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Wah-shin-pee-sha, or the wicked man. Isaac.
Tun-wan-le-he, or the town mover. Mingo Carpenter.
Whoa-har-tee, or the war eagle.

John Sky.
Me-tah-ne-gah, or the crazy robe.

Henry Smith.
Wah-she-sho-hee, or the smart spirit. Little Town Spicer.
Ah-ke-tah, or the soldier.

Young Henry.
Weir-sah-bah-sha, or the hidden black. Peter Pork.
Ne-ko-jah, or the man hunter.

William Johnston.
Hor-tea-go, or like night.

Big Bone.
Wab-hah-tab-nee, or the fast runner. Big Isaac.
Wab-nah-shee, or the taker away. Civil Jack.
Ces-sah-ba, or the man in black.

Ya-ga-ha, or the water in the apple.
Es-kah-mar-ne, or the white horn. . Cau-ya-que-neh, or the snow drift.
Kou-sah-she-la, or walking together. Ya-ta-ato, or the little lake
Tcha-lo-kah, or the buffalo.

Douglass.
O-ke-sah, or the man aside.

George Herring.
Wah-she-wah-ra, or the stopper.
Wah-ho-ba-shungee, or the idolater.

Quapaws. Tone-ba-wah-tcha-la, or hard to look at Hi-ka-toa, or the dry man. the sun rising.

Wa-ga-de-tone, or the maggot.
Shoe-chem-mo-nee, or the elk whistler. Wa-to-va, or the spider.
Wash-kah-cha, or the tumbler.

Ca-ta-hah, or the tortoise.
Wah-ha, or the Pawnee chief's name. Ma-towa-wah-cota, or the dug out.
sake.

Wa-go-dab-hou-kah, or the plume. Wah-kee-bah-nah, or the hard runner. Ma-com-pa, or the doctor of the nose. War-tcha-sheen-gah, or the scalp-carrier. Cas-sa, or the black tortoise. O-shaun-ga-tun-ga, or the big path. Haw-tez-chee-ka, or the little cedar. Wah-hee-no-pee, or the bone necklace. Ma-sa-goda-toah, or the hawk. Lee-sap-kah-pee, or the man who missed Wa-ka-toa-nosa, or the standing man. his enemy.

Motosa, or the black bear. Wah-to-ke-kah, or raw meat.

Mor-bre-tone, or the little hawk. Wah-wah-shee, or quick runner.

Mor-to-ho-ga, or the white bear. Kah-be-ka-sara, or chief killer.

To-se-ca-da, or he who shows his track. O-lash-tab-ba, or plate-licker.

Tab-tah-ho-sa, or the wind. Mah-ne-nah-shee, or the walker.

Hi-da-khe-da-sa, or the panther eagle. Shaun-ga-mo-nee, or the fall chief. O-tene-cab-chee-ka, or he who struck the Tee-sha-wah-ra, or dry grass.

enemy.
Ne-kah-wah-shee-tun-gah, or the brave Me-ki-wab-kotah, or the star.

Ka-ti-mo-ne, or clear weather.
Senecas.

Vet-he-ka-ne, or thunder.
Thomas Brant.

Ne-to-sa-mo-ne, or the black freshet. Small Crout Spicer.

In presence of R. B. Mason, Major of Dragoons. G. Birch, Major U. S. Army. Francis Lee, Captain 7th Infantry. Samuel G. I. D. Camp, Surgeon. W. Seawell, Lieut, and Aid-de-Camp; Sec'y to the Comm'rs. Thomas B. Ballard. Augustine A. Chouteau. John Hambly, U. S. Interpreter to the Creeks. George Herron. Leonard C. McPhail, Ass't Surgeon U. S. Army. Robert M. French.

spirit.

To the Indian names are subjoined marks

ARTICLES OF A TREATY,

Dec.

29. 1835. Concluded at New Echota in the State of Georgia on the 29th

day of Decr. 1835 by General William Carroll and John F. Proclamation, May 23, 1836. Schermerhorn commissioners on the part of the United States

and the Chiefs Head Men and People of the Cherokee tribe of Indians..

Preamble.

WHEREAS the Cherokees are anxious to make some arrangements with the Government of the United States whereby the difficulties they have experienced by a residence within the settled parts of the United States under the jurisdiction and laws of the State Governments may be terminated and adjusted; and with a view to reuniting their people in one body and securing a permanent home for themselves and their posterity in the country selected by their forefathers without the territorial limits of the State sovereignties, and where they can establish and enjoy a government of their choice and perpetuate such a state of society as may be most consonant with their views, habits and condition; and as may tend to their individual comfort and their advancement in civilization.

And whereas a delegation of the Cherokee nation composed of Messrs. John Ross Richard Taylor Danl. McCoy Samuel Gunter and William Rogers with full power and authority to conclude a treaty with the United States did on the 28th day of February 1835 stipulate and agree with the Government of the United States to submit to the Senate to fix the amount which should be allowed the Cherokees for their claims and for a cession of their lands east of the Mississippi river, and did agree to abide by the award of the Senate of the United States themselves and to recommend the same to their people for their final determination.

