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precipitous was the asceat. A few notes on the master's opinion of you both individually, and of your sacred born was signal sufficient for the huntsman to

profession generally, than I do ; but you must pardon off," and very soon the hounds were settled upon the me for saying, that in the present instance, I think the trail of a hare.

hounds are telling the truth.Those beagles of O'Connell's were all of the pure “They're not going the way the hare went, any Kerry breed, as large as blood-hounds, slow in pace, how," persisted the priests. deep and melodious in voice, and from their strength “ I think they are,” cried O'Connell, laughing; " but, and hardiness admirably suited for hunting in wild and at any rate, we'll give them the benefit of the doubt.mountainous districts, where their great strength, and A perfect roar of laughter followed this happy hit; & ponderous species of activity, aided them in surmount- in which the two worthy clergymen joined most heartily. ing obstacles that lighter and less resolute hounds would The result proved that the beagles were “telling the succumb to; and their melodious and deep-toned tongue truth,” for they brought the hunted hare round, and harmonised admirably with the stupendous mountain killed her within a few yards of us.

Their reverences scenery, as it awoke the responsive echoes that tenanted and party on the ledge of rock, bad seen a bare, but it every surrounding valley and cavern, producing an ef- was a fresh one that crossed the line of scent, but failed fect thrillingly delighting to any man, but absolutely to attract the notice of the sagacious beagles of Dan rapturons to O'Connell's Celtic nature and sympathising O'Connell. taste.

During a prolonged and beautiful hunt up the side of The echo of those happy days is all that is left to the the mountain immediately towards us, through which the writer : his young friends of that morning, on the wild pack distinguished themselves by the truest hunting mountains of Kerry, have, like their host, all departed imaginable over very difficult ground; their delighted to the mystic land of a world of spirits. Some died out owner never lost a point worthy of notice that they in the peaceful avocations of their calling, wbile others made, nor failed to call attention to it, as he watched, have fallen upon the arid steppes of Russia, and upon with the critical acumen of a good judge, the varying the burning plains of Ind, with glory to themselves, fortune of the chase.

and with England's untarnished honour safe in their “Now, gentlemen, this is what I call true hare-hunt- keeping. Some lie in the vaults of their family, where ing," he exclaimed, as with praise-worthy acuteness the shadows of lofty elms shade their cenotaph from the and pertinacity the beagles "picked out" a most diffi- too-rude glare of summer's sun : others repose on Cathcult scent, and “ carrying it on” to better scenting cart's Hill,'midst the remains of the noblest and bravest ground beyond, raced away with it, as they yelled in the world has seen : the rest are buried, mangled corpses, chorus their potes of triumph and premeditated revenge. with their avenging swords, beneath the ruins of the re

“Yoic! forward ! good hounds !” he shouted in volted cities of the East. One of all the party remains, ecstacy, as the gladdened pack swept on like sea-galls he who, with his grey-goose quill, has striven to “while on the wing, and at a greater pace than I imagined away an hour"—those precious hours, so few and so them at all capable of.

fleeting—bopeful that here, as in all other of his writIt was just as they “checked" within a hundred ings, he may, with the lighter amusement of the tale, yards of us, upon some rocky ground, after the “burst" have interlaced, withont offence to the most bypercritijust described, that an incident characteristic of O'Con- cal, some of that thought and feeling which, under the nell took place, and which, from its original sharpness, culture of a sensitive mind, may lead to pleasure that is worthy recording.

passeth not away. Vale ! The parish priest, or a parish priest, and his coad

SHAMROCK. jator, were of the party that accompanied us from Derrynane; but during the excitement of the hunt,

THE BUONAPARTE FAMILY IN LITERATURE, they and some of our party had got on to a sharp ledge of rock, from which they expected a closer view of the The military and political history of the first Empehounds. It was immediately beneath these gentlemen ror Napoleon, has been the subject of so many writers, that tbe hounds “checked.” The pack, after some and has been discussed with such variety of praise and difficulty, "hit it off” cleverly, and went away at score, blame, of adulation and invective, that in its general cheered with a will by their delighted and now excited features, at least, it may be regarded as well known.

