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treatise on the principles of government and nationality men, they have no wings to fly from God: war is his as applied to the affairs of Spain and Portugal during beadle, war is his vengeance." Act IV., Scene I.— the Peninsular War.-H. R.] H. R.]
"O'er the wide earth, on mountain and on plain." [That thoughtful and eloquent writer, the younger Aubrey De Vere, in quoting this sonnet, has accompanied it with the following classical comment:
"The fact that defensive wars are religious wars, and assisted by religious sanctions, is in no instance more remarkably illustrated than in the glorious defence of Greece against Persia. Among the instances of supernatural aid by which the righteous cause was supposed to have been vindicated, perhaps the most remarkable was the interference of the god Pan, who had promised to leave his Arcadian retreats, and to help the Athenians at Marathon. It was in commemoration of such aid that the Athenians dedicated to that pastoral, and not less mystical divinity, the cave in the rocky foundations of the Acropolis, which still bears his name. As I gazed on that cave, I could not but call to mind that the support which the Athenians believed they had received, was no other than that to which Wordsworth appealed on behalf of the Tyrolese. The circumstance is a singular instance of that analogy of thought which is to be found in all places and at all times, when great minds are moved by great events. The deepest poet of modern times uttering, in his 'Sonnets Dedicated to Liberty, his solemn and authoritative protest against the aggressive tyranny of Buonaparte, and exhorting each nation of Europe, in turn, to withstand that aggression to the death, admonishes them likewise that
The power of armies is a visible thing, Formal and circumscribed in time and place.'
And bids them place their trust in that universal principle of Strength, Justice and Immortality, of which the soul of man is the special abode, and of which Pan was a Pagan type." Aubrey De Vere's Picturesque Sketches of Greece and Turkey, Vol. I., p. 204, Chap. viii.-H. R.]
Page 273. "Perilous is sweeping change, all chance unsound." "All change is perilous, and all chance unsound." SPENSER.
Page 278. Sonnet 1.
If in this Sonnet I should seem to have borne a little too hard upon the personal appearance of the worthy Poissards of Calais, let me take shelter under the authority of my lamented friend, the late Sir George Benumont. He, a most accurate observer, used to say of them, that their features and countenances seemed to have conformed to those of the creatures they dealt in; at all events the resemblance was striking.
It would be ungenerous not to advert to the religious movement that, since the composition of these verses in 1837, has made itself felt, more or less strongly, throughout the English Church; — a movement that takes, for its first principle, a devout deference to the voice of Christian antiquity. It is not my office to pass judgment on questions of theological detail; but my own repug. nance to the spirit and system of Romanism has been so repeatedly and, I trust, feelingly expressed, that I shall not be suspected of a leaning that way, if I do not join in the grave charge, thrown out, perhaps in the heat of controversy, against the learned and pious men to whose labours I allude. I speak apart from controversy; but, with strong faith in the moral temper which would elevate the present by doing reverence to the past, I would draw cheerful auguries for the English Church from this movement, as likely to restore among us a tone of piety more earnest and real, than that produced by the mere formalities of the understanding, refusing, in a degree, which I cannot but lament, that its own temper and judgment shall be controlled by those of antiquity. [1842.]
Within a couple of hours of my arrival ¿‹ Rome, I saw from Monte Pincio, the Pine tree as described in
In this Sonnet I am under some obligations to one of the sonnet; and, while expressing admiration at the an Italian author, to which I cannot refer.
beauty of its appearance, I was told by an acquaintance of my fellow-traveller, who happened to join us at the moment, that a price had been paid for it by the late Sir G. Beaumont, upon condition that the proprietor should not act upon his known intention of cutting it down.
Page 270-1. "Thanksgiving Ode."
[The poetical figures, which once were objected to as expressing too strongly the idea of this stanza, are not without a parallel in Shakspeare, in that passage of "Henry the Fifth," where the king is represented saying, " if these men have defeated law, and outrun native punishment, though they can outstrip
Page 325. "Camaldoli."
