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Chap. 3. ly, fays, that (17) Laity and Clergy, Learned Queft12 and Unlearned, all Ages, Sects, and Degrees of Men, Women, and Children of WHOLE CHRISTENDOM have been at once drown'd in abominable Idolatry, for the Space of EIGHT HUNDRED YEARS AND MORE. And it is now Time to leave Waldo, and his Affociate Beggars.
Did the Greeks, before their Schifm, own ɔe
HEY did. The Greek Schifm was begun, after the middle of the ninth Century, by Photius, the moft learned, as well as the most villanous, Man of his Age, who was wicked enough to ufurp the See of Conftantinople, an. 858, whilft its Bifhop S. Ignatius was living. And when the Pope excommunicated him for it, he maintain'd his Ufurpation by Schifm, an. 863, 864. But this Schifm was not of any long Continuance for it almoft died with Photius. After near two hundred Years, Michael Cerularius, Bishop of Constantinople, was more Successful in renewing it, an. 1053. But the Greeks, long before this, had own'd the Pope's Supremacy.
First, The General and great Council at Calcedon an. 451, of five hundred and twenty Pre
(17) Homily against Peril of Idolatry." Part 3d. p. 251540, 1687.
Prelates, in the Relation of their Tranfactions Chap. 3. to S. Leo, fays: (1) For, if where two or three Queit 12 are affembled in his Name, Christ has promis'd to be there in the midst of them; how much more especially was he with five hundred and twenty Bishops, over whom you were fet, as À HEAD OVER THE MEMBERS, in those who reprefented your Place.
They add, concerning Diofcorus, the wicked Bishop of Alexandria, (2) Moreover, he let his Madness even loofe against him, WHO WAS BY OUR SAVIOUR INTRUSTED WITH THE CARE OF THE VINEYARD, that is, against your Holiness.
They conclude in this Manner: (3) We defire you to honour our Fudgment with your Decrees. And as we have justly agreed WITH OUR HEAD: So may your Highness grant To Us YOUR CHILDREN that which is fitting.
Thefe words fhew us, what the Oriental Bishops, affembled at Constantinople an. 382. (which was the Year after the second general Council) meant, when writing to the Western Bishops, and chiefly to Pope Damafus, they P 4 thank'd
(1) Ἐι γὰρ ὅπι ἐισὶ δύο ἢ τρεῖς συνηγμένοι εἰς τὸ ἀυτ ὄνομα, ἐκεῖ ἔφη ειναι ἐν μέσῳ αυτῶν πόσην περὶ πεντακος στις ἔικοσιν ἱερέας τὴν οικείωσιν ἐπεδεικνυτο..... ὧν σὺ μὲν, ὡς κεφαλὴ μελῶν, ἡγεμόνευες, ἐν τοῖς τὴν σὴν τάξιν ἐπέχεσι, τὴν ἔννοιαν ἐπιδεικνύμενΘ, In Relatione ad Leonem Papam. T. 4. Conc. Lab.p. 834. D. E. (2) E
κατ' αυτῷ τὸ τῆς ἀμπέλι τὴν φυλακὴν, παρὰ τῷ Σωτ Θ, ἐπιτελραμμένο, τὴν μανίαν ἐξέτεινε, λέγομεν δὴ, τῆς σῆς ὁσότηΘ, p. 835. Α. Β. (3) παρακαλῶμεν τόινυν, τμησον καὶ ταῖς σαῖς ψήφοις τὴν κρίσιν, ὥσπερ ἡμεῖς τῇ κεφαλῆ τὴν ἐν τοῖς καλοῖς συμφωνίαν εισενηνόχαμεν, ἔτω καὶ ἡ κορυφὴ τοῖς παισὶν ἀναπληρώσει τὸ πρέπον, • 838.
Chap. 3. thank'd him (4) for calling them, AS HIS OWN Queft12 MEMBERS, to the Council then held at Rome: And why Pope Damafus, in the Infcription of his Letter to them, calls them twice," his (5) MOST HONOURABLE CHILDREN.
They alfo give us the Reafon, why, in the general Council held at Ephesus an. 431,no one in the Council contradicted the Pope's Legate, when he call'd S. Peter THE (6) HEAD of the Apoftles, Pope Celeftin (who was then at Rome) (7) THE HEAD of the Council.
Secondly, Photius, in his Letters to Pope Nicolas the firft, as well as in his Synods, is very Zealous, that the Seventh general Council, held at Nicea an. 787, may be esteem'd (as indeed it is) of equal Authority with the other Six:
Now, in the fecond Action of this Council, the Letters of Pope Hadrian the first were read with Applaufe. In which he affirms, that his See (8) is THE HEAD OF THE WHOLE CHURCH. That it has (9) a distinguishing Primacy over the Earth, and is THE HEAD OF THE WHOLE CHURCH OF GOD. So that S. (10) Peter always was, and is ftill Supreme.