But the literary labours of the Buonapartes are less “ They're wrong!” shouted the two clergymen, in a known, and have not as yet been appreciated, at least breath, from their elevation on the ledge, “ the hare in the British dominions, with the impartiality that bewent in the opposite direction.”

comes the republic of letters. There was a Jacobo “Nonsense !" impatiently responded O'Connell. Buonaparte present in Rome, when it was taken and

“We saw the hare run in the opposite direction, I sacked by the army which the traitorous Bourbon led assure you, sir!" halloed the parish priest.

against it in the year 1527. Of the calamities that “No doubt in the world of it !” echoed the coadjutor. then befel the pontifical city-of all the woes the Ro“Well, gentlemen," retorted the now-nettled owner mans then had to endure there remain the two vivid of the staunch pack, “no man entertains a higher contemporary narratives of this Jacobo Buonaparte, and

master.

of the Florentine artist, Benvenuto Cellini. Whether Jacobo was an ancestor of the imperial Napoleonic family, is not ascertained, and a similar uncertainty exists as to the dramatic writer of the fifteenth century, Nicolò Buonaparte, author of La Vedova (The Widow), a comedy, printed at Florence in 1568, 1592, and again in Paris, 1803. It has even been questioned whether the great Napoleon's family was derived from that ancient Buonapartean stock, or whether it should not rather be referred to a Grecian origin, in that colony of refugees from Maina, the ancient Sparta, who, flying from their Turkish oppressors, found a refuge in the Italian island of Corsica, in the year 1677. Corsica, which had formerly belonged to the Holy See, and by some of the popes had been granted to the State of Pisa in Tuscany, became subject to Genoa as the result of a successful war; but it long after continued to supply a regiment of the Pope's guards. The bravery and devotedness of the Corsicans especially recommended them for this honourable service, from which they were at last excluded, at the arrogant dictation of a French king. During great part of the eighteenth century, the Corsicans were engaged in efforts to release themselves from the government of Genoa. The Genoese, feeling themselves unequal to the contest, called in the assistance, first of German, and then of French auxiliaries ; and finally, after the war had been protracted through many years with various success, found themselves compelled to transfer the sovereignty of the island to France, in compensation for the expenses incurred by their powerful yet not disinterested assistant. The cession, at first only conditional and as a pledge for the repayment, was definitively and conclusively made in June, 1769, the Corsican people having no voice in the matter, and their feelings of nationality being disregarded alike by both the contracting parties—their ancient oppressor, and those who were in future to be their masters. The disparity of force was now such that further resistance became hopeless, and although the Corsicans did not wholly resign their long-cherished ideas of independence, they appeared to acquiesce in the new political arrangement. While the war of independence against the Genoese and their allies was still raging in Corsica, its many heroic incidents excited the admiration of observers, and hence a celebrated writer of the last century, the sensuous and infidel Jean Jacques Ronsseau, was led to express his presentiment that the little island uld one day nish Europe : quelque pressentiment,says he, " qu'un jour cette petite isle etonnera l'Europe.This was written many years before the great Napoleon was born, and never was presentiment or conjecture more fully realised by the course of events. Well might Europe be surprised at witnessing the marvellous career of the first Napoleon. Rising from the rank of a subaltern military officer, we see him, by his merits only, acquiring the chief command of armies; he controls or directs the Titanic forces of the French Revolution, places himself on an imperial throne, and after humbling or subverting almost every established government in Europe, and bestowing kingdoms on his brothers

and dependents, abuses the advantages of his positionassails the Catholic Church, despoils its patrimony, deservedly incurs the severest of Ecclesiastical censures, and after many reverses, expires at last a captive on a lonely island in the Atlantic Ocean. Nothing in modern, nor perhaps in ancient history, presents such wonderful and instructive changes of fortune. That the empire should be revived in his family, was also prognosticated at a time when such a development could scarcely have appeared possible. Signora Letizia Buonaparte, the mother of the great Napoleon, on the day before her death, in December, 1822, confidently anticipated that her grandson would yet be Emperor of France, and spoke of it to her attendants as a future certainty. She probably meant the Duke of Reichstadt, whom the revolutionary party delighted to contemplate as the spes altera mundi, who survived her about ten years; but her conjecture or presentiment received its fulfilment when the present emperor, the third Napoleon, who is also her grandson, ascended the throne of France, in December, 1852.

