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lancthon, one of the first and wisest Reformers, so it is far from any design of establishing the usurpations of the Papacy, or any of their false doctrines attending them, but only designed as an expedient for the restoring the peace of the whole Christian world, which every disciple of Christ is so passionately required to contend and pray for."

At the conclusion of the Doctor's Continuation of the Defence of HUGO GROTIUS, he thus expresses himself:

"As this is an act of mere justice and charity to the dead,and no less to those who, by their sin of uncharitable thoughts towards him, are likely to deprive themselves of the benefit of his labours, so is it but a proportionable return of debt and gratitude to the signal value and kindness which, in his life time, he constantly professed to pay to this Church and nation; expressing his opinion, that, of all Churches in the world, it was the 'most careful observer and transcriber of primitive antiquity,' and more than intimating his desire to end his days in the bosom and communion of our mother. Of this I want not store of witnesses, which from time to time have heard it from his own mouth whilst he was Ambassador in France, and even in his return to Sweden immediately before his death: And, for a real evidence of this truth, it is no news to many, that, at the taking his journey from Paris, he appointed his wife, whom he left behind, to resort to the English assembly at the Agent's house, which accordingly she is known to have practised.

"As far as the English Establishment is removed from Socinian and Popish, so far this learned man stands vindicated from both these aspersions; which makes me the less wonder, that some others, who have endeavoured to maintain their constancy of adherence and submission to the Church of England, are in like manner most injuriously aspersed by those who have departed from it. · Lord, lay not this sin to their charge!"

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With regard to the political principles of Grotius, the reader will discover, that, in advanced life, they were those of a man whom we should designate as "a Whig of 1688." In the Concordia discors et Antichristus revelatus, which the celebrated Samuel Marets, (p. 270,) published against Grotius, in 1642, it is said: "It is impossible to tolerate this, especially in Grotius,-his sufficiently open avowal, that kings are not of Divine Institution: For, he places those kings who are first chosen by the will of "the people, in opposition to those famous [seventy judges who were instituted by God, as is apparent from Numbers xi, 16." On this passage the witty Bayle remarks: "This, to be sure, is singular enough: For Grotius is always refuted upon his having too much subjected the people to the royal prerogative. After this, let nobody say that none but the Lutherans approve of Grotius's maxims: Here you see a Calvinist minister, who does not think that Grotius had spoken very favourably of Monarchy !"-When


a great man is thus blamed alternately for a bias towards popular and regal rights, we are not at a loss in what class to place him: He belongs to the class of persons who are governed by moderate principles. Those who are conversant with the nervous and manly writings on political subjects, in which some of the most famous of our countrymen indulged between 1660 and 1690, know, that Grotius was perpetually appealed to, not only by the advocates for POPULARITY, but likewise by those for ROYALTY. The truth is, Grotius had, by painful experience, known enough of the boasted LIBERTY of a Republic, and therefore retracted some of those unguarded expressions which he had formerly employed in favour of that form of government. Unlike many of his cotemporaries, however, he did not run into the opposite extreme and applaud all the appalling encroachments of tyrants; but his principles kept him at an equal distance from the LICENTIOUSNESS into which liberty too often degenerates, and from that fearful SERVILITY which is frequently produced by too ardent a love of subordination and obedience.


Or Andrew RIVET and some of his performances the reader will perceive, that I have said quite enough in the following pages, 230, 285-92, 745, 748-52. He was a most unfair and disingenuous adversary towards Grotius, whose ashes he would not suffer to rest in peace. I have said, in page 284, that "Rivet was the accredited organ of the French and Dutch Calvinists, and was aided," in the composition of his pamphlets against Grotius, "by the whole Calvinian phalanx in Europe:" The truth of this fact is well known to all those who are acquainted with the complexity of his virulent productions.


