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that at Calcedon [44] an. 451, Can. 28, gave Chap. 3. to the See of Conftantinople a Precedency of Queft13 [45] Honour before the other Patriarchs of the Eaft. Which the Bifhops of Conftantinople. practis'd, even in regard to [46] Jurifdiction, but without the Confent of Rome. For S. Leo

[47] told Anatolius, that the See of Rome had not receiv'd the Canons of the fecond general Council and S. Gregory affirms the fame, writing to Eulogius Bishop of Alexandria, and to Anaftafius of Antioch. [48] The See of Rome, fays S. Gregory, has not hitherto bad, nor does it receive thofe Canons. As to the 28 Canon of Calcedon, the Pope's Legates openly [49] protested against it, as S. Leo [50] did alfo afterwards. Pope Innocent the Third in the fourth Lateran [51] Council, an. 1215. Cap. 5. granted to Conftantinople a Precedency of Honour before the other Eaftern Patriarchs.

The third Thing to be obferv'd is, that the Title of Oecumenical Patriarch both had been given to the Bishops of Constantinople before John the younger an. 586, and was given to them after Cyriacus. The [52] Clergy and Monks

[44] T. 4: Conc. p. 769. AD. [45] Monf. Tillemont T. 9. p. 490. Tom. 15. p. 709. [46] Tillem. Tom. 15. p. 702. Art. 127. [47] Ep. 53. T. 4. Conc. p. 845 CD. [48] Romana autem Ecclefia eofdem Canones [Conftantinopolitanos] vel gefta Synodi illius hactenus non babet, nec accipit. Ep. 31. Lib. 6. T. 5. Conc. p. 1277 B. [49] T. 4. Conc. p. 817. E. [50] Ep. 53. T. 4. Conc. p. 844. C. &c. Ep. 54. Ibid. p. 847. C. &c. Ep. 55. Ib. p. 850. B. Ep. 61. p. 882: D. Ep. 62. p. 884. B. &c. [51] T. xi, Conc. p. 153. C. [52] T. 5. Cone. P. 157. C.

Chap. 3. Monks of Antioch, as well as the [53] Clergy Queft13 of Constantinople gave this Title to John the elder, an. 518. And in the Council at Conftantinople, an. 536, it is given [54] at every Turn to Menas Bp. of that See, whom Pope Agapetus had ordain'd. The Emp. Justinian does the fame, in his [55] Sanction to confirm this Council. This Emperor, on other Occafions, gives the Title of Oecumenical or Univerfal Patriarch to [56] Epiphanius, [57] Anthemius, and [58] Menas Bishops of Conftantinople, as the Emperor [59] Leo did also after him. I fay, of Univerfal Patriarch, in regard to the Eastern Empire. A Limitation, which was always understood by the Greeks, when Orthodox, and is fometimes express'd by the Emperor [60] Juftinian.

In the Acts of the feventh General Council an. 787, the Bishops of Conftantinople are of


[53] lb. p. 161. E. Vide etiam p. 177, A. p. 180. A B DE. p. 181. C D.p: 185. AB. DE. p. 212 D. [54] T. 5. Conc. p. 45 E. p. 6ỏ CD. p. 42 E. p. 81 E. p. 89 B. p. 97 CD. p. 253 AB. [55] Novella 42. T. 2. Juris civilis p. 539, Amftelodami an. 1681. [56] In Co. L, 1. Tit. 1. § 7. p. 8. L. I. Tit, 4. p. 36. Novella iii, p. 477. Nov. vii, p. 485. [57] Nov. xvi. p. 502. [58] Nov. lxxix p. 559. [59] Stephano Patriarche univerfali, Conftit. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 75, p. 678, 679,680,681, 682, 690; Leonis vi, dicti fapientis, qui Bafilio Jucceffit an. 886, ejectoq; Photio, Fratrem fuum Stephanum ad fe dem CP evexit. [60] Mena Archiepifcopo Conftan. tinopolitano, & univerfi ejus Tractus Patriarcha, Novel. 67, p. 559. Menabujus regiæ urbis Archiepifcopo, univerfali ejus Tractus Patriarchæ, Novel. 57. pag.

ten call'd (61) Oecumenical Patriarchs. TheChap. 3. Emprefs Frene had given the fame Title to Ta-Queft.13 rafius, Bishop of Conftantinople, of which Pope (62) Adrian the first complains.

The fourth and last thing to be observ'd, is that S. Gregory was not ignorant, that this Title might be given, in an innocent Manner, to the Bishops of Rome. In the third Action of the Council of Calcedon it is given to St. Leo, by (63) Theodorus a Deacon of Alexandria, by (64) Ifchyrion a Deacon of the fame See, by (65) Athanafius a Priest of Alexandria, and by (66) Sophronius a Lay-man. Two of the Legates of St. Leo, Subfcribing the Council of Calcedon, call him (67) Bishop of the Qecumenical Church, and the other Legate (68) BiShop of the whole Church. In the Council at Conftantinople under Menas, an. 536, the Abbots and Monks of (69) that City, of Jerufalem, and of Antioch, call Pope Agapetus Oecumenical Patriarch. See alfo page 1461, B. Tom. 4. Concil.

