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duced to the elements of pure and undefiled religion, and their taste for knowledge and the beauties of learning created and formed by works in which salvation was held up as the one thing needful, and no achievements described, no characters lauded, but such as were adorned with the fruits of righteousness. Thus did the pious care of the primitive Christians intermingle religion with all the pursuits and recreations of the young, and never allow them to engage in the study of science, or to plunge into the business of the world, until they had been first taught to view everything in the spirit and by the principles of the Word of God.

"A New and Complete UNIVERSAL History of the Holy Bible” has long been needed. We have, with great care, study, and expense, been enabled to present one to the public. Commentators, lexicographers, oriental travellers, and biblical critics of the greatest name, have been extensively consulted in preparing this work. The attention of the reader is respectfully requested to the copious supply of notes, critical 'and explanatory, at the foot of the pages, designed to render the publication intelligible and instructive to all classes of readers. Literature, profane and sacred, is here united with the arts of printing and engraving, to produce a work, which shall be a valuable addition to the biblical literature of our country. Something more, however, than a mere compiler is required to do it justice. Patient labor will effect much; but without searching discrimination, without great power of original conception, a dull and ponderous work will be the result, the perusal of which will take up as much time as did the composition of it, and leave as little clear and pleasing impression on the reader, as the author had distinct conception of his subject, or real love for it. The Scripture History ought, least of all, to be overlaid with tediousness. Too littie is understood of the character of the revealed dispensations, and the mode in which they were communicated; and that writer does a great benefit to his race who familiarizes the Sacred History, by giving a plain and easy narration of the events which it records, and elucidating the circumstances and peculiarities of the people who were originally concerned in them.

In preparing the present Work we have endeavored to blend instruction and entertainment in such a manner that, while the reader is sensibly pleased, he will find himself imperceptibly improved, and be amazed at his extensive knowledge of the Scriptures, acquired in so rapid a manner. A complete HISTORY OF THE BIBLE is indeed absolutely necessary to accompany that sacred book, in order to elucidate many important matters, which, in this age, might not be understood by many pious and well-disposed people. The sacred writers, for instance, often named places which they did not describe, because those to whom their writings were addressed well knew them. It is our business, therefore, to point out the situation, together with the ancient and modern state of those places. They mentioned customs peculiar to the early ages, and oriental countries in which they lived, and which we have here illustrated with great care and expense.

The Editor refers here with pleasure to the gratifying reception his former publications have met with-more than Fifty Thousand Copies of his different volumes having been circulated throughout the United States and British North America, within the short period of two years—his own expectations of their success having been more than fully realized. It would be unnatural, if not irreligious, for him not to feel honored and delighted with the numerous favorable testimonials, relative to their character and design, he has received from the public press, both political and religious ; together with the unsolicited recommendations of numerous leading Clergymen of all denominations, Instructers of Youth, Sunday School Teachers, &c., beside knowing the fact, that there is, at

the present time, a continual and growing demand for them throughout the country.

We respectfully offer the present volume to the patronage of Christian Pastors, Instructers, and Parents. In preparing it for the press, we have found much more labor than we expected, to render the whole instructive and agreeable to modern and intelligent readers. In every part of it we have studied brevity, and labored at condensation. Without this, it would have been an easy matter to double its size with more extended matter, or additional notes; but these, however, in various respects desirable, have been omitted, for the purpose of preserving the size of the volume within moderate limits, that it might be more generally possessed by every class of Christians. “The Bible,” says an amiable and universally-admired writer," is a light to our feet, and a lamp to our path. It points us to the way, the Truth, and the Life. It is our guide while we live, and our trust when we die. It is the charter of our salvation, and the pledge of our immortality. If there were but one Bible in the world, all the wealth of that world would not be adequate to the value of that Bible.” Another old writer observes : “ HAPPY IS THE MAN THAT FINDETH WISDOM, AND THE MAN THAT GETTETH UNDERSTANDING ; FOR THE MERCHANDISE OF IT IS BETTER THAN THE MERCHANDISE OF SILVER, AND THE GAIN THEREOF THAN FINE GOLD. SHE IS MORE PRECIOUS THAN RUBIES ; AND ALL THE THINGS THOU CANST DE

LENGTH OF DAYS IS IN HER RIGHT HAND; AND IN HER LEFT HAND RICHES AND HONOR. HER WAYS ARE WAYS OF PLEASANTNESS, AND ALL HER PATHS ARE PEACE." Proverbs, iii. 13–17.

