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PREFACE—1994 EDITION

This twelfth edition of the United States Code, prepared and published pursuant to section 285b of Title 2 of the Code, is a consolidation and codification of all the general and permanent laws of the United States in force on January 4, 1995. By statutory authority, this edition may be cited "U.S.C. 1994 ed.". Previous editions were published in 1926, 1934, 1940, 1946, 1952, 1958. 1964, 1970. 1976. 1982. and 1988.

Because many of the general and permanent laws that are required to be incorporated in the Code are inconsistent, redundant, and obsolete, the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the House of Representatives has been engaged in a continuing, comprehensive project authorized by law to revise and codify, for enactment into positive law. each title of the Code. When this project is completed, all the titles of the Code will be legal evidence of the general and permanent laws and recourse to the numerous volumes of the United States Statutes at Large for this purpose will no longer be necessary. Titles 1, 3. 4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 13. 14, 17, 18. 23, 28, 31. 32, 35, 37, 38, 39, 44, 46, and 49 have been revised, codified, and enacted into positive law and the text thereof is legal evidence of the laws therein contained. The matter contained in the other titles of the Code is prima facie evidence of the laws.

The title and chapter structure of the 1988 edition, together with Supplement V thereto, has been substantially preserved, the only changes made having been necessitated by the enactment of legislation since 1988.

This edition was prepared and published under the supervision of Edward P. Willett, Jr., Law Revision Counsel of the House of Representatives, with the assistance of the West Publishing Company of St. Paul, Minnesota, which assisted in preparing all prior editions and supplements of the Code. Grateful acknowledgment is made to the staffs of the Office of the Law Revision Counsel, the West Publishing Company, and the Government Printing Office for their untiring efforts and cooperation.

[graphic]

Speaker of the House of Representatives Washington, D.C., January 4, 1995.

Page vn

TABLE OF TITLES AND CHAPTERS

TITLE 1—GENERAL PROVISIONS

Chip.

1. Rules of Construction.

2. Acts and Resolutions; Formalities of En

actment; Repeals; Sealing of Instruments.

3. Code of Laws of United States and Sup

plements; District of Columbia Code and Supplements.

TITLE 2—THE CONGRESS

1. Election of Senators and Representatives.

2. Organization of Congress.

3. Compensation and Allowances of Mem

bers.

4. Officers and Employees of Senate and

House of Representatives.

5. Library of Congress.

6. Congressional and Committee Procedure;

Investigations.

7. Contested Elections [Repealed].

8. Federal Corrupt Practices [Repealed]. 8A. Regulation of Lobbying.

9. Office of Legislative Counsel.

9A. Office of Law Revision Counsel. 9B. Legislative Classification Office. 9C. Office of Parliamentarian of House of

Representatives. 9D. Office of Senate Legal Counsel.

10. Classification of Employees of House of

Representatives.

10A. Payroll Administration in House of Representatives.

11. Citizens' Commission on Public Service

and Compensation.

12. Contested Elections.

13. Joint Committee on Congressional Oper

ations.

14. Federal Election Campaigns.

15. Office of Technology Assessment.

16. Congressional Mailing Standards.

17. Congressional Budget Office.

17A. Congressional Budget and Fiscal Operations. 17B. Impoundment Control.

18. Legislative Personnel Financial Disclosure

Requirements [Transferred].

19. Congressional Award Program.

19A. John Heinz Competitive Excellence Award.

20. Emergency Powers To Eliminate Budget

Deficits.

Page ix

[blocks in formation]

Part I—The Agencies Generally

I. Organization. 3. Powers.

5. Administrative Procedure.

6. The Analysis of Regulatory Functions.

7. Judicial Review.

9. Executive Reorganization.

Part II—Civil Service Functions And
Responsibilities

II. Office of Personnel Management.

12. Merit Systems Protection Board, Office of

Special Counsel, and Employee Right of
Action.

