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rest upon reasoning, but upon senti- were made to organise troops. Byron ment. He was curiously superstitious took into his pay a body of five hundred through life, and seems to have pre- disorderly Suliotes. (He met thickening
ferred catholicism to other religions. difficulties with unexpected temper, | Lady Byron told Crabb Robinson firmness, and judgment. Demands for
(5 March 1855) that Byron had been money came from all sides; Byron told made miserable by the gloomy Calvin- Parry that he had been asked for fifty ism from which, she said, he had never thousand dollars in a day. He raised freed himself. Some passages in his sums on his own credit, and urged the letters, and the early “Prayer to Greek committee to provide a loan. Nature" imitation
of Pope's His indignation when Gamba spent too “Universal Prayer”, seem to imply much upon some red cloth was a comic a revolt from the doctrines to which exhibition of his usual economy Lady Byron referred. “Cain,” his hardly unreasonable under the cir. most serious utterance, clearly favours cumstances. the view that the orthodox theology His first object was an expedition gave a repulsive or a nugatory answer against Lepanto, held, it was said, by a to the great problems. But, in truth, weak garrison ready to come over. Byron's scepticism was part of his At the end of January he was named quarrel with cant. He hated the re- commander-in-chief. His wild troops ligious dogma as he hated the political were utterly unprovided with the stores creed and the social system of the required for an assault. The Greek respectable world. He disavowed sym- committee had sent two mountain guns, pathy with Shelley's opinions, and with ammunition, and some English probably never gave a thought to the artisans under William Parry, a “rough philosophy in which Shelley
burly fellow,” who had been a clerk at interested.
Woolwich. Parry after a long voyage Trelawny was now with Odysseus reached Missolonghi on 5 Feb. 1824. and the chiefs of Eastern Greece. Prince In the book to which he gave his name, Mavrocordato, the most prominent of and for which he supplied materials, he the Western Greeks, had at last occu- professes to have received Byron's conpied Missolonghi. Byron sent Colonel fidence. Byron called him “old boy," Stanhope (afterwards Lord Harring- laughed at his sea slang, his ridiculous ton), a representative of the Greek accounts of Bentham (one of the Greek committee, with a letter to Mavrocor- committee), and played practical jokes dato and another to the general govern- upon him. Parry landed his stores, set ment (2 Dec. and 30 Nov. 1823), in- his artisans to work, and gave himself sisting upon the necessity of union; military airs. The Suliotes became and on 28 Dec. sailed himself, on the mutinous. They demanded commisentreaty of Mavrocordato and Stan- sions, says Gamba, for 150 out of three hope. The voyage was hazardous. or four hundred men. Byron, disGamba's ship was actually seized by a gusted, threatened to discharge them Turkish man-of-war, and he owed his all, and next day, 15 Feb., they subrelease to the lucky accident that his mitted. The same day Byron was captain had once saved the Turkish seized with an alarming fit the doctors captain's life. Byron, in a “mistico," disputed whether epileptic or apoplectic; took shelter under some rocks called but in any case so severe that Byron said the Scrophes. Thence, with some gun- he should have died in another minute. boats sent to their aid, they reached Half an hour later a false report was Missolonghi, in spite of a gale, in which brought that the Suliotes were rising to Byron showed great coolness. Byron seize the magazine. Next day, while was heartily welcomed. Mavrocordato Byron was still suffering from the diswas elected governor-general. Attempts ease and the leeches applied by the
doctors, who could hardly stop the bleeding, a tumultuous mob of Suliotes broke into his room. Stanhope says that the courage with which he awed the mutineers was “truly sublime." On the 17th a Turkish brig came ashore, and was burned by the Turks after Byron had prepared an attack. On the 19th a quarrel arose between the Suliotes and the guards of the arsenal, and a Swedish officer, Sasse, was killed. The English artificers, alarmed at discovering that shooting was, as Byron says, a "part of housekeeping" in these parts, } insisted on leaving for peacable regions. The Suliotes became intolerable, and were induced to leave the town on receiving a month's wages from Byron, and part of their arrears from government. All hopes of an expedition to Lepanto vanished.