SIRE ARE NOT TO BE COMPARED UNTO HER.

DESCRIPTION OF THE FRONTISPIECE.

THE JUDGMENT OF SOLOMON;

AFTER THE ORIGINAL, BY PETER PAUL RUBENS.

Then came there two women unto the king, and stood before him. And the one woman said, O my Lord, I and this woman dwell in one house : and I was delivered of a child with her in the house. And it came to pass the third day after that I was delivered, that this woman was delivered also : and we were together; there was no stranger with us in the house, save we two in the house, and this woman's child died in the night; because she overlaid it. And she arose at midnight, and took my son from beside me, while thine handmaid slept, and laid it in her bosom, and laid her dead child in my bosom. And when I rose in the morning to give my child suck, behold it was dead : but when I had considered it in the morning, behold it was not my son which I did bear. And the other woman said, Nay; but the living is my son, and the dead is thy son. And this said, No; but the dead is thy son, and the living is my son. Thus they spake before the king.

Then said the king, The one saith, This is my son that liveth, and thy son is dead : and the other saith, Nay; but thy son is dead, and my son is the living. And the king said, Bring me a sword. And they brought a sword before the king. And the king said, Divide the living child in two, and give half to the one, and half to the other. Then spake the woman whose the living child was, unto the king, for her bowels yearned upon her son, and she said, O my Lord, give her the living child, and in no wise slay it. But the other said, Let it be neither mine nor thine, but divide it. Then the king answered and said, Give her the living child, and in no wise slay it: she is the mother thereof.

And all Israel heard of the judgment which the king had judged: and they feared the king, for they saw that the wisdom of God was in him, to do judgment. (1 Kings, iii. 16-28.)

Such a mode of decision as this which Solomon adopted, was not unknown, under absolute monarchies, in the east.

Ariopharnes, king of Thrace, being appointed to arbitrate between three young men, each claiming to be the son of the king of the Cimmerians, discovered the real son by desiring each to shoot an arrow into the dead body of him they called their father. Two of the claimants obeyed without hesitation, but the third refused, upon which the arbitrator judged him to be the genuine prince.

LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL ILLUSTRATIONS

Page.

FrontisPIECE.—Judgment of Solomon, after the Original, by Peter Paul Rubens.

" And the King said, Divide the living Child in two.”—1 Kings, iii. 25

Engraved Title to the Bible History

The Deluge.-N. POUSSIN

The Mountains of Ararat

Babylon Inundated, from a Drawing by J. B. Fraser, Esq.
Nineveh, from Rich
Island of Aradus, froin Laborde's « Voyage en Orient"

The Jordan issuing from the Lake

Women of Egypt, lower Class, from “ L'Egypte-Etat Moderne"

The Dead Sea, from a Drawing by Mr. Arundale.

Cromlech at Plas Newydd, from Painting in British Museum

Druidical Circle, Jersey, from Grose's Antiquities

Camels, from Laborde's “ Voyage en Orient"

Great Officer on a Journey, composed from Lane

Mountains of Seir, from Laborde's “ Arabia"

Tents, from Laborde's Travels

Egyptian Females of Priestly Families, Official Dresses, from Rossellini, &c.