Hence S. Gregory writing to Eulogius Bishop of Alexandria, fays that this Title was (70) offered



(61) T. 7. Conc. p. 132. A. B. — P. 133. A. p. 136 DE. p. 145 B. C. p. 153 A. C. p. 161. C. p. 169 A. p. 188. A E. p. 189. AD. p. 192. p, AE. p. 193. CD. p. 197 A. (62) Ibid. p. 117 E: (63) T. 4. Conc. p. 395. A. (64) P. 399 AB. (65) p. 406. D. p. 411. AB. (66) p. 411. DE. (67)

Exxanoias imionowov, univerfalis Ecclefie Papam p. 579. 580. Ε. 581, 582 4. (68) πάσης Εκκλησίας επίσκοπον, univerfalis Ecclefiæ Papam. p. 579, 580, E. (69) Tom. 5. Conc. p. 21. C. (70) Et quidem in Santa Calcedonenfi Synodo, atq; poft a Subfequentibus Patribus, boc Decefforibus meis oblatum veftra Sanctitas novit, L. 7. Par. 1. Epift. 30. Tom. 5. Conc. p. 1308. C.

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Chap. 3. offered to his Predeceffors in the Holy Council at Queft13 Calcedon, and by the Fathers after it. But does S. Gregory accufe the Fathers, or the Council of Calcedon, which he [71] reverenc'd fo much, either of Herefy or of Blafphemy? Far from it. Yet he supposes, that the Giving of the Title of Oecumenical Patriarch to S. Leo, was authoriz'd by this Council. He tells the Emperor Mauritius, that [72] in Honour to S. Peter, the Holy Council of Calcedon offer'd this Title to the Pope. He urges the fame thing in [73] his Letter to John the Younger, and in a common Letter to [74] Eulogius Bishop of Alexandria, and Anaftafius of Antioch. So that, in a different Senfe, this Title might be innocently condemn'd by S. Gregory, and be innocently given to his next Succeffor but one : which the words of the Librarian [75] Anaftafius, in the



(71) Sicut Sandi Evangelii quatuor Libros ; fic quatuor Concilia fufcipere, & venerari me fateor cedonenfe tota devotione comple&tor Quintum quoq; Concilium pariter veneror. L. 1. Epift. 24. ad Joan, nem. Epifc. Conftantinopolitanum, Eulogium Alexandrinum, Sc. p. 1045. E. (72) Certe pro B. Petri Apoftolorum Principis bonore, per venerandam Calcedonenfem Synodum, Romano Pontifici oblatum eft. L. 4. Epist. 32. p. 1182. C. D. (73) Numquid non, ficut veftra Fraternitas novit, per venerandum Calcedonenfe Concilium, bujus Apoftolicæ fedis Antiftites, cui Deo Dif ponente defervio, Univerfales oblato honore vocati funt? Lib. 4. Ep 38. p. 1192 D. (74) Sicut veftra San&itas novit, uni per Sanam Synodum Calcedonenfem Pontifici Sedis Apostolice, cui Deo difponente defervio, hoc Univerfitatis nomen oblatum eft, Lib. 4. Ep. 36. p. 1187. DE. (75) Bonifacius Sedit menfes o&to, dies viginti tres. Hic obtinuit apud Phocam Principem, ut fedes Apoftolica B. Petri Apoftoli Caput effet omnium Ecclefiarum, id eft, Ecclefia Romana, quia Ecclefia Conftantinopolitana primam fe omnium Ecclefiarum Scribebat. T. 5. Conc. p. 1615.AB.

Life of Pope Boniface the Third, probably im- Chap. 3. ply. And it is from these words of Anasta- Queft13 fius, that the later Hiftorians have borrow'd their Accounts of that Pope.

III. The Emperor Leo, in a Rescript to the Prefect of the Prætorium an. 476. (register'd by the Emperor (76) Juftinian) calls Conftannople the Mother of all Orthodox Chriftians. Not because She govern'd them all in Spirituals: but because She was then the moft able to help and Succour them all in the Concerns of this Life. Conftantinople, when call'dByzantium, that is, till the Year of Chrift 330, was under the Bishop of Heraclea as her Metropolitan: And, whilst a Catholick City, never pretended to any Jurifdiction or Pre-emince over Rome. Hence the Oriental Emperor Juftinian (77) No one doubts, fays he, but the highest Point of Epifcopacy belongs to OLD ROME. And, I decree, fays (88) he, according to the Definitions of the four Councils,at Nicea,at Conftantinople, at Ephefus, and at Calcedon, that the Pope of Rome has the first Place AMONGST ALL BISHOPS, and that the See of Conftantinople has the fecond. Nothing

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(76) Matrem Christianorum orthodoxæ Religionis om nium. In Co. Juft. Lib. 1 Tit. 2. §. 16. Tom. Juris civilis. p. 13.

(77) Summi Pontificatus apicem apud anteriorem Romam effe, nemo eft qui dubitet, Novella ix. Tom. 2. P. 496.

(78) Sancimus, fecundum earum [quatuor Synodo. rum, &c.] Definitiones, fan&tiffimum Jenioris Roma Papam, primum effe omnium facerdotum : beatiffimum auteng Archiepifcopum Conftantinopoleos nove Romæ fecundum ha bere locum poft Sanitam Apoftolicam fenioris Romæ fedens. Novella. 131. p. 630.

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