Parry had brought a printing-press, though he had not brought some greatly desired rockets. Stanhope, an ardent disciple of Bentham's, started a newsPaper, and talked of Lancasterian schools, and other civilising apparatus, including a converted blacksmith with a cargo of tracts. Byron had many discussions with him. Stanhope proi duced Bentham's "Springs of Action”
25 a new publication, when Byron * stamped with his lame foot,” and said that he did not require lessons upon that subject. Though Trelawny says that Stanhope's free press was of eminent *rvice, Byron may be pardoned for thinking that the Greeks should be freed from the Turks first, and conFerted to Benthamism afterwards. He was annoyed by articles in the paper, which advocated revolutionary principles and a rising in Hungary, thinking that an alienation of the European powers would destroy the best chance of the Greeks. He hoped, he said, that the writers' brigade would be ready before the soldiers' press. The discussions, however, were mutually respectful, and Byron ended a talk by saying to Stanhope, "Give me that honest right hand," and begging to be udged by his actions, not by his words.
Other plans were
now discussed. Stanhope left for Athens at the end of February. Odysseus, with whom was Trelawny, proposed a conference with Mavrocordato and Byron at Salona. Byron wrote agreeing to this proposal 19 March.
He had declined to answer an offer of the general government to appoint him governor-general of Greece" until the meeting should be
The prospects of the loan were now favourable. Byron was trying, with Parry’s help, to fortify Missolonghi and get together some kind of force. His friends were beginning to be anxious about the effects of the place on his health. Barff offered him a countryhouse in Cephalonia. Byron replied that he felt bound to stay while he could. “There is a stake worth millions such as I am.” Missolonghi, with its swamps, meanwhile, was a mere fevertrap. The mud, says Gamba, was so deep in the gateway that an unopposed enemy would have found entrance difficult. Byron's departure was hindered by excessive rains. He starved himself as usual. Moore says that he measured himself round the wrist and waist almost daily, and took a strong dose if he thought his size increasing. He rode out when he could with his body-guard of fifty or sixty Suliotes, but complained of frequent weakness and dizziness. Parry in vain commended his panacea, brandy. Trelawny had started in April with a letter from Stanhope, entreating him to leave Missolonghi and not sacrifice his health, and perhaps his lifc, in that bog.
Byron produced his last poem on the morning of his birthday, in which the hero is struggling to cast off the dandy with partial success.
He had tried to set an example of generous treatment of an enemy by freeing some Turkish prisoners at Missolonghi. A lively little girl called Hato or Hatagée, who was amongst them, wished to stay with him, and he resolved to adopt her. A letter from Mrs. Leigh, found by Trelawny among his papers, contained a transcript from a letter of Lady
Byron's to her with an account of Ada's health. An unfinished reply from Byron (23 Feb. 1824) asked whether Lady Byron would permit Hatagée to become a companion to Ada. Lady Byron, he adds, should be warned of Ada's resemblance to himself in his infancy, and he suggests that the epilepsy
be hereditary. He afterwards decided to send Hatagée for the time to Dr. Kennedy.
On 9 April he received news of Mrs. Leigh's recovery from an illness and good accounts of Ada.
On the same day he rode out with Gamba, was caught in the rain, insisted upon returning in an open boat, and was seized with a shivering fit. His predisposition to malaria, aided by his strange system of diet, had produced the result anticipated by Stanhope. He rode out next day, but the fever continued. The doctors had no idea beyond bleeding, to which he submittedwith great reluctance, and Parry could only suggest brandy. The attendants were ignorant of each other's language, and seem to have lost their heads. On the 18th he was delirious. At intervals he was scious and tried to say something to Fletcher about his sister, his wife, and daughter. A strong “antispasmodic potion” was given to him in the evening. About six he said, “Now sleep,” and fell into a slumber which, after twenty-four hours, ended in death on the evening of 19 April. Trelawny arrived on the 24th or 25th, having heard of the death on his journey. entered the room where the corpse was lying, and, sending Fletcher for a glass of water, uncovered the feet. On Fletcher's return he wrote upon paper, spread on the coffin, the servant's account of his master's last illness.
Byron's body was sent home to England, and after lying in state for two days was buried at Hucknall Torkard. The funeral procession was accidentally met by Lady Caroline Lamb and her husband. She fainted
See Edinburgh Reruiem for April 1871, for Hobhouse's account of the funcral.
on being made aware that it was Byron's. Her mind became affected; she was separated from her husband; and died 26 Jan. 1828, generously cared for by him to the last.