This famous sanctuary was the original establishment of Saint Romualdo, (or Rumwald, as our ancestors saxonised the name) in the 11th century, the ground
(campo) being given by a Count Maldo. The Camaldolensi, however, have spread wide as a branch of Benedictines, and may therefore be classed among the gentlemen of the monastic orders. The society comprehends two orders, monks and hermits; symbolised by their arms, two doves drinking out of the same cup. The monastery in which the monks here reside, is beautifully situated, but a large unattractive edifice, not unlike a factory. The hermitage is placed in a loftier and wilder region of the forest. It comprehends between 20 and 30 distinct residences, each including for its single hermit an inclosed piece of ground and three very small apartments. There are days of indulgence when the hermit may quit his cell, and when old age arrives, he descends from the mountain and takes his abode among the monks.
My companion had, in the year 1831, fallen in with the monk, the subject of these two sonnets, who showed him his abode among the hermits. It is from him that I received the following particulars. He was then about 40 years of age, but his appearance was that of an older man. He had been a painter by profession, The name of Milton is pleasingly connected wit but on taking orders changed his name from Santi to Vallombrosa in many ways. The pride with which the Raffaello, perhaps with an unconscious reference as Monk, without any previous question from me, pointed well to the great Sanzio d'Urbino as to the archangel. out his residence, I shall not readily forget. It may be He assured my friend that he had been 13 years in the proper here to defend the Poet from a charge which hermitage and had never known melancholy or ennui. has been brought against him, in respect to the passage In the little recess for study and prayer, there was a in "Paradise Lost," where this place is mentioned. It small collection of books. "I read only," said he, is said, that he has erred in speaking of the trees there "books of asceticism and mystical theology." On being being deciduous, whereas they are, in fact, pines. The asked the names of the most famous mystics, he enume- fault-finders are themselves mistaken; the natural rated Scaramelli, San Giovanni della Croce, St. Diony-woods of the region of Vallombrosa are deciduous, and sius the Areopagite (supposing the work which bears spread to a great extent; those near the convent are, his name to be really his), and with peculiar emphasis indeed, mostly pines; but they are avenues of trees Ricardo di San Vittori. The works of Saint Theresa planted within a few steps of each other, and thus comare also in high repute among ascetics. These names posing large tracts of wood; plots of which are pemay interest some of my readers. riodically cut down. The appearance of those narrow avenues, upon steep slopes open to the sky, on account of the height which the trees attain by being forced to grow upwards, is often very impressive. My guide, a boy of about fourteen years old, pointed this out to me in several places.
We heard that Raffaello was then living in the convent; my friend sought in vain to renew his acquaintance with him. It was probably a day of seclusion. The reader will perceive that these sonnets were supposed to be written when he was a young man.
"What aim had they the pair of Monks?" In justice to the Benedictines of Camaldoli, by whom strangers are so hospitably entertained, I feel obliged to notice, that I saw among them no other figures at all resembling, in size and complexion, the two Monks described in this Sonnet. What was their office, or the
motive which brought them to this place of mortification, which they could not have approached without being carried in this or some other way, a feeling of delicacy prevented me from inquiring. An account has before been given of the hermitage they were about to enter. It was visited by us toward the end of the month of May; yet snow was lying thick under the pine-trees, within a few yards of the gate.
[The Author's political Work on "The Relations of are united, will have a firm mind, in whatever emGreat Britain, Spain and Portugal," (referred to at barrassments he may be placed; will look steadily at p. 259, and in the Notes, pp. 377 and 389,) has become the most undefined shapes of difficulty and danger, of so rare a volume that I insert here the two following possible mistake or mischance; nor will they appear to extracts, not only on account of the valuable truths him more formidable than they really are. For his expressed in them, but also as having an especial attention is not distracted - he has but one business, interest for the American reader. and that is with the object before him. Neither in Treating of the qualifications needed by military general conduct nor in particular emergencies, are his men, as "heads of an army," Wordsworth speaks of,-plans subservient to considerations of rewards, estate * * that or title: these are not to have precedence in his thoughts, to govern his actions, but to follow in the train of his duty. Such men in ancient times, were Phocion, Epaminondas, and Philopamen; and such a man was Sir Philip Sidney, of whom it has been said, that he first taught his country the majesty of honest dealing. With these may be named the honour of our own age, Washington, the deliverer of the American Continent; with these, though in many things unlike, Lord Nelson, whom we have lately lost. Lord Peterborough, who fought in Spain a hundred years ago, had the same excellence with a sense of exalted honour, and a tinge of romantic enthusiasm, well suited to the country which Pages 54-5-6.
