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Thou

nion over the works of thy hands; thou hast put all things under his feet: 7 All sheep and oxen, yea, and the

PLALM VIII.

beasts of the field;

[Psalm.

8 The fowl of the air, and the fish of the sea, and whatsoever passeth through the paths of the seas.

9 Ŏ LORD our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth! (H)

PSALM IX.

To the chief Musician upon Muth-labben. A Psalm of David.

I WILL praise thee, O LORD, with my whole heart; I will shew forth all thy marvellous works.

2 I will be glad and rejoice in thee:

EXPOSITION.

A Psalm of David, for the vintage. -We consider this as an evening or midgit hymn, in which the psalmist, overwhelmed with the brilliant glories of an eastern sky, is led to reflect upon the comparative littleness and insignificance of man and of himself, though king of Israel. It is not necessary to suppose David acquainted with the modern system of astroomy, to account for his humiliating views. Supposing the golden orbs, which he surYeye, to be only floating meteors, their berliancy and beauty, and especially that of the moon, might well command his admiration. Man is mean and little, compared with the globe which he inhabits, compared with the vaulted skies around him—well might he, therefore say, "Lord, what is mau that thou art mindful of him, and the son of man that thou visitest him?"

anch more

From the title of this psalm, we think it highly probable that it was composed for the time of vintage, which we know was a

time of great rejoicing, in which not only

the young people, but the children also, joined in praising God for the bounties of his providence; which marked Israel, under that dispensation, as the chosen people of God, and was calculated to silence the reproaches of their enemies. This circumstance may account for our Lord's application to himself of the hosannahs of the Jewish children, Matt. xxi. 16.

The New Testament, however, gives us another and widely different view of human nature. Adam fell aud lost his prerogative of supremacy, and in fact, his all: but a second Adam has been appointed to supersede the former; and not only to restore, but to raise our nature to higher honour and felicity than his predecessor lost. This second Adam, this "Lord from heaven," whose peculiar character is that of Son of Man, has been for "a little while" made lower than the angels, to the end that he might, in his own person, exalt human nature far above them; and herein is a display of the divine power and goodness that may well excite our admiration and our praise: "O LORD our Lord, how excellent is thy name in all the earth!"

NOTES.

PSALM VIII Title,-Upon Gittith. Some have posed this to be a musical instrument, which And brought from Gath, where he long resided: Chaldee paraphrase; and if this be correct, it doubtless a stringed instrument, as it does not that David played on any other. But Gath a wine press; and the LXX understand this Mistating that it was composed for the time ge, with which the purport of the psalm very agrees, as it is a thanksgiving to God for the his providence

O LORD OUT Lord-The first word here Los, in capita's, is JEHOVAH, the second Adai, Governor, or Master. - Orlained - Heb. " Founded" strength. Es considered the divine ordination as the of all strength. That thou mightest ence) the enemy and the avenger. A little lower-The Hebrew, (says Mr.

Ainsworth) means either "a little while," or " little deal," in both which senses it is used in Ps. xxxvii. 10, 16. Bishop Horsley renders it, "Thou hast somewhat abased him in comparison of angels." Dr. J. P. Smith, "Thou hast reduced him a little below the angels; the Heb. thus translated is Elohim, the gods; which is explained of angels, not only by the Greek and Chaldee, but also by the apostle to the Hebrews, chap. ii, 7, 9.

Ver. 7. All sheep and oxen-Heb. "Flocks and oxen, (or cattle) all of them."

PLALM IX. Title,-Upon the death of Labben.-Among the great variety of interpretations here given, we shall name a few only. 1. We have no idea that any of these Hebrew terms refer to hymn tunes. The Hebrews had no musical characters, nor any metrical tunes, like modern psalmody.

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I will sing praise to thy name, O thou most High.

3 When mine enemies are turned back, they shall fall and perish at thy presence.

4 For thou hast maintained my right and my cause; thou satest in the throne judging right.

5 Thou hast rebuked the heathen, thou hast destroyed the wicked, thou hast put out their name for ever and

ever.

60 thou enemy, destructions are come to a perpetual end: and thou hast destroyed cities; their memorial is perished with them.

