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VI . . . * - PHYSIOLOGICAL their numerous centres, and with the serves of the whole body, they are sometimes called the Great Sympathetic Nerves, and Nerves of Vegetable Life. There are three orders of these Nerves: one going to the blood-vessels and other parts of the vascular system; one to the contractile tissues or muscles of involuntary motion: and ore to the nerves of organic sensation, conveying the impressions made on the organs.
6. In this view of the Nerves of Respiration, (orginating in the Medulla Oblongata, which is an extension of the Cerebellum, (b,) or seat of Voluntary Motion, and of the Cerebrum, (a,) or seat of Rationality,) may be seen the nerve (c.) that goes to the Diaphragm (i,) and is concerned in the office of breathing, which generally acts without the aid of the Will; but yet is controllable by the Will, to a certain extent; for we may breathe fast or slow, long or short. Next above this, is the Spinal Aceessory Nerve, used in moving the breast, &c., in respiration ; one of its fellow roots, goes to the tongue (d.) and is concerned in mastiãotion, swallowing, speaking, &c. (Some nerves are thrown back, the better to be seen.] Next in order is the pneumosgastric, or lungs-and-stomach nerve (f, g, h,) which sends a branch to the meat-pipe, larynx and wind-pipe, (e.) also to the cardiac, or heart plexus, just above, and a little at the right of (g); a recurrent branch goes to the larynx, &c.; wther branches go to the face to exhibit the feelings. All interweave, and bring the vocal organs into ‘mportant relations with the heart and lungs, with feelings and thoughts; while the main body goes
o the stomack', and unites with the great centre
of organic life, or solar plexus The roots of hese
nerves are in the cerebellum, the seat of motion. a receptacle of life. Now, we see why intensity of thought, carking cares, &c., impede respiration. and infringe on the laws of health, for want of the proper co-operation with the nerves of organic life; inducing dyspepsia, and even consumption. hence, the painful mode of teaching children to read by a book: away with this false system, unless you would inhumanly sacrifice the rising generation on the altar of evil; let the ear, or righ. feeling predominate: please work out the whole; for you can do it: a hint is sufficient for those who think.
7. Here is an excellent representation on the Nerves of Voluntary Motion, and of Sense, which, with the nerves of Organic Life, and the Respiratory Nerves, constitute the inmosts of the body; also, a posterior, or back view, of the two brains. which is the seat of the Mind, the constituents of which, are Will and Understanding. The letter c, indicates the cerebrum, or large brain, where the Understanding, Rationality, or thought is located; and cr; the cerebellum, or little brain, under, and adjoining the cerebrum, where the ncr.pontal black line is: here is the seat of the Will, Affections, Passions or Emotions; also the seat of the Motive power of the body; and from these proceed the spinal marrow, (me,) enveloped in three different membranes, lying in the hollow of the back bone, and branching off by thirty pairs of spinal nerves into a great many ramifications over every part of the body; ph, the brachial plexus, a reunion or assemblage of the different nerves distributed to the arms, or upper extremities; and ps, the plexus, or solds of nerves, that form the great sciatic nerves, descending to the legs, or lower extremities. From the spinal marrow, the nerves arise by two sets, or bundles of roots; the front (anterior.) one serving for motion, and the back (posterior.) are the nerves of feeling, or sensibility. Now, in all voluntary actions of the body, whether reading, speaking, singing, or working, there should be a perfect harmony and ce-operation of the Organic Nerves, Respiratory Nerves, and Motary Nerves; hence, the volun:ary effort must be made from the abdomen, where is the great centre of Organic Nerves, in connection with those of Respiration.
8. Here is a striking view of the Muscutar, or fleshy portions, that 4%. form the me- or dium of comon unication between the Nerves and the Bones: there are several hundreds, acting on the *xones like ropes on the masts of ships: let them be trained in persectsubjection to the Soul, through the Mind; so than whatever is felt & thought, may be bodied forth to the life. Now letus put these three systems, the Nerves, Muscles and Bones, together, and contemplate the whole as a unit, bound up in the skin, and acting in obedience to its rightful owner, the Mind; while that mind is subservient to the Creator of mind.