* intellectual courage higher quality, which is never found without one or other of the three accompaniments, talents, genius, or principle; talents matured by experience, without which it cannot exist at all; or the rapid insight of peculiar genins, by which the fitness of an act may be instantly determined, and which will supply higher motives than mere talents can furnish for encountering difficulty and danger, and will suggest better resources for diminishing or overcoming them. Thus, through the power of genius, this quality of intellectual courage may exist in an eminent degree, though the moral character be greatly perverted; as in those personages who are so conspicuous in history, conquerors and was the scene of his exploits." usurpers, the Alexanders, the Caesars and Cromwells; and in that other class still more perverted, remorseless and energetic minds, the Catilines, and Borgias, whom Our duty is our aim ought to be-to poets have denominated "bold bad men." But though employ the true means of liberty and virtue for the ends a course of depravity will neither preclude nor destroy of liberty and virtue. In such policy, thoroughly underthis quality, nay, in certain circumstances will give it stood, there is fitness and concord and rational subordinaa peculiar promptness and hardihood of decision, it is tion; it deserves a higher name-organization, health, not on this account the less true, that to consummate and grandeur. Contrast, in a single instance, the two this species of courage, and to render it equal to all processes; and the qualifications which they require. occasions (especially when a man is not acting for him- The ministers of that period found it an easy task to self, but has an additional claim on his resolution from hire a band of Hessians, and to send it across the the circumstance of responsibility to a superior), princi- Atlantic, that they might assist in bringing the ple is indispensably requisite. I mean that fixed and Americans (according to the phrase then prevalent) to habitual principle, which implies the absence of all selfish | reason. The force with which these troops would anticipations, whether of hope or fear, and the inward attack was gross-tangible-and might be calculated; disavowal of any tribunal higher and more dreaded than but the spirit of resistance, which their presence would the mind's own judgment upon its own act. The ex- create, was subtle - etlrerealmighty-and incalcuistence of such principle cannot but elevate the most lable. Accordingly, from the moment when these commanding genius, add rapidity to the quickest glance, foreigners landed men who had no interest, no busia wider range to the most ample comprehension; but ness in the quarrel, but what the wages of their master without this principle, the ordinary powers must, in the bound them to, and he imposed upon his miserable trying hour, be found utterly wanting. Neither with- slaves; - nay, from the first rumour of their destinaout it can the man of excelling powers be trust-worthy, tion, the success of the British was (as has since been or have at all times a calm and confident repose in affirmed by judicious Americans) impossible." Page himself. But he, in whom talents, genius, and principle | 139-40.- H. R.]
POEMS OF SENTIMENT AND REFLECTION.
EXPOSTULATION AND REPLY. "WHY, William, on that old gray stone, Thus for the length of half a day, Why, William, sit you thus alone, And dream your time away?
Where are your books?that light bequeathed
To beings else forlorn and blind!
Up! up! and drink the spirit breathed
You look round on your mother Earth,
One morning thus, by Esthwaite lake, When life was sweet, I knew not why, To me my good friend Matthew spake, And thus I made reply:
"The eye-it cannot choose but see;
Nor less I deem that there are Powers
Think you, 'mid all this mighty sum
-Then ask not wherefore, here, alone, Conversing as I may,
I sit upon this old gray stone,
And dream my time away."
THE TABLES TURNED;
AN EVENING SCENE ON THE SAME SUBJECT.
UP! up! my Friend, and quit your books;
See that Fly, a disconsolate creature! perhaps
Alas! how he fumbles about the domains
He cannot find out in what track he must crawl,
Stock-still there he stands like a traveller bemazed:
His feelers, methinks, I can see him put forth
No Brother, no Mate has he near him- while I
the clouds, And back to the forests again!
Or in the diver's grasp fetched up from caves
'Mid casual tokens and promiscuous shows,
A NIGHT THOUGHT.
Lo! where the moon along the sky
But when the clouds asunder fly
Far different we-a froward race,
Their way pursue,
UPON SEEING A COLOURED DRAWING OF THE BIRU SP
Resplendent Wanderer! followed with glad eyes
Yet, God is my witness, thou small helpless Thing!
A holy name- -the Bird of Heaven!
If kindred humours e'er would make
WHO rashly strove thy image to portray?
A counter impulse let me tako
Perhaps for touch profane,
Plumes that might catch, but cannot keep, a stain;
The Bird of God! whose blessed will
How happy at all seasons, could like aim
CHARACTER OF THE HAPPY WARRIOR.
It is the generous Spirit, who, when brought