence..
306 rally tended in that direction. To ascertain its character 2 Douglas
127 127 and resources, this Company sent its agent into it, and the 3 Stinson's.
148 1 149
information thus obtained was published. The Company 7 " 110"..
79 made arrangements with various lines of transportation to 8 Council Grove..
reduce the expense of emigration into the Territory, and 16 Leavenworth, ...
procured tickets at the reduced rates. Applications were
made to the Company by persons desiring to emigrate; Total...
5601 8112 1409
and when they were numerous enough to form a party of
convenient size, tickets were sold to them at the reduced Although the fraud and force in other districts were rates. An agent acquainted with the route was selected to equally great as in these, yet, as the Governor had no accompany them. Their baggage was checked, and alı information in regard to them, he issued certificates ac- trouble and danger of loss to the emigrant in this way cording to the returns.
No. of District.
to vote at that election.
Under these arrangements, companies went into the the Territory, as a means to control the election and es. Territory in the Fall of 1854, under the articles of associa- tablish Slavery there. tion referred to. The company did not pay any portion of The real purpose is avowed and illustrated by the testithe fare, nor furnish any personal or real property to the mony and conduct of Colonel John Scott, of St. Joseph's, emigrant. The company, during 1855, sent into the Terri- Missouri, who acted as the attorney for the sitting deletory from eight to ten saw-mills, purchased one hotel in gate before your Committee. The following are extracts Kansas City, which they subsequently sold, built one hotel from his deposition : at Lawrence, and owned one other building in that place. In some cases, to induce them to make improvements, trict, on the 29th of November, 1854, I had been a resident
“Prior to the election in Burr-Oak precinct, in the XIVth Distown lots were given to them by town associations in this Missouri, and I then determined, if I found it necessary, to be. Territory. They held no property of any other kind or come a resident of Kansas Territory, On the day previous to description. They imposed no condition upon their emi- that election, I settled up my board at my boarding house, in grants, and did not inquire into their political, religious, or St. Joseph's, Missouri, and went over to the Territory, and social opinions. The total amount expended by them, in- took boarding with Mr. Bryant, near whose house the polls cluding the salaries of their agents and officers, and the were held the next day, for one month, so that I might bave
it in expenses incident to all organizations, was less than dent of the Territory on the day of election,
my power, by merely determining to do so, to become a resi$100,000.
my name was proposed as a Judge of Election, ob Their purposes, so far as your Committee can ascertain, jections were made by two persons only:
I then were lawful, and contributed to supply those wants most publicly informed those present, that I had a claim in the Ter. experienced in the settlement of a new country.
ritory ; that I had taken board in the Territory for a month ; The only persons or company who emigrated into the and legal voter in the Territory, and that I would do so, if I
and that I could, at any moment, become an actual resident Territory under the auspices of the Emigrant Aid Society concluded at any time during the day that my vote would be in 1855, prior to the election in March, was a party of 159 necessary to carry that precinct in favor of the Pro-Slavery persons, who came under the charge of Charles Robin- candidate for delegate to Congress.
ing the day
consider it necessary to become a resident of the In this party, there were 67 women and children. They Territory for the purpose mentioned, and did not vote nor offer came as actual settlers, intending to make their homes in the Territory, and for no other purpose. They had about time, and had held it for iwo or three years previously, and
“I held the office of City-Attorney for St. Joseph's at that their persons but little baggage; usually sufficient cloth- continued to hold it until this 'spring:. ing in a carpet-sack for a short time. Their personal ef- an election in St. Joseph's, in the spring of 1855, and was refects, such as clothing, furniture, etc., were put into trunks appointed City Attorney: The question of Slavery was put in and boxes; and for convenience in selecting, and cheap: in every election in this Territory. Gen. Whitfield was re
issue at the election of November, 1854, to the same extent as ness in transporting, was marked “ Kansas party bag- garded as the Pro-Slavery candidate for the Pro-Slavery party: gage, care B. Slater, St. Louis.” Generally, this was con- I regarded the question of Slavery as the primarily prominent signed as freight, in the usual way, to the care of a com- issue at that election, and, so far as I know, all parties agreed mission merchant. This party had, in addition to the usual in making that question the issue of that election. allowance of one hundred pounds to each passenger, a
“ It is my intention, and the intention of a great many other large quantity of baggage on which the respective owners is to be determined upon by the people of this Territory in the
Missourians now resident in Missouri, whenerer the Slavery issue paid the usual extra freight. Each passenger or party adoption of the State Constitution, to remove to this Territory in paid his or their own expenses; and the only benefit they time to arquire the right to become legul voters upon that question. derived from the Society, not shared by all the people of The leading purpose of our intended removal to the Te ritory is to the Territory, was the reduction of about $7 in the determine the domestic institutions of this Tero ito y, when it comes price of the fare, the convenience of traveling in a com