Lady Byron afterwards led a retired life. Her daughter Ada was married to the Earl of Lovelace 8 July 1835, and died 29 Nov. 1852. She is said to have been a good mathematician. A portrait of her is in Bentley's "Miscellany” for 1853. Lady Byron settled ultimately at Brighton, where she became a warm admirer and friend of F. W. Robertson. She took an interest in the religious questions of the day, and spent a large part of her income in charity. , Miss Martineau speaks of her with warm respect, and some of her letters will be found in Crabb Robinson's Diary. Others ? thought her pedantic and overstrict. She died 16 May 1860. Mme. Guiccioli returned to her husband; she married the Marquis de Boissy in 1851 and died at Florence in March 1873.
The following appears to be a full list of original portraits of Byron." Names of proprietors added: 1. Miniature by Kaye at the age of seven. 2. Full length in oils by Sanders; engraved in standard edition of Moore's life (Lady Dorchester). 3. Miniature by same from the preceding (engraving destroyed at Byron's request). length by Westall, 1814 (Lady BurdettCoutts). 5. Half-length by T. Phillips 1814 (Mr. Murray); engraved by Agar, R. Graves, Lupton, Mote, Warren, Edwards, and C. Armstrong. 6. Miniature by Holmes, 1815 (Mr. A. Morrison) engraved by R. Graves, Ryall, and H. Meyer. 7. Bust in marble by Thorwaldsen, 1816 (Lady Dorchester) replicas Milan
and elsewhere For Lady Caroline Lamb see Lady Morgan Memoirs, i. 200-14; Annual Obituary for 182 Mr. Townshend Mayer in Temple Bar for Jurie 1868:
Lord Lytton. Memoirs, vol. i. Paul Life of Godwin, vol. ï.
See Howitt's letter in Daily News for Sepe 1860.
For fuller details see article by M. R. Ede cumbe and Mr. A. Graves in Notes and Queries oth series, vi. 422, 472, vii. 269.
shall go to
8. Half-length by Harlowe, 1817; engraved by H. Meyer, Holl, and Scriven. 9. Miniature by Prepiani, 1817, and another by the same; given to Mrs. Leigh. 10. Miniature in water-colours of Byron in college robes by Gilchrist about 1807-8; at Newstead.
11. Halflength in Albanian dress by F. Phillips, R.A. (Lord Lovelace); replica in National Portrait Gallery; engraved by Finden. 12. Pencil sketch by G. Cattermole from memory (Mr. Toome). 13. Medallion by A. Stothard. 14. Bust by Bartolini, 1822 (Lord Malmesbury);. Lithograph by Fromentin. 15. Halflength by West (Mr. Horace Kent); engraved by C. Turner, Engelheart,
and Robinson. 16. Three sketches by - Count d'Orsay, 1823; one at South
Kensington. 17. Statue by Thorwaldsen, finished 1834. This statue was ordered from Thorwaldsen in 1829 by Hobhouse in the name of a committee. Thorwaldsen produced it for £1000. It was refused by Dean Ireland for Westminster Abbey, and lay in the custom house vaults till 1842, when it was again refused by Dean Finton. In 1843 Whewell, having just become Master of Trinity, accepted it for the college, and it was placed in the library.' 18. A silhouette cut in paper by Mrs. Leigh Hunt is prefixed to “Byron and some of his Contemporaries.
