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eighty guests; whilst “all the expert cookes,
those engaged in “wateryng." Whilst in the kinge's nying persons in the art of cookerie which were within great orcharde, appultrees, and payr trees, and yowng London or elsewhere,” were put in requisition, and trees of oke and elme,” were set by the hundred, from wrought both day and night to make the feast worthy the surrounding country were collected bushels of of the magnificent minister and his pageant-loving hawes, slowes, and acornes, to be set in the park. The sovereign. As the tide of his fortunes began to change, Defender of the Faith looked well after his game and Wolsey thought to appease the malice of his enemies, poultry, and let the pheasants especially want for noand turn aside the envy of the court, by making a pre- thing. Supplies were laid in of eggs and curds “ for sent of his lordly residence to the king, who, having the fesaunds for to eytt ;” no less than eight sitting asked his minister what his intentions were in erecting bens were purchased, whose business it was “to sit a building that far surpassed any of the royal palaces and bring up the yowng fesaunds;" even a horse was in England, was adroitly answered, " That he was only kept to carry ants “from sondry wodds and other trying to form a residence worthy of so great a mo- plasyds,” for the nourishment of the aforesaid dainty narch.” This graceful surrender, however, was but the birds. “ The kinge's cocks and the hennys” had a new signal for ensuing plunder, and before a short time was house built for them, and properly qualified persons about, Wolsey had retired in disgrace to his residence were employed in boring cony holes in the warren. at Esher, almost within sight of Hampton Court, where When the royal monster grew fat and heavy in his old he found nothing provided for his comfort, and had to age, and could not go much abroad in search of sport, lorrow in the neighbourhood such necessary articles as he procured an Act of Parliament empowering him to beds, sheets, cups, and dishes. So had the mighty form a royal chase, by enclosing an immense tract of the fallen! Not all that Wolsey did for the glory of Eng- surrounding country. This he proceeded to do, greatly land abroad, or her prosperity at home: not all the to the annoyance of his neighbours. He seems to have merit he so justly deserves for his strict and impartial been partial to angling also. We know that fishing administration of justice, and the vigour with which he rods were sent down here for his use, and men employed repressed perjury and chicanery, and other wrong-doing, who helped to fish. He was out shooting in the park whilst he held the chancellor's seals, has so much con- when the news of Wolsey's death was brought to him. tributed to keep alive his name among the mass of the In fact, he was a sporting monarch, and Hampton Court people, as the brick and stone work, and the ancient was the ground for him. Thither he came accordingly relics of this his pleasure-palace. It is curious to note from time to time, in company with one or other of his how often his name is on the tongue of the people here, miserable succession of wives. and how respectful a tone visitors and writers of guide- Anne Boleyn, the great Cardinal's arch enemy, the books assume, in their allusions to this great church- “ night crow," as he said himself, “who possessed the man, when once they find themselves within the pre- royal car, and misrepresented all his actions," and who cincts of Hampton Court. He has only a nameless hated him with a two-fold hatred for having separated grave in Leicester Abbey, but he is ever kindly remem- her in her more innocent days from her young lover, bered here.
Lord Percy, and for having stood in the way of her The royal robber, Henry VIII., no sooner usurped obtaining a legal right to the throne she coveted, had possession of the cardinal's domains, than he set about all manner of honour paid to her in her brief day of completing the buildings and beautifying the grounds. prosperity, and the queen's badges were profusely carved The account of works executed here in this reign may upon the lintels and spandrels, and painted with sundry be found in the Public Record Office, and the entries bright devices upon the great windows of “the kinge's are some of them very curious. The names of the new haull.”