His brother-in-law, the elder Peter Du Moulin, has also received ample notice in this volume; (see pages 215, 223, 230, ˆ 281, 290, 392, 554, 580,) and those who are aware of the iniquitous part which he and his family acted, in fomenting the public disturbances of this kingdom, in whose bosom they had been generously cherished, will not think my exposure of their malevolent spirit and pragmatical conduct to be at all misplaced. He had two sons, Louis and Peter, both of whom obtained preferment in England; and the latter of them, during our civil broils, became an exemplary loyal divine, while his brother Louis continued one of the most seditious firebrands in the kingdom. After the Restoration, Louis's indignation was aroused at the great defection from the ranks of Presbytery and Calvinism, in the persons of certain great men, whom he mentions, and who, having received their education at Cambridge, are some of the individuals described under the appellation of "Latitude-men" in page 798. The following are Louis's words. "From all these

hypotheses, I gather these conclusions, which naturally follow the aforesaid premises.-(1.) That several Bishops and Doctors of the Church of England, as Dr. Floyd, Dr. Tillotson, Dr. Stillingfleet, Dr. Patrick, that are acknowledged by the Nonconformists to be persons of great learning, worth, and piety, but who are extreme admirers of the Episcopacy of England and all its consequences, and who have also preferred its government to all other establishments in Europe, have, by an unlucky accident, contributed more towards the reputation of the English hierarchy and its practices, and towards the perpetuating the feuds and quarrels between the Conformists and Nonconformists, than it has been possible for any other corrupted party to do by all their irregularities and advances towards Rome.

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(2.) That it may be said of these good Bishops and Doctors before mentioned, what the politic sages have observed of Anselme, Bernard, Thomas Aquinas, John of Salisbury, and Gerson, that by their great repute of piety and learning, they ' have contributed more to the strengthening of the Pope's tyranny ⚫ and religion, in the minds of the people, than a hundred such as Gregory the VIIth and Boniface the VIIIth were able to effect, by their tyranny and the wickedness and impurity of their lives, for the discrediting of the Pope and his religion.'

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(3.) That it is not to be believed how much the Nonconformists of England suffer in the esteem of our great men of the Protestant party in Europe, who, hearing people talk of the learning and piety of so many English Bishops and Doctors, all Conformists, and who resemble those four Doctors I have just before named, say aloud, that the Nonconformists must needs 'be very unreasonable, and of a very nice and fantastical piety, for refusing to conform to the Church of England, after the example of those four Doctors.'

(4.) That how good soever the intentions of some of the Bishops and Doctors of the Church of England may be that are of the same temper of spirit with these four Doctors, and what kindness soever they may have for the Nonconformists, it is impossible they should ever come over to them, and consent to terms of reconciliation and moderation, so long as they remain in this judgment and opinion, that of all the established ecclesias'tical governments in Europe, that of the Church of England is 'the most excellent, and the most Apostolical, and that there is 'nothing of defect in it;' and so long as the multitude of their benefices, and the great honour they are in in the world, blinds their judgment, there being no likelihood nor hopes, that those who are raised so high, and that live in honour and abundance, richly and fatly, (unless they will imitate good Dr. Floyd, who bestows most of his Church-revenues on the poor,) will diminish any thing of their greatness, both as to their retinue or their kitchen, and will descend from high to low; and that a Bishop,

who now goes before the Barons, will quit his place to be only a poor simple Moderator, and watchman over a small company of priests, such as were St. Cyprian and St. Austin. For this eminence of fortune and dignity does absolutely shut up the door to all the overtures of Reformation, which we learn from Monsieur CLAUDE in his Defence of the Reformation of the Churches of France, where he tells us, 'that the Cardinal du Prat, for this very reason, was the most violent of all men, and the most 'enraged against Luther's Reformation, because he was provided ' of five Bishopricks, and I know not how many other good and 'fat benefices."


In another part of the same work, he observes, with all the naïveté of a Frenchman: "I will begin with the heat and passion of my friends against me, and with the judgment which they make upon my Short and True Account, &c. They say, 'that that 'book is altogether now unseasonable, when as persons of great 'learning, piety, and merit, and who, at the bottom, are very sincere and upright in the Church of England,-such as Dr. Floyd, Dr. Tillotson, Dr. Stillingfleet and Dr. Patrick, to

In his Advances towards Rome, Du Moulin is particularly severe upon Dr. Patrick, for joining hands with Sherlock, Bull, Bramhall," and other Divines, "in burlesquing upon the doctrine of Imputative Righteousness." For proof of this, he cites some passages from the Doctor's book called the Pilgrim," an allegory which served as a foundation for the "Pilgrim's Progress" by Bunyan. He then makes the following remarks, some of which are exceedingly judicious:

"If Dr. Patrick, who resembles Gregory the First, the best of bad Popes and the worst of good ones, does in so erroneous a manner run away from the Church of England, as it was about a hundred years ago, and from all the Protestant Divines, as well Lutherans as Calvinists, as well English as French; what sinister judgment may be made of a hundred of his colleagues, who are much inferior to him both in the profession of holiness of doctrine and of life? I would take for example Dr. JEREMY TAYLOR, Bishop in Ireland, one of the most learned men that England or Ireland ever produced, but yet who is the same, or rather vies with Dr. Patrick, about the doctrines that are quite different from the first Reformation in the time of Edward the Sixth; for he denies original sin: He says, with the Poet,

-Lex est, non pœna, perire;


that death is a law of nature, and not a punishment of sin; that concupiscence is not a sin, neither in those who are baptized, nor in those who are not. establishes the works of supererogation, and the conjunction of the grace of God with the strength of man, which give their mutual assistance to the working of man's salvation.

"But he has set forth a large book, where he strongly proves, that religion ought not to be established by persecution, for it is contrary to the very spirit and temper of Christianity. Wherein the Doctor's conduct has been diametrically opposite to the carriage of those who are joined with him in the design and endeavour of his getting near to Rome: For these, at the same time that they have made shipwreck concerning the faith, as the Apostle speaks, have broken off all charity towards their brethren, and have clothed themselves with the spirit of animosity, malignity, and persecution; and, after they have abandoned God his truth, they have revenged themselves of that loss, by that of love and affec

whom I might join Professor Burnet,-are making it their 'business, as they think it their duty, to re-unite the two parties, the Conformists and the Nonconformists, and when they are 'most industriously employed in reducing to practice the means of peace and concord, according to Mr. Richard Baxter's model; and that, instead of lending them my helping hand, and assisting 'them in so good a work, I am doing what I can to divide both 'parties, and to exasperate and embitter them one against the other."

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The book to which he refers is a vile publication, entituled, "A short and true Account of the several Advances the Church of England hath made towards Rome." Its design, he says, was "to disengage and free all honest persons, such as are the above " mentioned doctors, from the corrupt party of their Church, to join and confederate themselves with that of the Noncon"formists; that so those two parties might consolidate in one, " and consequently be more capable to act with greater zeal and "vigour against the third party, that are making their advances "towards Rome."-This will appear a vain attempt, if the reader seriously reflect on the noble account which those truly great men have given (page 798,) of their well-grounded and mature attachment to Episcopacy and Arminianism, when neither the one nor the other had any preferment to bestow. They had imbibed all the Christian liberality of the system of Arminius, while the Church of England lay in ruins; and some of them had quoted HALES's tract on Schism with approbation. It was not therefore to be expected, that they would be induced, by such weak arguments as those of Louis Du Moulin, and "others tion towards those whose purity of doctrine, and holiness of life, have been a continual reproach and eye-sore to them: Which is a thing that Doctor Taylor has never done. For how erroneous soever that Doctor was as to matter of doctrine, he was yet endowed with two very excellent qualities;-the one, that he was of a most exemplary life, as he did sufficiently testify it in his carriage and by his writings;-the other, that he had an affectionate tenderness, and love, and pity, for those who did not agree with him, either in the profession of the same doctrine, or in the practice of its ceremonies. In which he differed very much from his brethren in the work of the ministry, who satisfy themselves with the profession of a superficial piety; who easily do digest and swallow nonresidency, plurality of benefices, and preaching by a deputy, and the divertisement of the play-house, or of a pack of cards; and who insult over such as Baxter, Owen, Annesly, Jenkins, Bates, Watson, Howe, and the rest, for driving men to desperation, and so to hell, by too rigorously pressing the practice of piety. That is the irarum causa, et hinc illæ lachrymæ; and why they mortally hate those holy persons. But I cannot but strangely wonder, why they do not put St. Paul amongst such desperate Divines, from whose mouth and pen issued forth more severe and thundering doctrines and menaces than ever came from Mr. Baxter, &c., and that they do not blot out of their bibles this holy Apostle's rousing saying, (2 Cor. v, 10,) That we must all appear before the judg ment-seat of Christ, that every one may receive according to that he hath done, whether it be good or evil.' And who tells us, that Those that live after the flesh shall die.'"

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