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Rome, as the Simonians, Gnofticks, Cerinthians, Chap. 3. Nicolaites, Ebionites, Saturninians, Carpocrati- Queft15 ans, Valentinians, Marcionites, Encratites, Montanists, Novatians, Sabellians, Manichæans, Donatists, Arians, Macedonians, Apolinarians, Prifcilianifts, Pelagians, Neftorians, Eutychians, Iconolafts, modern Greeks, Berengarians, Vaudois, Wicklefifts, Calixtins, and the reft. And as the Church of Rome has condemn'd all Herefies: fo all Herefies whatever, in their respeEtive Times, have judg'd themselves to be a neceffary Reformation of the Church of God, and have condemn'd the Church of Rome, of great and grievous Errors. They have all efteem'd her to be the Mother of Corruptions, and Abominations of the Earth, and, in a Spiritual Sense,drunk with the Blood of the Saints,and of the Martyrs of Jefus. The Manichæans might account her literally guilty of their Blood. For by an imperial Law of the great Theodofius an. 382, they were fentenc'd (5) to Death, and Orders were given, that a diligent Search fhould be made after them.
But if few ancient Herefies call'd Rome the great Whore, mention'd in the Apocalypfe; the Reafon of this was not, because they did not hate her as heartily as any have done fince the eleventh Century: but either because former Herefies were lefs impudent than those, which have appear'd fince, or because it seem'd manifeft to Antiquity, that St. John, under the Name of Babylon, did not describe a Christian City.
(5) In Co. Theodos. Lib. xvi. Tit. v. Lege ix. Lugduni an. 1665, pag. 124.
Chap. 3. III. But it is not so easy to determine, what Queft15 he meant by Babylon as it is to fhew, what is not meant by it. The Proofs already mention'd (6) from the Scripture and from the Creed, concerning the perpetual Vifibility and Orthodoxy of the Catholick Church, fhew fufficiently, what the Name of Babylon, in the Apocalypfe, does not fignify, that it does not fignify Chriftian Rome, fuch as it is at present, or the Church and See of Rome.
IV. But, if you ask farther, What then did St. John understand by Babylon, in the Apocalypfe? This is one of those Inquiries, in which Catbolick Faith is not concern'd. And perhaps the Reader may be content to know what learned Men have thought of it.
The first Opinion is that of two learned Proteftants Grotius and Dr. Hammond, who think, that St. John, under the Emblem of Babylon, represents Heathen Rome, fuch as it was in his Time, when it worshipp'd falfe Gods and Goddeffes, Jupiter, Venus, Bacchus, Mars, the Sun, the Moon, even Rome herself, and other Pagan Deities: when fhe was drunk with the Blood of the Saints, and the Blood of the Martyrs of Jefus, Apoc. xvii. v. 6. In this Senfe S. Peter fat in Rome, and Nero fat in Babylon. St. Paul writing to the Romans an. Chr. 58, writes to the Roman Church, and congratulates with her, that her (7) Faith is renown'd over the whole World. But Heathen Rome was the great Whore, fitting on a Scarlet colour'd Beaft full of Names of Blafphemy
baving a gol
(6) Chap. 3. Queft. 3, 4, 5⋅ (7) "OŢI ǹ mgıç vậμãy xatz έλλεται ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ κόσμῳ. Rom. i. v. 8.
den Cup in her Hand full of Abominations and Chap. 3. Filthiness of her Fornication, and upon her Fore- Queft15 bead was a Name written, Mystery, Babylon the great, the Mother of Harlots, and Abominations of the Earth, Apoc. xvii. v. 3. 4. 5. She was foon after to be, in Ten or more bloody Perfecutions, drunk with the Blood of the Saints, and with the Blood of the Martyrs of Jefus, v. 6. In the first of these Perfecutions, which was that of Nero, S. Peter and S. Paul were put to Death at Rome. And after the fecond, which was that of Domitian, S. John writ the Apocalypfe. For Babylon, the great Whore perfecuted the Roman Church three hundred Years, and was at laft conquer'd and converted by it. Babylon then, in the Apocalypfe, is fo far from being the Church of Rome, that it was by the Faith of the Roman Church, and by the Church of Rome, that Babylon was deftroy'd. S. Peter ufes the Word in the fame Senfe. For by Babylon he underftands Heathen Rome: but then he evidently distinguishes the Roman Church from it. (8) The co-elect Church, fays he, which is in Babylon, falutes you. 1 Pet. v. v. 13.