13. Special Authority.

15. Political Activity of Certain State and Local Employees.

Part III—Employees

SUBPART A—GENERAL PROVISIONS

21. Definitions. 23. Merit System Principles. 29. Commissions, Oaths, Records, and Reports.

TITLE 5-GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION AND EMPLOYEES-Continued

Part III—Employees—Continued

SUBPART B—EMPLOYMENT AND RETENTION Chap.

31. Authority for Employment.

33. Examination, Selection, and Placement.

34. Part-Time Career Employment Opportu

nities.

35. Retention Preference, Restoration, and

Reemployment.

SUBPART C—EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE

41. Training.
43. Performance Appraisal.
45. Incentive Awards.

47. Personnel Research Programs and Demonstration Projects.

SUBPART D—PAY AND ALLOWANCES

51. Classification.

53. Pay Rates and Systems.

54. [Repealed].

55. Pay Administration.

57. Travel, Transportation, and Subsistence. 59. Allowances.

SUBPART E—ATTENDANCE AND LEAVE

61. Hours of Work. 63. Leave.

SUBPART F—LABOR-MANAGEMENT AND EMPLOYEE RELATIONS

71. Labor-Management Relations.

72. Antidiscrimination; Right to Petition Con

gress.

73. Suitability, Security, and Conduct. 75. Adverse Actions.

77. Appeals.

79. Services to Employees.

SUBPART G—INSURANCE AND ANNUITIES

81. Compensation for Work Injuries.

83. Retirement.

84. Federal Employees' Retirement System.

85. Unemployment Compensation. 87. Life Insurance.

89. Health Insurance.

SUBPART H—ACCESS TO CRIMINAL HISTORY RECORD INFORMATION

91. Access to Criminal History Records for National Security Purposes.

TITLE 6—SURETY BONDS [REPEALED]

TITLE 7—AGRICULTURE

1. Commodity Exchanges.

2. Cotton Standards.

3. Grain Standards.

4. Naval Stores.

5. Importation of Adulterated Seeds [Re

pealed].

Chap.

6. Insecticides and Environmental Pesticide

Control.
6A. National Laboratory Accreditation.

7. Insect Pests Generally.
7A. Golden Nematode.
7B. Plant Pests.

8. Nursery Stock and Other Plants and

Plant Products.

8A. Rubber and Other Critical Agricultural Materials.

9. Packers and Stockyards.

10. Warehouses.

11. Honeybees.

12. Associations of Agricultural Products Pro

ducers.

13. Agricultural and Mechanical Colleges.

14. Agricultural Experiment Stations.

15. Bureau of Animal Industry.

16. Bureau of Dairy Industry.

17. Miscellaneous Matters.

18. Cooperative Marketing.

19. Cotton Statistics and Estimates.

20. Dumping or Destruction of Interstate

Produce. 20A. Perishable Agricultural Commodities.

21. Tobacco Statistics. 21A. Tobacco Inspection. 21B. Tobacco Control.

22. Agricultural Marketing [Omitted or

Transferred].

23. Foreign Agricultural Service [Repealed].

24. Perishable Agricultural Commodities

[Transferred to Chapter 20A].

25. Export Standards for Apples and Pears. 25A. Export Standards for Grapes and Plums.

26. Agricultural Adjustment.

26A. Agricultural Marketing Agreements.

27. Cotton Marketing [Repealed or Omitted].

28. Tobacco Industry [Repealed].

29. Potato Act of 1935 [Repealed].

30. Anti-Hog-Cholera Serum and Hog-Chol

era Virus.

31. Rural Electrification and Telephone Serv

ice.

31 A. Distance Learning and Medical Link Programs.

32. Peanut Statistics.

33. Farm Tenancy.

34. Sugar Production and Control [Omitted

or Repealed].

35. Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938. 35A. Price Support of Agricultural Commodities.

36. Crop Insurance.

37. Seeds.

38. Distribution and Marketing of Agricultur

al Products.

39. Stabilization of International Wheat

Market.

40. Halogeton Glomeratus Control.

41. Agricultural Trade Development and As

sistance.

42. Agricultural Commodity Set-Aside.

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