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know the Truth; or by rejecting it, when du- Chap. 1. ly propos'd; or by being in the Fault, why it Queft.3. was either not propofs'd to him at all, or not propos'd to him in a due and fufficient Manner. Their Meaning in fine is, that there is no fure and fafe Way to Heaven out of the Catholick Communion.

II. A fair Adverfary therefore must either fhew, that what Catholicks mean is falfe and uncharitable, when they fay, as they have always done from our Saviour's Time to this, that there is no Salvation out of the Catholick Communion:

Or Secondly, that what Catholicks fay here is uncharitable, altho' it be true:

Or Thirdly, that what they say is false and uncharitable, tho' the Senfe and Meaning of it be true and honest.

The two laft Parts fcarce deferve to be confuted. And if it be true, that Baptifm and Catholick Communion are parallel Cafes, and equally neceffary to Salvation; the first Part falls on its own Accord.

For tho' Catholicks have frequently faid in all Ages, that None are Sav'd without Baptifm; yet their Meaning is not, that this Rule is Univerfal, but only that it is General. For invincible Neceffity muft certainly be excepted. And invincible Ignorance in thofe, who do not know, that Chriftians are commanded to be Baptiz'd, may probably be excepted too.

Their Meaning is, that no one is Sav'd, unlefs he be Baptiz'd either in Fact, or in Defire: And that we are not fure, generally Speaking, that any one of riper Years is Sav'd without Baptifm,

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Chap. 1. Baptifm, if he be invincibly Ignorant, tha Queft.3. Chriftians are Commanded to be Baptiz'd.

Their Meaning is, that no one is Sav'd with out Baptifm, to whom the Arguments for i have been Sufficiently propos'd, or who by his own Fault has hinder'd them from being propos'd Sufficiently.

Their Meaning is, that no one is Sav'd, who is depriv'd of Baptifm, either obftinately, or by a criminal Neglect.

Their Meaning in fine is, that to those of riper Years (fetting afide invincible Neceffity) there is no fure and fafe way to Heaven without Baptifm.

III. After this I need not put the Reader in mind, that the two Exceptions, fo often mention'd of invincible Neceffity and invincible Ignorance, in regard to Catholick Communion, ought to be understood differently. For it is certain, that thofe may be Sav'd, who know, which is the Catholick Communion, but are hinder'd from it by an invincible Neceffity. Whereas it is not certain, but only probable, generally Speaking, that any are Sav'd out of the Catholick Church, who are invincibly Ignorant of the true Church, and of the true Religion.

IV. But if the Ancients fay pofitively, that
out of the Catholick Communion all are bad, and
that out of it no one at all is Sav'd; can there
be any folid Ground either for an Exception, or
for a Limitation? There may, from the known
Senfe of the Catholick Church.

For 1st, Tho' our B. Saviour fays pofitive-
ly, St. Mark xvi. v, 16, He who believes not the
Gofpel, fhall be Damn'd: yet this Text, if the

Meaning of it be, as probably it is, he shall be Chap. 1.
Damn'd for his Unbelief; both may and must Queft.3.
have this Exception, unless the Gospel was not
Sufficiently propos'd to him, and he was not in the
Fault, why it was not propos'd Sufficiently.

2dly, Invincible Neceffity was always a known Exception. And it is not an Article of Catholick Faith, that there is any other. I am willing to fuppofe, that invincible Ignorance may alfo probably be excepted. But what Catholick Faith teaches us, in regard to it, is no more than this, that the only fafe Way to Heaven is to be in the Catholick Communion: And that we are not sure, generally Speaking, that any one is Sav'd out of it, how invincible foever his Ignorance may be.

V. Now what are the Arguments, which induc'd me to believe, that this general Rule of Catholick Faith, that none are Sav'd out of the Catbolick Communion, was not unknown to Antiquity?

The first is that what follows by a plain and neceffary Confequence from the Scripture, as well as from the Apoftolical and Nicene Creed, could not be unknown to Christian Antiquity.