to be a State, and we would not come only fo thut po pose, and pany instead of alone, and the cheapness and facility of
orould never think of coming here but for that pon pose
there are a g eut many in Älissouri who are so situated." transporting their freight through regular agents. Subsequently, many emigrants, being either disappointed with The invasion of March 30th left both parties in a state the country or its political condition, or deceived by the of excitement, tending directly to produce violence. The statements made by the newspapers and by the agents of successful party was lawless and reckless while assuming the Society, became dissatisfied, and returned, both before the name of the “Law and Order" party. The other and after the election, to their old homes. Most of them party, at first surprised and confounded, was greatly irriare now settlers in the Territory. Some few voted at the tated, and some resolved to prevent the success of the inelection in Lawrence, but the number was small. The vasion. In some districts, as before stated, protests were names of these emigrants have been ascertained, and sent to the Governor; in others, this was prevented by
of them were found upon the poll-books. This threats; in others, by the want of time, only four days company of peaceful emigrants, moving with their house- being allowed by the proclamation for this purpose ; and hold goods, was distorted into an invading horde of pauper in others, by the belief that a new election would bring a Abolitionists, who were, with others of a similar character, new invasion. About the same time, all classes of men to control the domestic institutions of the Territory, and commenced bearing deadly weapons about the person, a then overturn those of a neighboring powerful State. practice which has continued to this time. Under these
In regard to the second charge : There is no proof that circumstances, a slight or accidental quarrel produced any man was either hired or induced to come into the unusual violence, and lawless acts became frequent. This Territory from any Free State, merely to vote. The en- evil condition of the public mind was further increased by tire emigration in March, 1855, is estimated at 500 persons, acts of violence in Western Missouri, where, in April, a including men, women, and children. They came on newspaper press, called The Parksville Lumina,y, was steamboats up the Missouri River, in the ordinary course destroyed by a mob. of emigration. Many returned for causes similar to those About the same time, Malcolm Clark assaulted Cole before stated; but the body of them are now residents. McCrea at a squatter meeting in Leavenworth, and was The only persons of those who were connected by proof shot by McCrea in alleged self-defense. with the election, were some who voted at the Big Blue On the 17th day of May, William Phillips, a lawyer of Precinct in the Xth District, and at Pawnee, in the IXth Leavenworth, was first notified to leave; and upon his reDistrict. Their purpose and character are stated in a fusal, was forcibly seized, taken across the river, and carformer part of this report.
ried several miles into Missouri, and then tarred and The third charge is entirely groundless. The organic feathered, and one side of his head shaved, and other law requires the Governor to cause an enumeration of the gross indignities put upon his person. inhabitants and legal voters to be made; and that he ap
Previous to this outrage, a public meeting was held, at portion the members of the Council and House, according which resolutions were unanimously passed, looking to to this enumeration. For reasons stated by persons en- unlawful violence, and grossly intolerant in their characgaged in taking the census, it was not completed until the ter. The right of free speech upon the subject of Slavery early part of March, 1855. At that time, the day of hold-was characterized as a disturbance of the peace and quiet ing the election had not been, and could not have been, of the community, and as “circulating incendiary sentinamed by the Governor. So soon as practicable after the ments.” They say “to the peculiar friends of northern returns were brought in, he issued his proclamation for fanatics," Go home and do your treason where you may an election, and named the earliest day, consistent with find sympathy.” Among other resolves is the following: due notice, as the day of election. The day on which the “Resolred, That the instimmion of Slavery is known and reelection was to be held was a matter of conjecture all cognized in this Territory; and we repel the doctrine that it is over the country; but it was generally known that it would a moral ard political evil, and we hurl back with scorn upon be in the latter part of March. The precise day was not its slanderous authors the charge of inhumanity; and we warn known by any one until the proclamation issued. It was and sow the seeds of discord between the master and he ser. not known to the agents of the Emigrant Aid Society in vant; for, as much as we deprecate the necessity to which we Beston on the 13th of March, 1855, when the party of emi. may be driven, we cannot be responsible for the consegrants before referred to, left.
quences.” Your Committee are satisfied that these charges were
A Committee of Vigilance of 30 men was appointed “to made the mere pretext to induce an armed invasion into 0684:72 ssd report all such persons as shall