In attempting to estimate the literary character of the Buonapartes, we must consider the influence of the nationality to which they willingly attached themselves. They preferred their adopted to their native country ; their sympathies were entirely French ; they desired that if it were possible their Italian birth might be forgotten, and that they should be looked on not merely as subjects but citizens of France. This probably originated in their ambition, to which France presented an adequate field, in place of the circumscribed limits within which it would have been pent up in Corsica. But there was conscious greatness in Napoleon's reply to the Emperor of Austria, when disdaining to trace back a long line of ancestors, he only said, “I am the Rodolph of Hapsburg of my family.” It was in conformity with the assumption of a French nationality that Napoleone Buonaparte became Napoleon Bonaparte, and that the names of all his relatives were similarly modified. He had himself, at an early age, been sent to France for the

purpose of education and military instruction. His earliest literary effort that has been preserved is said to be a fable written in 1782, when he was only thirteen years of age. The title is, The Dog, the Rabbit, and the Hunter, (Le Chien, le Lapin, et le Chasseur). This subject is treated in twenty-seven lines of French verse, and is only remarkable as a production of the future Emperor. But its authorship has not been sufficiently established. It was accidentally discovered in a single fragment, one leaf of a printed book, the title and date of which are unknown. From this copy it has been reprinted more than once. In the year 1790, he composed a History of Corsica, the publication of which was prevented by his having been suddenly ordered to proceed from Ajaccio to Auxonne on military service, and for half a century afterwards the work was believed to have been entirely lost. His brother Lucien had transcribed two copies, one of which was sent to Father Raynal, the well-known historical writer, by whom it was communicated to Mirabeau, and both agreed that the author indicated genius of a high order. From that

66 J'ai

time the work entirely eluded research, until it was dis- the war was over, rendered restitution, to some extent, covered by Signor Libri, formerly Professor in the Uni- practicable. How thankful would scholars be if the versity of Pisa, who described it and other unpublished Library of Matthias Corvinus had been conveyed, either pieces of the great Emperor's composition in the Revue in part or entire, to Rome, or Paris, or Vienna, to bo des deux Mondes, of March, 1842. In the next year carefully preserved, instead of being destroyed by a he published it in the journal L'Illustration, under the violent and rapacious soldiery. The conception of a title of Lettres sur la Corse. The first publication of complete Code of Law for his dominions does honour Napoleon's was a violent political pamphlet, A Letter to to Napoleon, and will always be associated with his M. Matteo Buttafuoco, a Representative for Corsica in memory. The actual composition and elaboration of the French National Assembly. This, which was writ- the Cinq Codes could not but be committed to the juristen in an Italian French style, was printed at Dole, in consults of the Empire, but the animating and presiding 1790, 8vo. His next production, The Supper of Beau- spirit was Napoleon's. caire, was printed—but without the author's name—at The Napoleonide of Stefano Egidio Petroni, first Avignon, in 1793, and again among Napoleon's published in 1809, may be described as a literary and collected works, Paris, 1821. This piece, also, is poli- artistic monument in honour of the first Napoleon. It tical, treating of the events of its period—June and July, consists of a hundred odes, or pieces of Italian poetry, 1793—in the form of a conversation among the guests in a variety of measures, each celebrating some incident stopping at an inn of the little town of Beaucaire. This