(4) Ἡμᾶς ὡς ἐκεῖα μέλη προσεκαλέσασθε, Tom. 2. Conc. p. 962. C. D. (5) o náтato Ibid. p. 866. E. p. 867 D. E. (6) ΠέτρΘ ὁ έξαρχθ καὶ κεφαλὴ τῶν Amsonwy, A&t. 3 p. 625. A. B. Tom. 3. (7) Ayaνωσκομένων ὑμῖν τῶν γραμμάτων τῇ ἁγία καὶ μακαείς πάπα ἡμῶν, τὰ ἅγια μέλη, τῇ ἁγίᾳ κεφαλῇ, ταῖς ἁγίαις ἐκβοἥσεσιν ἐνηνόχατε, Αθ. 2. p. 620. Β. (3) Τῷ ἡμετέρῳ αποτολικῷ θρόνῳ, ὅσις ἐςὶ κεφαλὴ πασῶν τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν 78 08, Epift. ad Taras. T. 7. Conc. p.125 D. E. (2) σὺ ἔι ΠετρΘ.... ὁ θρόνΘ εἰς πᾶσαν τὴν ὀικομένὴν πρωτέυων διαλάμπει, καὶ κεφαλὴ πατῶν τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν τῷ θεῷ ὑπάρχει, ibid. (io) τῷ τε κυρίς προστάγματα ποιμαινων τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, . ἐκράτησε πάντοτε, καὶ κραζε τὴν αρχήν. Ibid.
Thirdly, Dr. (11) Heylin confeffes, that the Chap. 3. Bifhops of Rome, from Pope Boniface the third Queft12 an. 606, have challeng❜d a Supremacy OVER ALL THE CHURCH. This indeed is true: But he dates the Supremacy too low. For Pope Boniface never pretended to a more extenfive Power, than he had practis'd who writ with fo much. Zeal against the Title of Oecumenical Patriarch: I mean his next Predeceffor, but one, the humble S. Gregory, who died in the Year 604, and whom Dr. Barrow calls (12) a prudent, meek and holy Man.
However Doctor Heylin's Account fhews Sufficiently, that the Greeks had fubmitted to the Pope's Supremacy, long before their separation from Rome. For Photius's Schifm began not, till after the Year 860: that is, not till above two hundred and fifty Years after the Death of Pope Boniface the III. So that the Greeks, even in the Proteftant System, had communicated with the Pope, as Head of the Church, above two hundred and fifty Years before their Schifm. And during this Time, the Greeks and Latins had met in the Sixth and Seventh general Council: in the Sixth at Conftantinople an. 680, and in the Seventh at Nicea an. 787; when the Pope according to Dr. Heylin, had affum'd a Supremacy over the whole Church above a hundred and fourfcore Years. Yet of this the Greeks make no Complaints, either in the faid general Councils, or in the eighth; which was held against Photius at Conftantinople, an. 869.
(11) Cofmogr. Lib. 1. p. 91. (12) Supremacy p. 18.
Chap. 3. Fourthly, As no Reformer was ever more Quefti 2 vers'd in Antiquity than Photius, fo no one had ever a greater fpleen againft the Pope, than he. We might therefore reasonably expect, if what our Adverfaries tell us be true, that the Supremacy of the Roman See is manifeft Ufurpation, without any Ground in Antiquity, that it was the chief Cause of Photius's Schifm. But it was fo far from being the chief Cause of the Rupture, that it had no Influence at all upon it. Later Greeks indeed deny the Pope's Supremacy (for when will Rebels own the Authority, from which they revolt?) but neither Photius nor Cerularius excepted against it, in any of all the trifling Objections, by which they endeavour'd to juftify their Reformation,
Photius, in a circular (13) Letter to the Eaftern Patriarchs an. 866, to draw them into Schifm with him, accufes the Latins of these five Errors, as he calls them:
ift. That they fast on Saturdays.
2dly, That they eat milk, cheese, and butter, in the first Week of Lent.
3dly, That, with them, marry'd Men, after they have receiv'd H. Orders, are not permitted to use their Wives. (Photius fays, they affronted the Greeks for having a contrary Difcipline. But this was his Fiction only.)
4thly. That their Bifhops re-anoint those, who had been confirm'd by Priests. ̈ ́
5thly, That they have corrupted the Creed, by faying, that the H. Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son.
(13) Apud Baron. ad an. 863, §. 34. &c.