When this wretched favourite of a day inaster tradesmen are given, and the rates of wages was made to suffer a death unbeard of—for up to this noted down, as well as the additional pence paid to car- royal Bluebeard's time, no woman had ever been pubpenters, when they worked " in their howre tymys and licly tortured or put to death in England-her handdrynkyng tymys," the king being in haste to have the maid, Jane Seymour, who, with poetic justice, usurped great hall finished, and this extra labour being needed the place of her who had formerly supplanted the right for 6 the hasty expedicion of the same.” So much is royal Catherine of Arragon, was installed in great state paid a certain ferryman, John Bagnold by name, for at Hampton Court, previous to the birth of Henry's “ his delygent attendance in helping over the workmen, long-desired heir. Prince Edward was baptised in the evenying and mornyng, for the space of a quarter of a chapel here at midnight, with great splendour, the year;" and as an incentive the more to diligence and Princess Mary standing god-mother, and the Princess panctuality, there is purchased “a ronnyng glasse for Elizabeth likewise assisting, for on this joyful occasion the workmen and other, to keep the oures trewly at
the ill-used children of the divorced Catherine and tbe No expense appears to have been spared decapitated Anne were received into favour, peace being in furnishing out the gardens handsomely. “ Swete proclaimed in this “happy family.” The noise and exwilliams” were bought by the bushel, as well as “ gil- citement attending the ceremonies—the braying of lavers slippes, gillaver mynts, and other swete flowers.” trumpets at the queen’s door, and the succession of The women weeding in the “ kinge’s new garden” re- visitors to the sick room, so upset the mother of the ceived each of them twopence a day, as did likewise prince, that she died not long after. Then she lay,
poor woman, in state in the chapel for nearly a fortnight, masses being offered daily that her soul might rest in peace. His “loving wife Jane” was the only one of his wives King Henry ever wore mourning for, and he lamented her death very loudly, although that did not prevent him looking about for a fourth consort before a month was over.
Anne of Cleves was permitted to reside at Hampton Court whilst measures were being taken to divorce her from the king; and here, at a later period, she passed some time as a guest of Henry and her far more to be pitied successor. Catherine Howard came next, being introduced with great pomp as the new queen. During the Christmas holidays the attendance of the Council of State was dispensed with, that the monarch might enjoy the society of his latest beloved withont interruption. Here, too, they kept the festival of All Saints with unusual solemnity, and received, after mass, the Holy Communion together, the king having required his confessor to draw up a particular form of thanksgiving for the blessing he enjoyed in having so loving and amiable a wife. But the very next day the thunderbolt had fallen on the head of the wretched queen; the king's suspicions were fatally aroused, and before long she was removed as a degraded prisoner to Sion House, and thence conveyed to perish miserably in the Tower. Catherine Parr, of course, had her turn, and was married with all the ceremonies of state at Hampton Court. King Edward VI. was often here. The people of the neighbourhood were much attached to him. They were proud that in his person a sovereign prince had been born amongst them, and no doubt felt very grateful to him for releasing them from the inconvenience of the royal chase, formed by his tyrannical old father. Melancholy Mary, and her husband, Philip of Spain, passed the honeymoon in these shady solitudes, and subsequently kept Christmas here, the court supping in the great hall, lit with one thousand lamps. Neither was Elizabeth indifferent to the attractions of the place ; feasting and pageantry once more ruled the hours, and the gardens came in as usual for their share of the royal regard. Queen Bess paid a good round sum to a “certain Frenchman that hath taken in charge the reformation of our gardens at Hampton Court." The German traveller, Hentzner, who visited England at this time, was in great delight with this residence. He declares that “ the Chapel was most splendid, and the queen's closet quite transparent, having crystal windows;" and goes on to describe the rich tapestries in the audience chamber, and the cushions ornamented with gold and silver. In fact, to his admiring eyes, all the walls of the palace seemed to shine resplendent with these precious metals. Tradition hath it that Shakspeare, the immortal, took part in a play performed before Elizabeth, in a small chamber of Hampton Court set apart for theatrical representations--this being his first appearance on any stage.
Then came the princes of the Stuart line. Here assembled the great conference of bishops of the established church and lea lers of the P.e.byte.i.n party, presided
over by that sceptred pedant, James I., and here died Anne of Denmark. Charles I. hung the walls with works of art selected from the galleries of Europe, spent pleasant days here like his predecessors who wore the crown, but suppel sorrow, too, in copivus draughts. The Puritan leaders kept him for some time a state prisoner in his own palace. He managed to elude the vigilance of his enemies, and to escape from Hampton Court, but that only brought him a step nearer the scaffold at Whitehall. The surly Pro ectur, it would appear, did not consiler bimself out of place in the dome-tic palace of the Tu lors and the Stuarts. The cup of joy and tribulation was poured out even for him in the residence of princes. Here he married his daughter Mary to Lord Faucouberg, seeking like any vulgar parvenu to strengthen bis bold of usurpation by alliance with a scion of the roy. alist aristocracy. Here, tor, he atiended the death-bed of his favourite child, Mrs. Claypole, who, in her list moments, upbraided him with bis violence and ambitiou, and arged him to repentance for his many crimes ;s0 was the parting made more bitter. We have it on the authority of Dr. Hawkins that Cromwell ordered the great organ which had been forcibly taken from Magila len College, Oxford, to be carelully conveyed to Hampton Court, where it was placed in the great gallery, and one of his favourite amusements was to be entertained with this instrument at leisure hours." Certainly this is not the style of “ innocent recreatioa" one should have deemed congenial to the mood of the iron-bearted u-orper. But then Saul, the son of Cis, when the evil spirit troubled him, was likewise refreshed by the power of sweet music. General Monk was the next owner of this royal domain. It wis given to him as a reward for his services in effec:ing the restoration. He, however, not having a fortune of proportionate magnificence, wisely accepted a sum of money instead, and Hampton Cullit once more reverted to the Crown.