Modern Syrian Carts, of ancient Form, from Laborde

Carts of the Tartar Nomades, from Sebastian Ide's Travels

King (the Sultan) on his Throne, from D'Ohsson

Eelauts in Persia, from Malcom's “ Persia”

The River Nile under its usual Appearance

Ornaments of Egyptian Females, " Jewels of Gold, and jewels of Silver," composed

from various Egyptian Paintings and Sculptures
A Departure from Esypt in the present Day, composed from Laborde, &c.
Adjeroud, from “ L'Egypte-Etat Moderne"
Suez, from the northeast, from “ L'Egypte-Etat

Moderne

Egyptian War-chariots, composed from “ L’Egypte--Antiquities"

Egyptian Soldiers of differeni Corps, from “ L'Egypte-Antiquities"

Dance of Females, with Timbrels, from “ L’Egypte-Antiquities,” and Rossellini

Ain Monsa, from a Drawing by Mr. Arundale

A wild Palm-tree at the Foot of Mount Sinai

Summit of Mount Sinai, from Laborde

Setting up the Tabernacle in the Wilderness

The Table of Showbread

Costume of the High-priest

The High-priest on the Day of Atonement, and a Levite (Leviticus xvi. 4)

General View of the Mountains of Sinai

Bedouin Encampment in a Valley of Sinai

, from Taylor's “ La Syrie”

A Valley in Sinai, from Taylor's “ La Syrie” .

Bedouins collecting Fruits in PalestineCostume from Cassas

Mount Hor, from Laborde

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173

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179 183 195 197 207

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View in the Land of Moab, from Buckingham
Valley of Shechem, with Mounts Ebal and Gerizim, from Laborde
Ancient Syrian Chief addressing the People, from Syrian Figures in ancient Egyptian

Paintings
Plain of Jericho, from a Sketch by Mr. Arundale
Summer-parlor on the Nile, from Mayer
Market at Gate, composed from Lane
Gaza
Victor greeted with “ Timbrels and Dance,” Costume from Figures of Syrians in

ancient Egyptian Paintings
Supporting-pillars of Eastern Buildings, composed from « L’Egypte Etai Modernes
Ethiopian Car drawn by Oxen, from Wilkinson
Indian Car drawn by Oxen, from Mandeslo
Monumental Pillars, from Laborde.
Runners attending a Chariot, composed from Egyptian Sculptures
A Meeting near Mount Tabor-modern Syrian Costume
A Musical Procession-modern Syrian Costume-Instruments, ancient Egyptian
View of Rama-Forbin
Throwing a Javelin-modern Syrian Costume
Escape from a Window-modern Syrian Costume
Eastern Forms of Obeisance, from " L’Egypte-Etat Moderne;"

&c.
Presents to a Bedouin Chief, adapted from Laborde, &c. .
Bedouins, with Captives and Spoil
The Pursuer slain, Costume from Canaanitish Warrior used in Wilkinson
Hebron, from Laborde's “Syria”
Rocky Valley in the Vicinity of Petra
Ruins of Ammon, from Taylor's “Syria”
Flight on Mules, Bedouin Costume
Absalom's Sepulchre, from a Drawing by Mr. Arundale
Race of Messengers
Howdah of the Great Mogal, from Mandeslo
Great Mogul on Throne, from “ L'Histoire Generale des Voyages”
Solomon approaching Jerusalem
Pools of Solomon, from a Drawing by

Mr.
Tadmor (Palmyra), from Laborde
Tribute-bearers, composed from ancient Egyptian Sculptures
Baalbec, from a Sketch by Mr. Arundale
Egyptian Worship, coinposed from “ L'Egypte-Antiquities," Russellini, Wilkinson,

&c.
Samaria (Sabaste), from Laborde
The Walls of Jerusalem, and Part of the Valley of Jehoshaphat (2 Sam. xv. 23–30;

