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Cerularius attempted to renew the Schifm Chap. 3. an. 1053, by a (14) Letter, written in his Quest 12 own Name, and in that of the Arch-Bishop of Bulgaria, to the Bishop of Trani in Apulia. In this (to remove from himself the Guilt) he charges the Latins with these four Errors

Ift, That in confecrating the B. Sacrament, they make use of unleaven'd Bread.

2dly, That they faft on the Saturdays in Lent.

3dly, That they eat the Blood of Beafts, and of things Strangled.

4thly, That they do not Sing Allelujah in Lent.

Soon after, writing to (15) Peter the Patriarch of Antioch, he carry'd on his Accufation to the following Articles :

ift. That they confecrate unleaven❜d Bread. 2dly. That they eat Things strangled. 3dly. That they have their Beards. 4thly. That they faft on Saturdays. 5thly. That they eat unclean Things. 6thly. That their Monks eat Flesh and Bacon.

7thly. That they do not keep the first and laft Week of Lent, as the Greeks do.

8thly. That they fay in the Creed, the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son.

9thly. That in the Mafs they utter fome Words aloud, which the Greeks do not.

10thly, That their Priests are not permitted the Use of Marriage.


(14) Apud Baron. an. 1053. §. 23. &c. (15) Apud Baron, an, 1054. §. 28. &c.


Chap. 3. 11thly, That two Brothers marry two Quest 12 Sifters.

12thly. That, at the Communion, in the the Mass, they give the Pax.

13thly. That their Bishops wear Rings, and that they fight in the Wars.

14thly, That they baptize with one Immerfion only, and make ufe of Salt.

15thly, That, instead of faying with S. Paul, 1 Cor. v. v. 6, a little Leaven leavens the whole Heap, they fay, a little Leaven corrupts the whole Heap.

16thly, That fome of them do not honour the Relicks of Saints, nor Holy Images.

17thly, That among the Saints they do not reckon S. Bafil, and S. Chryfoftom: nor do they allow their Doctrine.

When Cerularius writ this, the Bishops of Rome had, in the Proteftant System, challeng'd a Supremacy over the whole Church above four hundred and forty Years. Why then was not this mention'd, if it was, what our Adverfaries take it to be, a groundless and wicked Ufurpation, against the Right_of all Christian Bishops? Had the Greeks no Regard to their greatest and dearest Privileges ? was not four Centuries and a half fufficient to awaken their Concern? And was not the Pope's Supremacy, if illegal and tyrannical, as forcible an Argument to feparate the Eastern Patriarchs from Communion with Rome, as that the Latins fhave their Beards; that their Bifhops wear Rings, that they give the Pax; that they do not dip a Child thrice in Baptifm, and that they put Salt into its Mouth; that their Monks eat Bacon; that they speak fome words

T words aloud in the Mafs, which the Greeks Chap. 3. whisper; that they fafted on Saturdays; that Quefti 2 they keep not Lent fo ftrictly as the Greeks do; that they have a different Reading on 1 Cor. v. v. 6. that they have too little Refpect for Relicks, for holy Images, and for the Saints themselves, as S. Chryfoftom, and S. Bafil; or that they eat Larks? I fay, if Cerularius had been a Proteftant, and had writ to Men of Proteftant Principles, would he not have infifted on the Antichristian Doctrine of the Pope's Supremacy, rather than on these Trifles?



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And I cannot but obferve, that both he and Photius were fairly put in mind of the Supremacy. Pope Nicolas the firft, writing to Photius before the Schism, on the 18th of March (an. 861-2) tells him, that (16) all the Faithful have Recourfe to the Holy Roman See, which is THE HEAD OF THE WHOLE CHURCH. (17) And a little after: For it is evident, fays he, that the Holy Roman See is by S. Peter Prince of the Apostles (who received his Primacy from the Mouth of Chrift) THE HEAD OF THE WHOLE CHURCH.


(16) Et quia univerfitas credentium ab hac Sanda Romana Ecclefia, quæ caput omnium eft Ecclefiarum, doctrinam exquirit, &c. Nic. 1. Epift. vi. Tom. viii. Conc. Labb. p. 283. C. (17) Conftat enim Sandam Romanam Ecclefiam, per B. Petrum Principem Apoftolorum, qui dominico ore primatum Ecclefiarum fufcipere promeruit, omnium Ecclefiarum Caput effe. Ibid. D.

Chap. 3. Cerularius had fcarce fent his peevish LétQueft 12 ter to the Bishop of Trani, when the Affairs of the Greek Empire oblig'd him to write a Submiffive Letter to Pope Leo ix. In which however he has this Expreffion, that if one Church, to wit, that of Rome, will communicate with me; I will take Care, that the univerfal Church fball communicate with the Pope.

To this the Pope anfwer'd, (18) What a monftrous faying is this? Has the Roman Church, which is the Head and Mother of Churches, no Members, no Daughters? How then can fhe be call'd a Head, or a Mother? The Roman Church is fo far from being alone, or, as you think, one; that what Part of the World foever diffents proudly from Her, is not to be call'd A CHURCH, but NO CHURCH AT ALL, being rather a Mock-Affembly of Hereticks, a Conventicle of Schifmaticks, and a Synagogue of Satan. This Letter of the Pope was dated in January

an. 1053-4.

In a Letter, writ at the fame Time, to the Greek Emperor, he tells him, that (19) Rome


(18) Quid hoc monftri eft, Frater cariffime? Romana Ecclefia, Caput & Mater Ecclefiarum, Membra, & Filias non habet ? Romana Ecclefia adeo non eft fola, vel ficut tu putas una,ut in toto orbo terrarum quæcunq; Natio diffentit fuperbe ab ea, non fit jam dicenda vel habenda Ecclefia aliqua, fed omnino nulla: quin poiius Conciliabulum Hereticorum, Conventiculum Schif maticorum, & Synagoga Satane. Leo. ix. Epift. vi. ad Mich. Cerularium. Tom. ix. Conc. Labb. pag. 980. C. (19) quod (caput) Christi vox prætulit, præeminere voluit univerfis, & fubfequens Ecclefiæ pietas

generalis fan&torum Patrum confenfus jugiter kallenus celebravit. Leo ix. Epift. vii. p. 981. E.

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is the Head of the Church, to which the Voice Chap. 3.
of Christ gave a Pre-eminence ABOVE ALL THE Queftiz
REST, which the fubfequent Piety of the Church,
and the unanimous Confent of the Holy Fathers
bas at all Times hitherto feconded.

Cerularius, in his Letter above quoted to
Peter the Patriarch of Antioch, mentions the
Legates, by whom these Letters were fent.
Which fhews us, that they were deliver'd at
Conftantinople, before that Letter was writ.

These two Facts therefore are certain. Ift:
that the Greeks long before their Schifm, own'd
the Pope's Supremacy. 2dly, that they had
no Thoughts of calling it in Queftion, when
their Schifm first began.

Thirteenth QUESTION.

Did the Bishops of Rome, before Boniface the
third, challenge a Supremacy in Spirituals,
over the whole Church?



HEY did. For Dr. Heylin's (1) Syftem, in this, is not defenfible. He grants, that Pope Boniface iii. an. 606, and all his Succeffors after him, have afferted this Supremacy: But denies it of all his Predeceffors. But if the great and general Council of Calcedon, acknowledg'd it, an. 451, in the Bishop of Rome, as we have feent in the last Question; it is certain, that the


(F) Chronol. L. 1. p. 91.

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