Charles II. an: Catherine of Braganza were married here. The great folk assembled from all sides to do homage to the queen, whose dawn of wifehood seemed for the moment very bright. The Duchess of York cama from London in her barge, and was received by Charles at the garden-yate by the water side. Henrietta Maria, the widow of the martyr king, over whose graceful had such wild storms had swept since the d.:y she was herd to consider herself the happiest woman iu the world, happy as wife, mother, queen-likewise visited Hampton Court on the festal occasion. But here, too, before many weeks wore about, the good-natured monarch," by an insulting trick, succeeded in having bis jealous mistress, Lady Ca: tlemaine, presented before the whole curt to the queen, Jim's II. often passed months at a time here. Tie Pope's Nuncio was, it is said, received by him un ler the canopy in the great audience-chambr. Bith Pepys and Evelyn, in their quaiut diaries, aliud to the Palace and its splendours in those day. The fsmer walked, he says, all the wy from Teddington to look at “the noble furniture and brave pictures ;" and the latter dilates upon the splendour of the queen-mother's gifts of great looking-glasses, and toilet of beatin massive
part, things speak for themselves. Consequently, no "guides” are at hand, forcing their cumbrous services on
gold, and falls into an ecstacy about the Indian cabinets the queen hid brought with her from Portugal; not forgetting, of course, the noble fountain of the garden, and the " perplexed twining of the trees.” In the time of William and Mary, Hampton Court appeared in renewed splenduur. 'Three of the old courts were taken dwn, and the present grand staircase, suit of st ite apirtments, and noble east front erecte i. A gardener of repute was engeged at a handsome salary, and the pleasure-grounds fere once more reformed ; this time in conformity with The Dutch taste. Raphael's cart ons were brought, by the king's ord -rs, and hung in & gallery built by Sir Christopher Wren expressly for their reception. The queen resided in the palace when left to admini:ter the government of the realm in the king's absence ; and it was while riding in the park that William of Orange, of "inmortal" memory, received the injury which deprived liin of life and crown. And so on through the reigns of the last of the Staarts and the first Hanoverians, till at last the second George, as if in irony of the whole, had the Cardinals llall fitled up as a theatre, and the play of Henry VIII., showing the death of Wolsey, performed therein by command.
Bat Hampton Court, in all its glory, never knew such days as it has seen since Victoria wore the crown. The decaying portions of the buildings bave been restored ; the great hall has bien sumptuously re-decoratel; the thousand pictures have been re-arran zed and catalogued; the gardens have been renewed in brilliancy and picture que effect, an I the whole extent of palace, park, and gardens has been thrown open to the public. A right Topal gift! The treasures of art have been preserved, the beauties of nature re-beautified, that the me mest of her subjects may make holiday among them. So compilet -ly is the spirit of this magnificent donation carried oat, that one almost feels as if even the historic ıl as 30ci itions of the place had been got up for the express purpose of making it the more interesting to the people. And what a pleasant sight it is to see how thoroughly the people enjoy their holiday at Hampton Court ! Th re are no fees to be paid, and every day of the week the gates are open to all sober visitor's, except one, and that one is not Sun lay, but Friday, when a regulur cleaning and dusting takes place. One thousant persons, it is calculated, pass through the state apartments by the hour on fine Sundays; even the chapel of the palace is open to those who are dispo ed to atteod service before beginning their round of enjoyment. Thirty thousand a-month visit Hampton Court during the summer. Public holidays, of course, are the great occasions of a muzter. For example, it h is been noted down that on WhitMonday of the exhibition year, between nineteen and twenty thousand persons spent their holiday at Hampton Court. Every thing is adinirably ordered. About the grounds all may roam at will, and tarry as long as they I ke; while in going through the state apartments, the only rale is, that visitors are to proceed regularly without retracing their steps. The palace servants occupy their various stations, and are civil and unobtrusive. Good catalogues can be had for a trifle, and for the mist