7 But the LORD shall endure for ever he hath prepared his throne for judgment.

8 And he shall judge the world in righteousness, he shall minister judgment to the people in uprightness.

9 The LORD also will be a refuge

people his doings.

[for victory.

12 When he maketh inquisition for blood, he remembereth them: he forgetteth not the cry of the humble.

13 Have mercy upon me O LORD; consider my trouble which I suffer of them that hate me, thou that liftest me up from the gates of death:

14 That I may shew forth all thy praise in the gates of the daughter of Zion: I will rejoice in thy salvation.

15 The heathen are sunk down in the pit that they made in the net which they hid is their own taken.

foot

16 The LORD is known by the judg ment which he executeth : the wicked is snared in the work of his own hands. Higgaion. Selah.

17 The wicked shall be turned into hell, and all the nations that forget

God.

18 For the needy shall not alway for the oppressed, a refuge in times of be forgotten: the expectation of the

trouble.

10 And they that know thy name

will put their trust in thee: for thou, LORD, hast not forsaken them that seek thee.

11 Sing praises to the LORD, which dwelleth in Zion: declare among the

PSALM IX.

poor shall not perish for ever.

19 Arise, O LORD; let not man prevail: let the heathen be judged in thy sight.

that

20 Put them in fear, O LORD: the nations may know themselves to be but men. Selah. (I)

EXPOSITION.

(1) A Psalm of David-in thanksgiving for victory.-There seems no doubt but this was a song of triumph and thanksgiving for a signal victory over some pow

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erful pagan adversary, whose object to have been the overthrow of the Jewish church and state. David, however, piously attributes his victory to divine interference, and thanks his deliverer for rescuing him from the gates of death, which had probably

NOTES-Psalm IX. Con.

Their hymns were all chaunted, as already remarked. 2. We do not conceive Labben to be Goliath: internal evidence is strong to the contrary. This psalm must have been composed after David laid claim to the crown, ver. 4.-after he had taken Zion, ver. il; and the conquest here referred to, was in defence of his throne and his religion; ver. 4, 5. Ben signifies a son, and the Chaldee so here explains it; but David's feelings on the death of his son Absalom were very different from those of joy and triumph. Farther, Labben signifies white; and it is very possible that the fallen chieftain Lere meant, may have been named the white prince, perhaps from wearing a remarkable white feather; just as one of our English princes was called the black prince, from the colour of his armour.

Ver. 4. Thou hast maintained-Heb. "Thou hast made my judgment;" i. e. given judgment.Judg ing right-Heb." In righteousness.'

,,

Ver. 6. O thou enemy-Bishop Lowth reads, "Destructions have consumed the enemy for ever; and

as to the cities which thou (O God) hast destroye is perished with them." This nearl corresponds with the margin of our common Bible

their memory

but isclearer.

Ver. 9. A refuge-Web. "A high place." Ver. 12. Humble-Marg. " Alicted." Ver. 13. The gates of death.-The invisible wo as a pla is constantly represented in the Scriptures,

of confinement, having gates and bars; Job xvii. 1

-xxxviii. 17; isa. xxxviii. 10.

Ver. 16. Higgaion-is generally allowed to mes as in the margin, "a meditation." As we have su posed Seluk (Ps. iii.) to answer in some respects n hold in our music, it is probable that the pic Israelites were here required seriously to medit

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PSALM X.

PSALMS.

WHY standest thou afar off, O LORD? why hidest thou thyself in times of trouble?

2 The wicked in his pride doth persecute the poor let them be taken in the devices that they have imagined.

3 For the wicked boasteth of his heart's desire, and blesseth the covetons, whom the LORD abhorreth.

4 The wicked, through the pride of his countenance, will not seek after God: God is not in all his thoughts.

5 His ways are always grievous; thy judgments are far above out of his sight: as for all his enemies, he path at them.

6 He hath said in his heart, I shall t be moved: for I shall never be in adversity.

His mouth is full of cursing and deceit and fraud: under his tongue is mischief and vanity.

8 He sitteth in the lurking places of the villages in the secret places

[for deliverance.

doth he murder the innocent: his eyes are privily set against the poor.