or great event of his career, and is illustrated by an mode of discussing contemporary and contemplated po- equal number of designs for medals, in the best style litics has been recently resumed in some of the pamphlets of the antique. But the undiscerning spirit of adulawhich are supposed to be written under the influ- tion has led the author to introduce and to praise some ence of the French Government. In June, 1793, the of the worst and most indefensible of his hero's actions. future Emperor produced a memoir on the Political and He has not, indeed, suggested ENGUENSIS CAESUS as Military Position of Corsica. This was printed in the legend of a medal, but he has not hesitated to apParis, in 1841, from the original manuscript, the ortho- plaud the infamous treaty of Campo Formio, and the graphy of which was strictly preserved in the impres- treacherous attack on the Order of St. John. We cansion. The Parallel between Cæsar, Cromwell, Monck, not avoid the conc'usion, that the pernicious influence and Bonaparte, the joint work of Napoleon and his of the French literature of the last century had reached brother, Lucien, appeared in December, 1800. But, and corrupted Napoleon in early life, and that it is to for Napoleon's literary character, there are better and it we should refer his many censurable actions. The more distinctive materials furnished by his numerous of- strange opinions which he had formed on human society ficial writings, his correspondence, and his addresses to and motives of action, and on the most important obhis soldiers. In these we find frequent indications of jects of government and religion, are manifest in his great natural abilities, and a boldness of expression and correspondence, and fully explain much that we must allusion that sometimes rises into sublimity. The dis- reprobate, and that would otherwise be unintelligible. patches of the Duke of Wellington are invaluable to the The lately deceased Jerome Bonaparte, the youngest historian, but the rhetorician would in vain search them brother of Napoleon, is said to have left behind him for examples such as would readily be found in the some memoirs for publication, but he is otherwise unBuonapartean bulletins and orders of the day. The known to literature. Louis Bonaparte, the father of official and confidential correspondence of Napoleon Bo- the Emperor Napoleon III., possessed much of both naparte with foreign courts, princes and ministers, and literary activity and taste. His printed publications with French and foreign generals in Italy, Germany, and

In 1820 he published at Paris a HisEgypt, was edited and published by General Beauvais, tory of the Parliament of England, from its origin in in seven volumes, 8vo, Paris, 1819, 20, a work now 1234 to the year VII. of the French Republic. One entirely out of print. This, however, will be completely of his sons, we are uncertain which, published, in 1830, superseded by the complete edition of the correspon- a French translation of Jacobo Buonaparte's Account dence which is now in progress, under the direction of of the Sacking of Rome, in 1827, which we mentioned the present Emperor, which is to consist of fifteen at the beginning of this article. volumes in 8vo, and was commenced with the issue of

But of all the Buonaparte family, the branch which the first volume in 1858. Of this there is to be also has the highest claim to literary distinction is that of magnificent impressions in the quarto form, which is the Prince of Canino, the philosophic Lucien, who died not to be for sale, but will be reserved for those to whom in 1840. He accepted no honors from Napoleon, the Emperor may order its transmission.

but uniformly preserved a virtuous and dignified simThe first Napoleon justly estimated the importance of plicity. He desired no title higher than that of a man literature and the arts. He has been reproached for of learning, nor would he be called prince until that carrying off from conquered countries the most celebrated rank had been conferred on him by the Pope. His pictures and statues, as well as the most precious con- marriage was one of choice, with a lady of the middle tents of libraries and museums, but this was really a class, and he displeased his imperious brother by remitigation of military violence. It saved so much from fusing a divorce, which it was pretended would have destruction, or indiscriminate pillage ; and, at last, when left him at liberty to form an alliance with some royal

are numerous.

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or princely family. His brother Jerome was more literary greatness, and would be more justly appreciated complaisant in this respect, and when commanded by if it were not that their critics have been dazzled by Napoleon, repudiated his virtuous consort that he might the glaring splendour of the first Napoleon's military marry a German princess. After the fall of Napoleon, empire. The naturalist and the philological scholar wilt when the Buonapartes were proscribed in almost all be alike delighted by the Fauna Italica of Prince Europe, the Pope, returning good for evil, allowed them Carlo Luigi Buonaparte, and Parabola de seminatore, an asylum in his states. This was accepted by the in seventy-two distinct versions, the Polyglott colSignora Letizia, mother of Napoleon, and sister of lections of Prince Louis Lucien Buonaparte, in which Cardinal Feseh, and also by Madame Hortense Eugenie with equal industry and judgment, he has brought to de Beauharnais, the wife of Louis, the ex-king of Hol- gether abundant subjects for the studies of some future land. Madame Hortense had two sons, Louis Na- Mezzofanti. Each of these works would merit a distinct poleon, who subsequently died at Forli, in March, 1831, notice, but as we have already exceeded the limits that and Charles Louis, who is now the Emperor Napoleon we proposed to ourselves when commencing, we most III., of whom Pope Gregory XVI. afterwards expressed now content ourselves with this slight and imperfect an opinion, that he would yet render the church a great enumeration. We have less hesitation in merely service. Lucien Buonaparte, who had much poetical mentioving the works of imagination composed by taste, had written a French poem on the deliverance of Joseph Buonaparte, of which the reputation was scarcely the church by the Emperor Charles the Great This more durable than his transient reign over the kingdoms he determined now to publish, with a dedication to on which he was successively obtruded, by the imperions His Holiness Pope Pius VII., to whom he had already arrogance of the great Napoleon.