9. We now descend to the hard parts of the body, which have the least of life in them. This is a very correct representation of the Osseous system, or the bony parts which may be aptly
called the basis, or foundation, of the splendid temple we live in; which is three stories high; viz. the cavity below the diaphragm, the one above it, and the skull. Examine, minutely, each part, the situation and attachment of the different bones of the head, the five short ribs, and the seven long ones, the breast-bone, &c. In a complete human frame, there are 250 bones: they asford us the means of locomotion. Do you see any analogy between the body and language? 10. Zoology—(the doctrine or science of life, is a necessary element of education. Whose curiosity has not been excited by the innumerable living beings, and things, with which we are surrounded? Is it not desirable to scrutinize their interiors, and see how they are made, and understand their various uses? Look at a man, a fish, a spider, an oyster, a plant, a stone; observe their differences, in many respects, and their similar. ties in others: they all have essence, form, use The tendency of the study of the three kingdoms of nature, the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral, ble perspiration, which is indicated by the cloudy mist, emanating from every part of the surface; and as our bodies wear out, by degrees, and are renewed every seven years, and the skin being the principal evacuating medium for the worn-out particles of the system; the great importance of keeping it in a clean, and consequent healthy condition, by daily washing in soft cold water, must be evident to every one of reflection, it being the safety-valve of the body: and thirdly, to indicate a higher truth, that of the passing off of a subtle and invisible fluid from the mind, in accordance with its state; which is often perceived when certain persons are present; also when powerful speakers are pouring forth their highly wrought affections, and brilliant thoughts; so as wo give the mind a kind of ubiquity, co-extensive with their tones and audible words, ruling immense audiences with absolute sway, and demonstrating the power of truth and eloquence. Animals and Plants increase by nutrition: Minerals by accretion. In infancy, we weigh but a few pounds: at adult age, we exceed one hundred pounds. Whence, but from foreign substances, are the materials of which our organs are composed? In sickness, extreme emaciation proves that our bodies may lose a portion of their bulk, and give back to the world what was once its own. Thus, composition and decomposition,
is to emancipate the human mind from the darkmess and slavery of ignorance, into the light and *iberty of rational humanity. The things of the Animal kingdom live, and move from an interior power; those of the Vegetable kingdom grow; and those of the Mineral kingdom do not live or grow; they simply exist. 11. Three objects are designed by this engrawing: first, to show the body, clothed in its own beautiful envelop, the skin, which is the contizent of our most wonderful piece of Mechanism: second, to call attention to the fact, that it is full cf pores, or little holes, through which passes out
constituting the nutritive funct or of wh:eh living bodies are the centre, are revealed to us by evidences too plain to be misunderstood: may we have power to appreciate them, being assured that all truths are in perfect harmony with each other. 12. Here is a representation of the Human Form clothed and engaged in some of the uses of Elocution. But it is necessary to enter more
into the particulars of our subject; which is $ons in the succeeding parts of this introduction: however, let the reader bear in mind, that only the out. lines of subjects are given in the book, designed for such as are determined to dig for truth and eternal principles, as for hidden treasures; whose motto is “Press On.” Animals and Plants endure for a time, and under specific forms, by making the external world a part of their own being; i.e. they have the power imparted to them of self-nourishment, and when this outward supply ceases they die, having completed their term of duration: hence, death, to material existences, is a necessary corsequence of life. Not so with minerals: they exist so long as external forces do not destroy them : and if they increase, it is simply by the juxtaposition of other bodies; and if they diminish, it is by the action of a force, or power, from without. Has not every thing its circle? How interesting must be the history of all things, animate and inanimate! Oh that we had eyes to see, and ears to hear, every thing that is manifested around us, within us, and above us! 13. If we would have the Mind act on the Body, and the Body react on the Mind, in an or.
derly, and, consequently, beneficial manner, it is necessary that the body be in a natural and upright position. The following engraving represents the Thorax, or Chest, which contains the Heart and Lungs; and reason teaches, that noorgans should be in the least infringed upon, either by compressions, or by sitting in a bent position. The Lungs are reservoirs for the air, out of which we make sounds, by condensation. All are familiar with the hand-bellows: observe the striking analogy between it and the body, in the act of speaking, singing and blowing. The wind-pipe is .ike its nosle, the lungs like the sides, and the abdominal and dorsal muscles, like its handles; of course, to blow with ease and power, one must takehold of the handles: to speak and sing right, the lower muscles must be used; forthere is only one right way of doing anything.