9 He lieth in wait secretly as a lion in his den: he lieth in wait to catch the poor: he doth catch the poor, when he draweth him into his net.

10 He croucheth, and humbleth himself, that the poor may fall by his strong ones.

11 He hath said in his heart, God hath forgotten: he hideth his face; he will never see it.

12 Arise, O LORD; O God, lift up thine hand forget not the humble.

13 Wherefore doth the wicked contemn God? he hath said in his heart, Thou wilt not require it.

14 Thou hast seen it; for thou beholdest mischief and spite, to requite it with thy hand: the poor committeth himself unto thee; thou art the helper of the fatherless.

15 Break thou the arm of the wicked and the evil man; seek out his wickedness till thou find none.

16 The LORD is King for ever and

EXPOSITION.

enclosed many both of his enemies and friends; and determines, in consequence of being so spared, that he will enter the rates of the daughter of Zion, and worship mong her children.

We have reason to bless God that we live in times of peace, and in a land that has long been exempted from the miseries of war. But all true Christians have enemies, if not externally, yet in their own bosons; against these enemies they have ed, most earnestly, to pray, and to return thanks for every victory obtained

over them.

The church of God also, as a body, have

their enemies, and will always be liable tɔ suffer from the hostilities both of infidels

and wicked men: and though, under the Christian dispensation, we are forbidden to pray for the destruction of our enemies, there is nothing unchristian in praying that they may be made sensible of their frailty and bumbled before their Maker and their Judge, and thereby be prevented from showing their enmity against the people and the cause of God.

NOTES.

PSALM X. The LXX have united this psalm to preding, for which we know no reason, except has no distinct title; but this alteration makes ference in the numbering, till we come to the palm, which is divided into two, and makes fral number right. hop Horne, suppose it to have been com Father Calmet, Dr. Grey, daring the time of the Babylonish captivity; Cere is no certainty of this.

Heart's (Heb. "soul's) desire, and blessMarg. "The covetous blesseth (himself); rreth the Lord."

A God is not in all his thoughts---Marg. thoughts are, there is no God." Veter be in adversity---Heb. "Not unto and generation.”

"Rise, great Redeemer, from thy seat,
To judge and save the poor;
Let nations tremble at thy feet,
And man prevail no more."-Watts.

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Confidence]

PSALMS.

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upon

[in God. the string, that they may privily shoot at the upright in heart. 3 If the foundations be destroyed, what can the righteous do?

4 The LORD is in his holy temple, the LORD's throne is in heaven: his eyes behold, his eyelids try, the children of men.

5 The LORD trieth the righteous: but the wicked and him that loveth violence his soul hateth.

6 Upon the wicked he shall rain snares, fire and brimstone, and an horrible tempest: this shall be the portion of their cup.

7 For the righteous LORD loveth righteousness; his countenance doth behold the upright. (L)

EXPOSITION.

(K) A Prayer for deliverance from atheistical and cruel enemies.-This psalm having no title, it is in vain to guess at either its author or occasion. Bishop Horsley calls it "a supplication in behalf of certain helpless people cruelly persecuted by a powerful enemy; who, renouncing all fear of God and regard of men, uses both force and deceit as meaus of oppression." The heathen formerly, as well as at present, were divisible into two classes; the one extremely ignorant aud superstitious-the other more enlightened, as to general knowledge, but atheistical and profane. Persecutors may be found in both classes; the one jealous for their favourite superstition-the other rejecting superstition, and with it all religious worship; the true God as well as idols. The Lord Jehovah is, however, the universal sovereign. He will punish impenitent sinners of every class. At the same time, he hears the desire of the humble, before that desire is expressed in words; and will never fail to answer the prayer which his spirit teaches them to offer.

God will "prepare their hearts to pray,
And cause his ear to hear;
He hearkens what his children say,
And puts the world in fear."

PSALM XI.

Watts.