Hampton Court is reached by forty minutes' rail from London, or by omnibus, through Richmond and the classic ground of Teddington and Twickenham ; or, again, great part of the excursion may be made in the Tham's steamers. So it is a pleasure-trip from beginning to end. Entire families often make their app-arance together, even the baby in arms going through the fatigues of the day's enjoyment with the rest, and staring strangely at Titians and Tintoretts. Whole armies of little scholars may be met trotting up and down the great staircises, and serious old folk, adjusting their spectacles, enunciate antient and approved apothegms in view of the relics of bygone glory. There is something here to suit every taste, and fall in with every mood. The good old woman who, casting an eye along the wall on which hang masterpieces of Raphael, was heard to say, “I don't see anything in them Cartoons !” no doub., saw everything in the faded magnificence of Queen Anne's state bed, opened her eyes in the guard-chamber, wi'h its groups of shining arms for one thousand men pictorially arranged, became enraptured at the sight of the great vine, and was bewildered and delighted to ber heart's content with King William's Maze. On these occasions, the basket of provisions is not often forgotten ; but the supplies are left at the outer gate in care of the palace porter, until the owners, having finished their round of sight-seeing, have appetite for a different sort of enjoyment. Just the other side of the road is a famous place for a pic-nic : namely, the Bushy Park, which is a sight in itself in the season when the gra id avenues of chestnut trees, opening out for miles on every side, are all one shower of pink and white blossoms. Here is ample roo'n and verge enough for the little groups to settle themselves in cozy nooks; and if the debris of the feast, in the shape of chicken-bones and broken buttles, should strew the ground, it mak's no matter here, though it wonld never do so to disturb the econ my of the closely-mown turf and the finely-sanded garden walks within the Palace enclosure.
The village of Hampton Court is an orderly little place. It has an air of quiet dignity abont it, as if, ia the fact of being an appen lage of so magnificent a palace, it acquired a certain character which should be scrupulously maintained. Therefore, it is en irely free from the vulgar, fussy airs of meaner places which sight-seers frequent. There are some snug ions in it, but no low public houses. Government has perfected the work of the Queen's beneficence by refusing to license such e;tablishments. Scenes of riot never occur. The people come and go in perfect freedom, and seem only too glad to look and admire, and behave themselves.
Once more : is it any wonder that we should repeat, May your Majesty be rewarded ! and over and over reiterate our wish that the royal example may be followed here and there, even on a miniature scale, aud so ne thought be given to the comfort of the working-classes during their brief hours of leisure, and some little trouble be taken to help them to spend profitably and joy. ously the one day of the week which the Almighty has set apart for rest and refreshment ? Will any of our fifty thousand readers lay this to heart? In Ireland even the beauties of nature are not always visible on Sunday; as, for example, throughout the length and breadth of the Co. Wicklow, where every place worth seeing is shut up in honour of the Sabbath, and so become virtually shut out altogether from thousands who, on that day, would gladly shake off the dust of the
week's toil, and gain new spirits and new strength in a ramble through glen or valley, or tenantless domain; or who would tarry with delighted heart the length of a day on the green slope of a solitary mountain, with matchless view over sea and city.
But our moralizing must come to an end. The Cardinal's palace, which is now the people's play-ground, melts away in the distance : we and our readers turn our back on the banks of tho Thames, and take up our position once more on the banks of the Tolka. R.
SHANE O'NEILL AND QUEEN ELIZABETH. [SHANE O'NEILL, surnamed the Proud, visited the Court of Elizabeth in 1561. Camden and Campion describe the incidents of that remarkable fact. Shane was murdered in 1567, and his head long grinned, a ghastly spectacle, upon the Castle of Dublin.]
“ Her liegeman !" thought the fiery chief ; and, as his train departs, Right round the ring of courtiers there his eye defiance darts. “Her liegeman ! like these tinsel lords : no, by this strong right hand, No liegeman I, but Shane O'Neill, Prince in my native land !”
Then spake the Queen Elizabeth to artful Cecil near,
« Til fares our cousin Sussex now in that accursèd land,
The crafty Cecil mased awhile. “Great Queen, I would advise"-
“ The Tower, thou say’st, might lodge O'Neill, and eke his savage train-
Ah, treachery doth treason breed in monarch as in kerne, -
And thus deceiving and deceived, Shane ruled in fair Tyrone,
In old Armagh's cathedral shrines, nor lauds nor matins rise,
Ah Slane! wert thou but true as brave, how high thy name would stand,
O'Donnell of Tyrconnell, Shane, bath joined thine English foes,
No more elate with power and state, as erst in London town,