But this general Rule of Catholick Faith, that none are Sav'd out of the Communion of the Orthodox and Univerfal Church, follows by a plain and neceffary Confequence from the Scripture, as well as from the Apoftolical and Nicene Creed.

For if Chrift has only one holy Catholick and Apoftolical Church, which is the Communion of Saints; if he has only one Church, which he

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Chap. 1. built (3) upon a Rock, and against which the Queft.3. Gates of Hell fhall not prevail; if he has only one Church, (4) which is the Pillar and Support of Truth, and with which he promis'd to continue (5) always even to the end of the World, and which is therefore the Church of all Ages, as well as the Church of all Nations; if he has only one Church, to which (6) the Lord added, and adds, daily fuch as fhall be Sav'd: then it is at least a general Rule, of divine Faith, that none are Sav'd out of the Communion of this Church. Nay, fetting afide invincible Ignorance, and invincible Neceffity, the Rule is Univerfal, and without Exception.

The Second Argument is that tho' Chriftendom has been always divided into Catholicks, and Diffenters of different Kinds; of which fome attack'd the fundamental and chief Articles of Religion, as the Marcionites, and the Manichæans; others the Secondary and less principal Articles of it, as the Novatians, and Donatifts, or even Matters of Difcipline only, and for them left the Catholick Communion, as the Quarto decimans: yet, in regard to SALVATION, Catholicks have always treated all Diffenters in the fame Manner, that is, they have always excluded them from it, by the fame General Rule. Of this innumerable Inftances might be produc'd, but a few will Serve; especially if it be remember'd, that Chriftendom was as much divided into different Sects in the firft Ages of the Church, as it is at prefent, For if we have now Catholicks, Photianifts, Neftorians,

(3) S. Mat. xvi. v. 18. (4) 1 Tim. iii. v. 15. (5) S. Mat. xxviii. v. 20. (6) A&s ii. v. 47.,

Neftorians, Eutychians, and Proteftants of dif- Chap. 1. ferent Kinds there were then Catholicks, Simo- Queft.3. nians, Menandrians, Gnofticks, Nicolaites, Cerinthians, Nazaraans, Ebionites; the Followers of Elxai, Saturninus, Bafilides, Carpocrates, Valentin, Marcion, Tatian, and Montanus; Cainifts, Ophites, Adamites, Antitats, Archonticks, Theodotians, Tertullianifts (fo call'd from Tertullian, who till the Year of Chrift 206, had been a vigorous Defender of the Catholick Faith) Novatians, Sabellians, Manichæans, Hieracites, Donatifts, Arians, Macedonians, Audians, Apolinarists, Prifcillianifts, Meffalians, Quarto decimans, Pelagians, Neftorians, and Eutychians: not to mention Sects of lefs Note, which were equally excluded from Salvation.

Ift, In the middle of the third Century, S. Cyprian gives this Reafon, why the proud and Stubborn are Spiritually klll'd, when caft out of the Church: Becaufe out of it, fays (7) he, they cannot live, fince the House of God is one, and no one can be Sav'd, but ONLY IN THE CHURCH.

Again. He cannot have God for his Father, fays (8) he, who has not the Church for his Mother. If any one could escape the Deluge our C 4


(7) Neq; enim vivere foris poffunt, cum Domus Dei una fir, nemini Salus effe nifi in Ecclefia poffit. Ep. Ixii. quæ eft ivta. in Ed. Oxon. p. 175.

(8) Habere non poteft Deum Patrem, qui Ecclefiam non babet Matrem. Si potuit evadere quifquam, qui extra Arcam Noe fuit; & qui extra Ecclefiam foris fuerit, evadet. Stare tu & vivere putas poffe de Ecclefia receden tem 2- Macula ifta nec Sanguine abluitur. cidi talis poteft, coronari non poteft, S. Cypr. L. de Unit. Eccles. Edit. Oxon pag. 109 &c.



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