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"As the choicest of heavenly blessings (says Bishop Horne) are frequently in scripture represented by the salutary effects of wine, a cup of which the master of the family is supposed to hold in his hand, ready to distribute due portions of it to those around him; so, from the noxious and intoxicating qualities of that liquor when drunk strong, and in too large quantity, is borrowed a most tremendou image of the wrath and indignation a Almighty God. Calamity and sorrow, fea and trembling, infatuation and despai the evils of the present life, and of thi which is to come, are the bitter ingredien which compose this most horrible cup mixture. It is entirely in the hand a disposal of God, who, through every ag has been pouring out its contents, more less, in proportion to the sins of men. E much of the strength and power of 1 liquor still remains behind, until the

NOTES.

Marg.

Ver. 3. If the foundations---Heb. "For the foundations are cast down." The just, what hath he done?" Ainsworth,

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Ver. 6. Upon the wicked he shall rain snares, ...Bishop Lowth renders this verse, "He shall rain live coals upon the ungodly, Fire, and sulphur, and a burning storm This shall be the contents of their cup.'

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To the chief Musician upon Sheminith. A
Psalm of David.

HELP, LORD; for the godly man ceaseth; for the faithful fail from among the children of men.

2 They speak vanity every one with his neighbour; with flattering lips, and with a double heart do they speak. 3 The LORD shall cut off all flattering lips, and the tongue that speaketh proud things:

4 Who have said, With our tongue we prevail; our lips are our own: who is lord over us?

5 For the oppression of the poor, for the sighing of the needy, now will Tarise, saith the LORD; I will set

[implored.

him in safety from him that puffeth

at him.

6 The words of the LORD are pure words: as silver tried in a furnace of earth, purified seven times.

7 Thou shalt keep them, O LORD, thou shalt preserve them from this generation for ever.

8 The wicked walk on every side, when the vilest men are exalted. (M) PSALM XIII.

To the chief Musician. A Psalm of David. OW long wilt thou forget me, for ever? How long

wilt thou hide thy face from me?

2 How long shall I take counsel in my soul, having sorrow in my heart daily? how long shall mine enemy be exalted over me?

EXPOSITION.

of final vengeance. It will be then exhausted, even to the dregs, by unrepenting rebels, when burning coals, fire and brimstone, and eternal tempest,' shall be the portion of their cup.'" (Horne in Psalm lxxv. 8.)

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The concluding sentiment is equally torsolatory to good men under every dispensation." As the righteous Lord loveth righteousness," so he countenanceth the pright by his providence, and rewards them by his grace. The light of his countenance shall afford them everlasting happiness.

PSALM XII.

MA Psalm of David, imploring the feine aid in a time of great degeneracy. It is in vain to conjecture to what particular period this psalm originally referred; bat often do such unhappy periods occur, thin the world and in the church. In he former, by the spread of infidel and Leistic principles; and in the latter, by e lukewarmness of zeal and the decay of ty among believers. We are encouraged, ever, to rest assured that the Lord will

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not forsake his people. His word is pure, and his promises have been often tried.

Among the signs of our Lord's second coming, we have been taught to consider this as one, that "the love of many shall wax cold" toward him. (Matt. xxiv. 12.) Many such seasons have occurred, and the Lord has been pleased, by signal appearances, to produce revivals in his church, and such we still expect, even in an unprecedented degree. But even the millennium itself is to be followed with a degeneracy equally remarkable. Satan, though bound for a thousand years, will be again let loose with all the powers of infidelity, (Rev. xx. 7 -11.) so that finally, when the Son of Man cometh, he shall find little faith upon the earth. (Luke xviii. 8.) "When the wicked walk around on every side, the vilest of men shall be exalted;" and when the thrones of earth are filled with infidels ane tyrants, then-when good men shall shrink in despair under the power of the last tyranny-then shall the " sign of the Son of Man" suddenly appear, and his “trumpet sound to judgment."

NOTES.

Upon Sheminith. - See

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haps it might be rendered, "I will put him in safety for whom the snare is laid."

Ver. 6. Furnace-Bp. Horne, "Crucible" of earth. Ver. 7. Preserve them-Heb." him ;" i. e. every one of them

Ver. 8. The vilest men-Heb. The vilest of the sons of men.'

PSALM. XIII. Title,-To the chief Musician, See title of Psalm iv.

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