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one, fays he, be call'd univerfal Patriarch; the Chap. 3. Name of Patriarch is taken FROM ALL THE Quest13


So (38) my Brother and Fellow-Bishop John endeavours to be call'd the ONLY BISHOP.

And (39) you, who thought your self unwor thy to be call'd a Bishop, are at length come to this, that in Contempt of your Brethren you defire to be call'd the ONLY BISHOP.

Again. (40) Whoever defires, fays he, to be call'd the ONLY BISHOP, extols himself above all other Bishops.

And writing to Eufebius and other Prelates: (41) If one, as he thinks, is univerfal, it remains, that you are NO BISHOPS.

The Title therefore of Oecumenical Patriarch, in the Bishops of Conftantinople, as S. Gregory understood it, was a proud, blafphemous, beretical, Antichriftian, and Diabolical Title. And fo his Predeceffor Pelagius the Second had alfo understood it. But, as Monfieur Du Pin rightly observes, the Bishops of Conftantinople meant it in an innocent Senfe. John of Cappadocia, fays (42) he, call'd the Fafter,

(38) Trifte tamen valde eft, ut patienter feratur, quatenus defpeltis omnibus prædi&us Frater & co-epifcopus meus folus conetur appellari Epifcopus. L. 4. Ep. 34. p. 1189. AB. (39) Qui indignum te effe fatebaris, ut Epifcopus dici debuiffes, ad hoc quandoq; perductus es, ut defpectis Fratribus Epifcopus appetas folus vocari. L. 4. Ep. 38. p. 1191. AB. (40) Quifquis ifte eft, qui folus Sacerdos appellari appetit, fuper cæteros facerdotes fe extollit L. 6. Ep. 30. p. 1276. BC. (41) Nam fi unus ̧ ut putat, univerfalis eft, restat ut vos Epifcopi non fitis. L. 7. Part. 2. Ep. 70. p. 1352. DE. (42) Sixth Century. London 1693. pag. 67.

Chap. 3. Fafter, was one of great Piety and Charity. Queft 13 He was fharply reprov'd by S. Gregory for tak ing upon him the Name of Oecumenical Patri arch, because this Pope look'd upon this Title as

fign of Ambition, altho' in the Senfe of the
Greeks it was innocent, and fignify'd nothing
less than S. Gregory thought.

And here I cannot but obferve three or four

The first is, that fince S. Gregory was fo ve-
ty zealous against the bare Appearance or Sha
dow of Ufurpation in the Bishop of Conftanti
nople he would have been far enough from
affuming a Supremacy over all other Bishops
(as he certainly did) if it had not been the un-
doubted Privilege of his See.

The fecond is, that Catholick, Oecumenical, and Univerfal (if we meerly regard their original Signification) are equivalent Terms. If fo; there is a Senfe, in which every Catholick is an Univerfal Chriftian, that is, a Chriftian of the Universal Church and every Catholick Bishop is an Univerfal Bishop, that is, a Bishop of the Univerfal Church. And if the Bishops of Conftantinople [who never pretended to have any Jurifdiction or Precedency over Rome] by affuming the Title of Oecumenical Patriarchs, meant only this, that Conftantinople had a Jurifdiction over all the other Patriarchal Sees in the Eaft, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerufalem, altho' the Popes in S. Gregory's Time had never confirm'd this Privilege or Claim, yet there was nothing either of Herefy or of Blafphemy in it. The general Coun cil at Conftantinople [43] an. 381, Can. 3, and


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that at Calcedon [44] an. 451, Can. 28, gave Chap. 3. to the See of Conftantinople a Precedency of Queftig [45] Honour before the other Patriarchs of the Eaft. Which the Bishops of Conftantinople. practis'd, even in regard to [46] Jurifdiction, but without the Confent of Rome. For S. Leo [47] told Anatolius, that the See of Rome had not receiv'd the Canons of the fecond general Council and S. Gregory affirms the fame, writing to Eulogius Bishop of Alexandria, and to Anaftafius of Antioch. [48] The See of Rome, fays S. Gregory, has not hitherto bad, nor does it receive thofe Canons. As to the 28 Canon of Calcedon, the Pope's Legates openly [49] protested against it, as S. Leo [50] did also afterwards. Pope Innocent the Third in the fourth Lateran [51] Council, an. 1215. Cap. 5. granted to Conftantinople a Precedency of Honour before the other Eaftern Patriarchs.