14. This is a view of a well developed and naturally proportioned chest; with space for the —ungs, the short ribs thrown outwardly, affording ample room for the free action of the organs: it is the true model of the form of one who would live to a good old age. 15. TIGHT DREssing. No one can enjoy good ealth, or perform any kind of labor with ease, or read, speak, or sing, when the thorax is habitually compressed. It diminishes the capacity of the lungs, for receiving the necessary quantity of air to purify the blood, and prevents the proper action of the diaphragm. The following engraving shows the alarming condition of the chest, when compressed by tight lacing; a practice that has hurried, and is now hurrying, hundreds of thousands to a premature grave; besides entailing upon the offspring an accumulation of evils, too awful to coctemplate. What is the difference between killing one's selfin five minutes with a razor, and doing it in five years by tight lacing, or any other bad habit? Our clothing should never be so tight as to prevent the air from coming between it and the body.
16. Here follows an outline of the chest, or thorax of a female, showing the condition of the bones of the body, as they appear after death, in every one who has habitually worn stays and corsos, enforced by tight lacing. “But,” says one, I do not lace too tight.” If you lace at all, you most certainly do, and will, sooner or later, expe
17. This engraving, of a bell-shaped glass, C, C, shows how the air gets into the lungs, and some of its efiects. A head is placed on the cork, T, representing the wind-pipe, and having a hole through it. L, represents a bladder, tied to the lower end of the cork, to indicate a lung. At D, is seen the diaphragm. The cavity of the bell representthe Inside of the thorax, where the heart and lunoare: there is no communication with the external air, except through the hole in the cork; air, en tering through that hole, can go only into the blad. der. Now, when the centre of the diaphragm is raised to D, the bladder will be flaccid and devoid of air; but when it is dropped, to the situation of the dotted line, a tendency to a vacuum will be the consequence, which can be supplied with zir, only through the hole in the cork; the air expanding the bladder to its full extent, is shown by the dotted circle, around L; and when the diaphragm is elevated again, the air will be forced from the bladder; thus, the lungs are inflated and exhausted by this alternate operation of the diaphragm, and of the contraction and elongation of the abdominal muscles; hence, the comparison between the vocal organs proper, and a pair of bellows, in distinctly seen.
Mtscular Action. These two engravings represent some muscular fibres in two states: the upper one at rest, with a rement ramified through the fibres, asseen under the microscope; and the lower one in a state of contraction, and the fibros in zigzag lines, with a similar nervous filament passing over them: apply the principle to all muscles. The subject might be greatly extended; but for further infor:tion, see the Author's large work on Physiology and Psychology, which will be published assoon as convenient.
18. Here is a representation of the Air Cells 51 the Lungs, laud open and highly magnified. The body is formed by Blood, which consists of the nutritious portions o of our food, and is in the form of very small globales, or little round balls: a
representation of which is here presented as seen through a microscope, magnified one thousand times. O Every three or four minutes, as a general rule, the blood flows thro'out the whole body; and, of course, through the lungs, where it undergoes a purification: hence may be seen the importance of an upright position, and perfect inflation of the lungs; no one can live out his days without them. 19. Here are two attitudes, sitting, and standing, passive and active. Beware of too much
stiffiness, and too much laxity, of the muscles; be natural and easy. Avoid leaning backwards or forwards, to the right or left: and especially, of resting your head on your hand, with the elbow on something else: by which practice, many have caused a projection of one shoulder, induced spinal affections, &c. Beware of every thing that is improper: such as trying how much you can list with one hand, &c.
20. Here follows a representation of the position of the diaphragm, and illustrations of its actions, in exhaling and inhaling. Figure 1, in the left engraving, represents the diaphragm in its greatest descent, when we draw in our breath : 2, muscles of the abdomen, when protruded to their full extent, in inhaling: 1, in the right engraving, the diaphragm in its greatest ascent in expiration: 2, "he muscles of the abdomen in action, sorcing the
and wholly fill up the cavity of the chest: every one has two hearts, for the two different kinds of | blood, and each heart has two rooms: a, right auricle, that receives all the blood from every part of the body, through the vena cava, or large vein, which is made up of the small veins, e, e, e, e, e, it thence passes into the right ventricle, i, thence into both lungs, where it is purified; after which it passes into the left auricle, and left ventricle, then into the aorta, o, and the carotid and subclavian arteries (u, and v,) to every part of the body * returning every three or four minutes.