Hence Dr. Hammond, a Proteftant Interpreter, obferves, that the nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty first Chapter of the Apocalypfe are a Congratulation with the Roman Church for her Victory over Babylon and Heathen Rome, In his Paraphrafe on the xixth Chapter, v. 1. pag. 993, 994. [After thefe Things I heard a great Voice of much people in Heaven fay
(8) Ασπάζεται ὑμᾶς ἡ ἐν Βαβυλῶνι συνεκλεκτή. Pet. V. V. 13.
Chap. 3. ing, Alleluia, &c.] he says, This Vifion looks Queft15 especially on the Heathen Religion deftroy'd in Rome, and exchang'd for the Chriftian. V. 6, [I heard as it were the Voice of mighty Thunderings, faying Alleluia.] This Voice, fays Dr. Hammond, is the Acclamation of all the Nations (that is, Chriftian People in them) over all the World, thundering out Alleluiahs to God, for this illuftrious Enlargement of the Kingdom of Chrift, the Converfion of that Imperial City to Christianity: which is as it were (v. 7. 8.) the Marriage of Chrift to a lovely Spoufe, his Church. And an Angel bid me (v. 9.) take notice of this, as of the bleffedeft happiest Change that ever was wrought in the World.
So that the Sum, fays Dr. Hammond pag. 992, of this Fall of Babylon, is the Destruction of the wicked and Heathen Rome, and preferving of the pure and Christian Rome, and fo in Effelt the bringing that City and Empire to Christianity.
V. The Second Opinion is, that Babylon, in the Apocalypfe is New Rome or Conftantinople, Head of the Turkish Empire, and that this is hereafter to be destroy'd by ten of its Confederate Princes. Dr. Heylin in his Cofmography, Lib. 2. pag. 207, is inclin'd to this Opinion. Conftantinople, fays he, is fituated on SEVEN MOUNTAINS, most of them crown'd with magnificent Mofques.- On the first whereof ftands the Ruins of Conftantin's Palace.- -On the fecond a fair Turkish Mofque. -On the third ftands a stately Mofque. On the fourth and fifth, the Sepultures of Selimus the first, and Bajazet the fecond. On the fixth, the Mofque and Sepulchre of Solyman the magnificent, num
ber'd amongst the prefent Wonders of the World. Chap. 3. And on the Seventh, the Temple of S. Sophia, Queft 15 and the Turk's Seraglio. In which refpect it is call'd wónis irtáλop by Nicetas, Urbs Septicollis by Paulus Diaconus, and fo acknowledg'd to be by Janus Doufa, Phineas Morifon, G. Sandys, and others of our modern Travellers, the Eye-witnesses of it. So that if there be any Myftery in the number OF SEVEN, or that the fitting of the great Whore on a SEVEN HEADED BEAST be an affur'd Direction to find out the Antichrift, we may as well look for him in Conftantinople or nova Roma, where the great Turk, the profess'd Enemy of Chrift, and the Chriftian Faith, bas bis Seat and Refidence, as amongst the feven Hills of Old Rome,where the Pope refides. Or if his SITTING IN THE TEMPLE OF GOD 2. Thefs. ii. v. 4, fhews us where to find him; we may as well look for him in the Temple of S. Sophia, now a Turkish Mofque, as in S. Peter's Church at Rome, ftill a Chriftian Temple. Thus Dr. Heylin.
If it be objected first, that S. John Apoc. xvii. v. 18, fpeaks of (9) the great City which reigns over the Kings of the Earth: To this it may be anfwer'd, that it is not plain from the Text, whether thefe Words relate to the Time, in which S. John writ; or to the Time reprefented in the Vision, Apoc. xvii.
If it be again objected, that all the Fathers, in a manner, understand S. John's Babylon of Rome, in a State of Paganism and Infidelity It may be anfwer'd, that of this the Catho
(9) Η πόλις ἡ μεγάλη ἡ ἔχεσα βασιλείαν ἐπὶ τῶν βασι λέων τῆς γῆς·