The third Thing to be obferv'd is, that the Title of Oecumenical Patriarch both had been given to the Bishops of Constantinople before John the younger an. 586, and was given to them after Cyriacus. The [52] Clergy and Monks

[44] T. 4: Conc. p. 769. AD. [49] Monf. Tillemont T. 9. p. 490. Tom. 15. p. 709. [46] Tillem. Tom. 15. p. 702. Art. 127. [47] Ep, 53. T. 4. Conc. p. 845 CD. [48] Romana autem Ecclefia eofdem Canones [Conftantinopolitanos] vel gefta Synodi illius hactenus non babet, nec accipit. Ep. 31. Lib. 6. T. 5. Conc. p. 1277 B. [49] T. 4. Conc. p. 817. E. [50] Ep. 53. T. 4. Conc. p. 844. C. &c. Ep. 54. Ibid. p. 847. C. &c. Ep. 55. Ib. p. 850. B. Ep. 61. p. 882: D. Ep. 62. p. 884. B. Sc. [51] T. xi. Conc. p. 153. C. [52] T. 5. Cone. P. 157. C.

Chap. 3. Monks of Antioch, as well as the [53] Clergy Queft 13 of Constantinople gave this Title to John the elder, an. 518. And in the Council at Conftantinople, an. 536, it is given [54] at every Turn to Menas Bp. of that See, whom Pope Agapetus had ordain'd. The Emp. Justinian does the fame, in his [55] Sanction to confirm this Council. This Emperor, on other Occafions, gives the Title of Oecumenical or Univerfal Patriarch to [56] Epiphanius, [57] Anthemius, and [58] Menas Bishops of Conftantinople, as the Emperor [59] Leo did also after him. I fay, of Univerfal Patriarch, in regard to the Eastern Empire. A Limitation, which was always understood by the Greeks, when Orthodox, and is fometimes express'd by the Emperor [60] Juftinian.

In the Acts of the feventh General Council an. 787, the Bishops of Conftantinople are of


[53] lb. p. 161. E. Vide etiam p. 177, A. p. 180. A B DE. p. 181. CD.p: 185. AB. DE. p. 212 D. [54] T. 5. Conc. p. 45 E. p. 66 CD. p. 12 E. p. 81 E. p. 89 B. p. 97 CD. p. 253 AB. [55] Novella 42. T. 2. Juris civilis p. 539, Amftelodami an. 1681. [56] In Co. L, 1. Tit. 1. § 7. p. 8. L. 1. Tit, 4. p. 36. Novella iii, p. 477. Nov. vii, p. 485. [57] Nov. xvi. p. 502. [58] Nov. lxxix p. 559. [59] Stephano Patriarche univerfali, Conftit. 2, 3, 4, 5,6% 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 75, p. 678, 679, 680,681, 682, 690; Leonis vi, dicti fapientis, qui Bafilio Jucceffit an. 886, ejectoq; Photio, Fratrem fuum Stephanum ad fe. dem CP evexit. [60] Men Archiepifcopo Conftan. tinopolitano, & univerfi ejus Tractus Patriarcha, Novel. 67, P. 559. Menchujus regiæ urbis Archiepifcopo, & univerfali ejus Tractus Patriarchæ, Novel. 57. pag.

ten call'd (61) Oecumenical Patriarchs. TheChap. 3. Empress frene had given the fame Title to Ta-Queft.13 rafius, Bishop of Conftantinople, of which Pope (62) Adrian the first complains.

The fourth and laft thing to be observ'd, is that S. Gregory was not ignorant, that this Title might be given, in an innocent Manner, to the Bifhops of Rome. In the third Action of the Council of Calcedon it is given to St. Leo, by (63) Theodorus a Deacon of Alexandria, by (64) Ifchyrion a Deacon of the fame See, by (65) Athanafius a Priest of Alexandria, and by (66) Sophronius a Lay-man. Two of the Legates of St. Leo, Subfcribing the Council of Calcedon, call him (67) Bishop of the Qecumenical Church, and the other Legate (68) Bi · Shop of the whole Church. In the Council at Conftantinople under Menas, an. 536, the Abbots and Monks of (69) that City, of Jerufalem, and of Antioch, call Pope Agapetus Oecumenical Patriarch. See alfo page 1461, B. Tom. 4. Concil.

Hence S. Gregory writing to Eulogius Bishop of Alexandria, fays that this Title was (70)



E. p. 133.

(61) T. 7. Conc. p. 132. A. B.

A. p. 136 DE. p. 145 B. C. p. 153 A. C. p. 161. C. p. 169 A. p. 188. A E. p. 189. AD. p. 192. AE. p. 193. CD. p. 197 4. (62) Ibid. p. 117 E: (63) T. 4. Conc. p. 395. A. (64) p. 399 AB. (65) p. 406. D. p. 411. AB. (66) p. 411. D E. (67) 'Onxevinйs Exxanoias imionomov, univerfalis Ecclefie Papam p. 579. 580. Ε. 581, 582 4.(68) πάσης Εκκλησίας ἐπίσκοπον, univerfalis Ecclefie Papam. p. 579, 580, E. (69) Tom. 5. Conc. p. 21. C. (70) Et quidem in Santa Calcedonenft Synodo, atq; poft a Subfequentibus Patribus, hoc Decefforibus meis oblatum veftra Sanctitas novit, L. 7. Par. 1. Epift. 30. Tom. 5. Conc. p. 1308. C.

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