2 Kings xviii. 18)
Terrace Cultivation, from the Jewish Expositor” –1831
Defile in Idumea
Egyptian Vintage, compiled from Rossellini, « L’Egypte,"i &c.
Sepulchre of the Kings, from a Drawing by Mr. Arundale
Sidon
Collecting Dung for Fuel, from “ L'Egypte-Etat Moderne"
“ Record Chamber” (Library at Constantinople), from D’Ohsson
An Encampment, from Lane's “ Arabian Nights”
Tartar or Turkish Courier, from D’Ohssan
Ancient Persian Cup-bearers, composed from Persian Sculptures engraved in Porter
Modern oriental Gate, Babel-Nasr, Cairo, from Lane's “ Arabian Nights”
Tomb of Ezra
Alexandria, from a Drawing by Mr. Arundale
Elephants employed in War
Antioch, from Cassas
Elephants employed in the Execution of Criminals
Roman Standards
The River Jordan, from à Drawing by Mr. Arundale
Askalon, from Forbin
Roman, Consu]
Oriental Builders

211 217 221 221 223 227 229 231 237 245 245 247 252 255 258 259 269 271 275 279 281 291 291 293 299 303 306 307

Arundale

311 315

317 327 337 345 351 361 365 383 385 385 387 389 393 399 405 407 413 423 429 433 447 459

PART II.-NEW TESTAMENT HISTORY.

FRONTISPIECE.—Christ bearing his Cross, from the Original by Audran (John xix.

13-18)
Vignette in Title-ihe Birth of Christ
Bethlehem, from a Drawing by Mr. Arundale
Cana
Pool of Bethesda
Lake and Town of Tiberias
Defile between Jerusalem and Jericho
Jerusalem, with its Walls-northwest view (Luke xxi. 24)
Olive-trees now standing in the Garden of Gethsemane
In'erior of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Jerusalem (No. 2), from Laborde
Ruins of Cæsarea
A View of the present City of Damascus
Jopa, from Forbin
Thyatira
Mars' Hill, Athens
Corinth (Acts xviii. 1-18.)
Ephesus-Ruins of the Temple of Diana
Corinth-a View of the modern Town
View of Ephesus
View of Malta
View of Colossæ
Roman Officers
The Mamertine Prison, Rome-the subterranean Ceil in which St. Paul and St. Peter

are said to have been confined
Ruins of the Palace of Nero, Rome
A View of Smyrna
A View of Patmos
A View of Pergamos
A View of Sardis
A View of Philadelphia
A View of Laodicea
Roman Army approaching Jerusalem
The Forum, Rome
Arch of Titus, Rome
Present Appearance of Jerusalem

472 473 477 481 483 487 491 495 499 503 515 527 527 531 541 545 547 549 549 553 567 569 569

573 577 583 585 597 599 601 603 615 629 633 633

DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW TESTAMENT FRONTISPIECE.

CHRIST BEARING HIS CROSS.

FROM THE ORIGINAL BY AUDRAN,

WHEN Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment-seat, in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha. And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour : and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King! But they cried out, Away with him, away with him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your king? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Cesar. Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified And they look Jesus, and led him away. And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a scull, which is called in the Hebrew, Golgotha : Where they crucified him, and two others with him, in either side one, and Jesus in the midst. - John xix. 13-18.

The path " Via dolorosa,” by which our Saviour was conducted from the palace of Pilate to Mount Calvary, is still pointed out by old traditions, with a pardonable minuteness of detail. The house in which * Christ was condemned is a ruined Roman edifice, containing several spacious apartments, to each of which

is a signed some particular destination in the narrative of Christ's last sufferings on earth. In one he was mocked, in another buiteted, and scourged in a third. An arch that is thrown across the street, is called the arch of " Ecce Homo," from its proximity to the window at which the Redeemer was shown to the people, wearing a crown of thorns, and clothed in a purple robe. At two places, within the length of the Via dolorosa, which is about an English mile, the Saviour is said to have sunk beneath his burden, and at a third, he placed his hand against the wall to support him from falling; credulity professes to discover the impression of his sacred hand in the stone. At a station less than one hundred yards still further, the sole diers, compassionating his weakness, compelled Simon the Cyrenian to succeed to the burden of the cross, and carry it to that spot where the great oblation for the sins of the world was offered.

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