Byron's works appeared as follows: 1. "Hours of Idleness." 2 2. “English Bards and Scotch Reviewers" (Cawthome). 3. "Imitations and Translations, together with original poems never before published, collected by J. C. Hobhouse, Trinity College, Cambridge" (1809) (contains nine poems by Byron, reprinted in works, among "occasional pieces,” 1807-8 and 1808–10. 4. "Childe Harold, a Romaunt,” 4to, 1812 (an appendix of twenty poems, including those during his travels and those addressed to Thyrza). 5. “The
Curse of Minerva" (anonymous; privately printed in a thin quarto in 1812 (Lowndes); at Philadelphia in 1815, 8vo; Harris (Galignani), izmo, 1818; and imperfect copies in Hone's “Domestic Poems,” and in later collections). 6. “The Waltz" (anonymous), 1813 (again in Works, 1824). 7. “The Giaour, a Fragment of a Turkish Tale," 1813, 8vo. 8. “The Bride of Abydos, a Turkish Tale," 1813, 8vo. 9. “The Corsair, a Tale,” 1814, 8vo (to this were added the lines, Weep, daughter of a royal line,” omitted in some copies.) 10. “Ode to Napoleon Buonaparte" (anonymous), 8vo, 1814. II. “Lara, a Tale,” 1814, 8vo (originally published with Rogers's “Jacqueline”). 12. “Hebrew Melodies,” 1815 (lines on Sir Peter Parker appended); also with music by Braham and Nathan in folio. 13. “Siege of Corinth," 1816, 8vo. 14. “Parisina," 1816, 8vo (this and the last together in second edition, 1816). 15. “Poems by Lord Byron” (Murray), 1816, 8vo (“When all around," Bright be the place of thy soul,” “When we two parted,” “There's not a joy,” “There be none of Beauty's daughters,” “Fare thee well”; poems from the French and lines to Rogers). The original of “Bright be the place of thy soul,” by Lady Byron, corrected by Lord Byron, is in the Morrison MSS. 16. “Poems on his Domestic Circumstances by Lord Byron," Hone, 1816 (includes "Sketch," and in later editions “Farewell to Malta,” and “Curse of Minerva” (mutilated); a twenty-third edition in 1817. It also includes “O Shame to thee, Land of the Gaul,” and “Mme. Lavalette," which, with an “Ode to St. Helena," "Farewell to England,” “On his Daughter's Birthday,” and “The Lily of France," are disowned by Byron in letter to Murray 22 July 1816, but are reprinted in some later unauthorised editions.
17. “Prisoner of Chillon, and other Poems," 1816, 8vo (sonnet to Lake Leman, “Though the day of my destiny's over,”
“Darkness,” "Churchill's Grave,” “The Dream," the “Incanta
tion” (from Manfred), “Prometheus.") 18. Childe Harold's Pilgrimage,' canto iii., 1816, 8vo. 19. “Monody on the Death of Sheridan” (anonymous), 1816, 8vo. 20. “Manfred, a Dramatic Poem,” 1817, 8vo. 21. “The Lament of Tasso," 8vo. 1817, 22. “Childe Harold's Pilgrimage,” canto iv., 1818 (the Alhama ballad and sonnet from Vittorelli appended). 23. Beppo, a Venetian Story” (anonymous in early editions), 1818, 8vo. 24. "Suppressed Poems” (Galignani), 1818, 8vo (“English Bards and Scotch Reviewers, “Land of the Gaul,” “Windsor Poetics, a Sketch”). 25. Three Poems not included in the works of Lord Byron (Effingham Wilson), 1818, 8vo (“Lines to Lady J[ersey)”; “Enigma on H.,' often erroneously attributed to Byron, really by Miss Fanshawe; “Curse of Minerva,” fragmentary). 26. “Mazeppa,” 1819 (fragment of the “Vampire" novel appended). 27. “Marino Faliero," 1820. 28. “The Prophecy of Dante," 1821 (with "Marino Faliero"), 8vo. 29. “Sardanapalus, a Tragedy “ The Two Foscari, a Tragedy
“Cain, a Mystery" (in one volume, Svo), 1821. 30. “Letter ... on the Rev. W.L. Bowles's Strictures on Pope," 1821. 31. “Werner, a Tragedy" (J. Hunt), 1822, 8vo. 32. “The Liberal” (J. Hunt), 1823, 8vo (No. I. “Vision of Judgment," "Letter to the Editor of my Grandmother's Review," "Epigrams on Castlereagh.” No. II. "Heaven and Earth." No. III. “The Blues." No. IV. “Morgante Maggiore"). 33. “The Age of Bronze" (anonymous) (J. Hunt), 1823, 8vo. 34. “The Island,” (J. Hunt), 1823, 8vo. 35. “The Deformed Transformed” (J. & H. L. Hunt), 1824, 8vo. 36. “Don Juan" (cantos i. and ii.“ printed by Thomas Davison,” 4to, 1819; cantos iii., iv., and v. (Davison), 8vo, 1821; cantos vi., vii., and viii. (for Hunt and Clarke), 8vo, 1823; cantos ix., X., and xi. (for John Hunt), 8vo, 1823; cantos xij., xiii., and xiv. (John Hunt), 8vo, 1823; cantos xv. and xvi. (John and H. L. Hunt), 8vo, 1824), all anonymous. A 17th canto (1829) is not by Byron; and “twenty suppressed stanzas” (1838) are also spurious.