Practical Guide to Evidence

Framsida
Cavendish Publishing, 20 aug. 1998 - 438 sidor
The second edition of this widely acclaimed book maintains the author's original objective: to provide a clear and readable account of evidence law, which acknowledges the importance of arguments about facts and principles as well as rules. It is written
 

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INTRODUCTION
1
DEFINING EVIDENCE
7
RELEVANCE WEIGHT AND ADMISSIBILITY
8
Relevance
10
Is there a concept of legal relevance?
12
Weight
19
Admissibility
20
SOME TERMINOLOGY
21
Interpretation
224
Exercise of the discretion
225
Evidence obtained by a trick
229
THE RATIONALE OF S 781
234
THE COMMON LAW DISCRETION TO EXCLUDE
239
FAILURE TO ANSWER QUESTIONS OR MENTION FACTS
240
The operation of s 781 of PACE
241
The conditions for allowing an inference to be drawn
242

Best evidence rule
22
Documentary evidence
23
Real evidence
24
Voir dire
25
Evidence law is a mixture of principles rules and discretions
26
THE FUNCTIONS OF JUDGE AND JURY
30
THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS
32
DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT OBJECTIVES
35
CURRENT OBJECTIVES
43
COMPETENCE AND COMPELLABILITY
51
DEFENDANTS IN CRIMINAL CASES
53
The effect of a defendants giving evidence
54
SPOUSES OF DEFENDANTS IN CRIMINAL CASES
57
CHILDREN
59
PERSONS OF DEFECTIVE INTELLECT
61
Criminal cases
62
THE COURSE OF TESTIMONY
63
EXAMINATIONINCHIEF
64
The rule against discrediting ones own witness
66
Crossexamining the police on other cases
70
Crossexamination of complainants in trials for sexual offences
73
Crossexamination on previous inconsistent statements
81
REEXAMINATION
83
PREVIOUS CONSISTENT STATEMENTS
89
HOSTILE WITNESSES
93
COLLATERAL QUESTIONS AND EVIDENCE IN REBUTTAL
95
PROTECTING VULNERABLE OR INTIMIDATED WITNESSES
96
BURDEN AND STANDARD OF PROOF AND PRESUMPTIONS
99
Deciding burdens of proof in civil cases
100
The burden of proof in criminal cases
108
THE EVIDENTIAL BURDEN
116
THE STANDARD OF PROOF
119
Standard of proof in civil cases
120
PRESUMPTIONS
122
Presumption of marriage
126
Presumption of death
127
Res ipsa loquitur
128
Presumption of regularity
129
HEARSAY THE SCOPE OF THE RULE
133
HEARSAY AND LANGUAGE
136
HEARSAY AS A RULE OF USE
139
IMPLIED ASSERTIONS AS HEARSAY
142
EVIDENCE PRODUCED BY MACHINES
150
NEGATIVE HEARSAY
151
THE RULE IGNORED
152
JUSTIFICATIONS FOR THE RULE
153
Hearsay evidence would be easy to invent
154
Hearsay statements are not on oath
155
The defendants right of confrontation
156
HEARSAY EXCEPTIONS
157
Dying declarations in cases of murder or manslaughter
159
RES GESTAE STATEMENTS
161
Statements relating to the makers contemporaneous state of mind or emotion
163
Statements relating to the makers contemporaneous physical sensations
170
Statements relating to the makers performance of an act
171
STATUTORY EXCEPTIONS
173
Not reasonably practicable to secure attendance s 232b
175
Kept out of the way
178
Sections 25 and 26
180
THE CIVIL EVIDENCE ACT 1995
183
PROPOSALS FOR REFORM
185
The unavailability exception
186
Business documents
187
The safety valve
188
HAZARDOUS EVIDENCE
189
DISCRETIONARY WARNINGS TO THE JURY
192
Evidence of a defendants lies
193
IDENTIFICATION AND TURNBULL GUIDELINES
195
When do the guidelines apply?
196
What does a Turnbull direction require?
199
IDENTIFICATIONS INSIDE AND OUTSIDE COURT
201
Evidence of previous identifications
202
Code D
203
CONFESSIONS AND ILLGOTTEN EVIDENCE
209
RECOGNISING THE CONFESSION
211
IMPACT OF A CONFESSION ON THE CASE AS A WHOLE
216
EXCLUDING THE CONFESSION
218
Section 762b
219
SECTION 781
223
When does a defendant rely on a fact?
243
The effect of legal advice on silence
244
Directions to the jury under s 34
245
THE VOIR DIRE
246
SIMILAR FACT EVIDENCE
249
Makin v AG for New South Wales
253
DPP v Boardman
255
DPP v P
258
Similar fact evidence after DPP v P
259
PROOF AND SIMILAR FACT EVIDENCE
260
To prove identification
262
To rebut a defence
266
THE POSSIBILITY OF CONCOCTION
269
PROPOSALS FOR REFORM
271
BACKGROUND EVIDENCE
272
CHARACTER EVIDENCE
275
EVIDENCE OF GOOD CHARACTER IN CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS
277
The significance of good character
279
Doubtful cases of good character
281
Spent convictions and good character
282
The background to s 1 of the 1898 Act
283
The opening words of subs 3
284
Section 13i
286
Section 13ii in practice
288
The first limb of s 13ii
289
The scope of the second limb of s 13ii
291
The extent of questioning under s 13ii
295
Judicial discretion to exclude s 13ii crossexamination
296
Section 13iii
298
Crossexamination of a codefendant at common law
302
Indivisibility of character
303
The varied nature of previous convictions
304
Relevance to guilt and relevance to credibility
305
Section 13iii
306
OPINION EVIDENCE
307
THE BASIS OF THE OPINION
310
EVIDENCE FROM PSYCHIATRISTS AND PSYCHOLOGISTS
312
PRIVILEGE AND PUBLIC INTEREST IMMUNITY
317
Privilege against selfincrimination
318
Legal professional privilege
319
Duration of the privilege
323
Bypassing the privilege via secondary evidence
324
Journalists sources
326
Without prejudice statements
328
PUBLIC INTEREST IMMUNITY
329
FACTS NOT REQUIRING PROOF
335
FORMAL ADMISSIONS IN CIVIL TRIALS
336
JUDICIAL NOTICE
337
FACTS JUDICIALLY NOTICED WITHOUT INQUIRY
339
FACTS JUDICIALLY NOTICED AFTER INQUIRY
341
Historical facts
342
Customs
343
STATUTORY PROVISIONS
344
The relationship of judicial notice and evidence
345
The effect of taking judicial notice
347
The scope of judicial notice
348
Use of personal knowledge
349
JUDICIAL FINDINGS AS EVIDENCE
355
The scope of the section
358
The effect of the section
359
CONVICTIONS AS EVIDENCE IN CRIMINAL CASES
361
The scope of s 741
364
Interaction with s 781
365
EVIDENCE OF PREVIOUS ACQUITTALS
369
ESTOPPEL
373
ESTOPPEL BY PREVIOUS JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS
374
Issue estoppel
376
Analogous provisions in criminal proceedings
383
ESTOPPEL BY DEED
387
ESTOPPEL BY CONDUCT
388
Express or implied representation
389
Negligence
390
DOCUMENTARY AND REAL EVIDENCE
391
Statements in documents produced by computers
396
Physical appearance of a person or animal in court
397
Views
398
Bibliography
403
Index
415
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