And whereas on such submission the Senate advised “that a sum not exceeding five millions of dollars be paid to the Cherokee Indians for all their lands and possessions east of the Mississippi river.”

And whereas this delegation after said award of the Senate had been made, were called upon to submit propositions as to its disposition to be arranged in a treaty which they refused to do, but insisted that the same “should be referred to their nation and there in general council to deliberate and determine on the subject in order to ensure harmony and good feeling among themselves."

And whereas a certain other delegation composed of John Ridge Elias Boudinot Archilla Smith S. W. Bell John West Wm. A. Davis and Ezekiel West, who represented that portion of the nation in favor of emigration to the Cherokee country west of the Mississippi entered into propositions for a treaty with John F. Schermerhorn commissioner on the part of the United States which were to be submitted to their nation for their final action and determination :

And whereas the Cherokee people, at their last October council at Red Clay, fully authorized and empowered a delegation or committee of twenty persons of their nation to enter into and conclude a treaty with the United States commissioner then present, at that place or elsewhere and as the people had good reason to believe that a treaty would then and there be made or at a subsequent council at New Echota which the commissioners it was well known and understood, were authorized

and instructed to convene for said purpose; and since the said delegation have gone on to Washington city, with a view to close negotiations there, as stated by them notwithstanding they were officially informed by the United States commissioner that they would not be received by the President of the United States; and that the Government would transact no business of this nature with them, and that if a treaty was made it must be done here in the nation, where the delegation at Washington last winter urged that it should be done for the purpose of promoting peace and harmony among the people, and since these facts have also been corroborated to us by a communication recently received by the commissioner from the Government of the United States and read and explained to the people in open council and therefore believing said delegation can effect nothing and since our difficulties are daily increasing and our situation is rendered more and more precarious uncertain and insecure in consequence of the legislation of the States; and seeing no effectual way of relief, but in accepting the liberal overtures of the United States.

And whereas Genl William Carroll and John F. Schermerhorn were appointed commissioners on the part of the United States, with full power and authority to conclude a treaty with the Cherokees east and were directed by the President to convene the people of the nation in general council at New Echota and to submit said propositions to them with power and authority to vary the same so as to meet the views of the Cherokees in reference to its details.

And whereas the said commissioners did appoint and notify a general council of the nation to convene at New Echota on the 21st day of December 1835; and informed them that the commissioners would be prepared to make a treaty with the Cherokee people who should assemble there and those who did not come they should conclude gave their assent and sanction to whatever should be transacted at this council and the people having met in council according to said notice.

Therefore the following articles of a treaty are agreed upon and concluded between William Carroll and John F. Schermerhorn commissioners on the part of the United States and the chiefs and head men and people of the Cherokee nation in general council assembled this 29th day of Decr 1835.

| ARTICLE 1. The Cherokee nation hereby cede relinquish and convey Cherokees re. to the United States all the lands owned claimed or possessed by them linquish to U.S.

all iheir lands east of the Mississippi river, and hereby release all their claims upon

east of the Misthe United States for spoliations of every kind for and in consideration sissippi. of the sum of five millions of dollars to be expended paid and invested in the manner stipulated and agreed upon in the following articles But as a question has arisen between the commissioners and the Cherokees whether the Senate in their resolution by which they advised “that a sum not exceeding five millions of dollars be paid to the Cherokee Indians for all their lands and possessions east of the Mississippi river" have included and made any allowance or consideration for claims for spoiliations it is therefore agreed on the part of the United States that this question shall be again submitted to the Senate for their consideration and decision and if no allowance was made for spoiliations that then an additional sum of three hundred thousand dollars be allowed for the same.

ARTICLE 2. Whereas by the treaty of May 6th 1828 and the supple- Treaty of May mentary treaty thereto of Feb. 14th 1833 with the Cherokees west of 1828, and Feb.

1833, referred the Mississippi the United States guarantied and secured to be con- to veyed by patent, to the Cherokee nation of Indians the following tractAnte, p. 311 & of country “ Beginning at a point on the old western territorial line of Arkansas Territory being twenty-five miles north from the point where

414.

the territorial line crosses Arkansas river, thence running from said north point south on the said territorial line where the said territorial line crosses Verdigris river; thence down said Verdigris river to the Arkansas river; thence down said Arkansas to a point where a stone is placed opposite the east or lower bank of Grand river at its junction with the Arkansas; thence running south forty-four degrees west one mile; thence in a straight line to a point four miles northerly, from the mouth of the north fork of the Canadian ; thence along the said four mile line to the Canadian; thence down the Canadian to the Arkansas; thence down the Arkansas to that point on the Arkansas where the eastern Choctaw boundary strikes said river and running thence with the western line of Arkansas Territory as now defined, to the southwest corner of Missouri; thence along the western Missouri line to the land assigned the Senecas; thence on the south line of the Senecas to Grand river; thence up said Grand river as far as the south line of the Osage reservation, extended if necessary; thence up and between said south Osage line extended west if necessary, and a line drawn due west from the point of beginning to a certain distance west, at which a line running north and south from said Osage line to said due west line will make seven millions of acres within the whole described boundaries. In addition to the seven millions of acres of land thus provided for and bounded, the United States further guaranty to the Cherokee nation a perpetual outlet west, and a free and unmolested use of all the country west of the western boundary of said seven millions of acres, as far west as the sovereignty of the United States and their right of soil extend:

Provided however That if the saline or salt plain on the western prairie shall fall within said limits prescribed for said outlet, the right is reserved to the United States to permit other tribes of red men to get salt on said plain in common with the Cherokees; And letters pattent shall be issued by the United States as soon as practicable for the land hereby guarantied.”

And whereas it is apprehended by the Cherokees that in the above cession there is not contained a sufficient quantity of land for the accommodation of the whole nation on their removal west of the Mississippi the United States in consideration of the sum of five hundred thousand dollars therefore hereby covenant and agree to convey to the said Indians, and their descendants by patent, in fee simple the following additional tract of land situated between the west line of the State of Mis. souri and the Osage reservation beginning at the southeast corner of the same and runs north along the east line of the Osage lands fifty miles to the northeast corner thereof; and thence east to the west line of the State of Missouri; thence with said line south fifty miles; thence west to the place of beginning; estimated to contain eight hundred thousand acres of land; but it is expressly understood that if any of the lands assigned the Quapaws shall fall within the aforesaid bounds the same shall be reserved and excepted out of the lands above granted and a pro rata reduction shall be made in the price to be allowed to the United States for the same by the Cherokees.

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Further agree.

ARTICLE 3. The United States also agree that the lands above ceded ment.

by the treaty of Feb. 14 1833, including the outlet, and those ceded by this treaty shall all be included in one patent executed to the Cherokee nation of Indians by the President of the United States according to the provisions of the act of May 28 1830. It is, however, agreed that the military reservation at Fort Gibson shall be held by the United States.

But should the United States abandon said post and have no further use Right to esta. for the same it shall revert to the Cherokee nation. The United States blish forts, &c. shall always have the right to make and establish such post and military

183

148.

roads and forts in any part of the Cherokee country, as they may deem proper for the interest and protection of the same and the free use of as much land, timber, fuel and materials of all kinds for the construction and support of the same as may be necessary; provided that if the priyate rights of individuals are interfered with, a just compensation therefor shall be made.

ARTICLE 4. The United States also stipulate and agree to extinguish Osage titles to for the benefit of the Cherokees the titles to the reservations within their reservations to

be extincountry made in the Osage treaty of 1825 to certain half-breeds and for this purpose they hereby agree to pay to the persons to whom the same Ante, p. 240. belong or have been assigned or to their agents or guardians whenever they shall execute after the ratification of this treaty a satisfactory conveyance for the same, to the United States, the sum of fifteen thousand dollars according to a schedule accompanying this treaty of the relative value of the several reservations.

And whereas by the several treaties between the United States and Missionary rethe Osage Indians the Union and Harmony Missionary reservations sex anons

ng servations to be

paid for, which were established for their benefit are now situated within the country ceded by them to the United States; the former being situated in the Cherokee country and the latter in the State of Missouri. It is therefore agreed that the United States shall pay the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions for the improvements on the same what they shall be appraised at by Capt. Geo. Vashon Cherokee sub-agent Abraham Redfield and A. P. Chouteau or such persons as the President of the United States shall appoint and the money allowed for the same shall be expended in schools among the Osages and improving their condition. It is understood that the United States are to pay the amount allowed for the reservations in this article and not the Cherokees.

ARTICLE 5. The United States hereby covenant and agree that the Lands perma. lands ceded to the Cherokee nation in the foregoing article shall, in non

the nation. future time without their consent, be included within the territorial limits or jurisdiction of any State or Territory. But they shall secure to the Cherokee nation the right by their national councils to make and carry into effect all such laws as they may deem necessary for the government and protection of the persons and property within their own country belonging to their people or such persons as have connected themselves with them: provided always that they shall not be inconsistent with the constitution of the United States and such acts of Congress as have been or may be passed regulating trade and intercourse with the Indians; and also, that they shall not be considered as extending to such citizens and army of the United States as may travel or reside in the Indian country by permission according to the laws and regulations established by the Government of the same.

ARTICLE 6. Perpetual peace and friendship shall exist between the Peace to be citizens of the United States and the Cherokee Indians. The United Preserve States agree to protect the Cherokee nation from domestic strife and foreign enemies and against intestine wars between the several tribes. The Cherokees shall endeavor to preserve and maintain the peace of the country and not make war upon their neighbors they shall also be protected against interruption and intrusion from citizens of the United States, who may attempt to settle in the country without their consent; and all such persons shall be removed from the same by order of the President of the United States. But this is not intended to prevent the residence among them of useful farmers mechanics and teachers for the instruction of Indians according to treaty stipulations.

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