UTIS. addressed a letter of congratulation on being restored to possession of the Ecclesiastical State. The poem

DEAR BALLYBOY. was accordingly published at London, in two handsome

How quickly flows the stream of years, quarto volumes, with this title :

Regardless of our joys or ills ; " Charlemagne ; ou L'Eglise Delivrée.

Nor cares it for our smiles or tears,

What fortune cures, what fortune kills. Poeme Epique, en xxiv. chants.

On, on it flows, swift as the wind,
Par Lucien Bonaparte, Membre de l'Institut

Nor waits it, friend, for you nor I;
de France, $c.
Londres, 1814.“

How many has it left behind,

Since last I saw dear Ballyboy ? * It was reprinted in the next year at Paris. An English poetical translation was published in London,

Still Ballyboy, I'll ne'er forget, 1815, by two learned clergymen of the Established

Though, since thy steeple last I spied,

I've known much pleasure, pain, regret ; Church. The Charlemagne has, we think, been un

I've rambled half this world's side, justly depreciated. Its faults are those of the French

Yet, ever have I hoped some day, language, but its design, sentiments, and erudition, en

I might perchance attain the joy title it to rauk not only above Chapelain, but above

Of graving, in some little way,

Å niche in fame for Ballyboy. the boasted author of the stilted Henriade and the licentious Pucelle.

The Frankford river girds thy sides, In September 1814, the author of " Charlemagne" re

Rippling towards the Shannon's breast,

And golden willows kiss the tide, ceived from the Pope the investiture of Canino, with the

Thy banks with butter.cups are dressed. title of Prince, and on that occasion took the oath of

Could I forget the grand old pine fealty as a vassal of the Holy See. He continued from

On Knock-hill's top, so towering high ; that time to lead a life of literary enjoyment. In 1819

The rosebuds, thyme, the sweet woodbine,

That I once knew round Ballyboy. he published another epic poem, La Cyrneide, ou la Corse sauvée, the subject of which is Corsica, and the hero

The “haunted gate," the “echo hill," Charles the Great. In 1829 he printed at Viterbo in

The wild-wood, by the “valley's” path ;

The sweet briar, circling Coghlan's mill, large quarto his Museum Etrusque, in which he describes

The myrtle on the Abbey's rath. the Etruscan antiquities that he had discovered in 1828

The “park," old style ; the chapel yard, and 1829. In 1836 he published the first volume of

That sparkling well which ne'er ran dry; autobiography, (Memoires de Lucien Bonaparte, ecrits

The friends I loved, the village bard,

Alas ! laid low in Ballyboy. par lui-même), a very interesting memoir written by himself in the French language, of which a very incorrect

Oh ! dead, or gone to foreign lands, English version appeared soon afterwards at London.

Are most my friends of long ago, But Natural History also is indebted to the pens and

I scarce may grip an old friend's hand

So few are left now that I know. pencils of the Buonapartes. The birds of North America,

And yet, I do not once despair the beasts, birds, fishes, and reptiles of Italy have been

But that I may, before I die, illustrated. The languages and dialects of Europe are

Rove the haunts, and breathe the air,
As long ago, round Ballyboy.

J.
-among the diversified subjects to which this highly
gifted family have applied their mental energies, and

* Ballyboy is situate in the King's County. It lies between with a success which proves that they are capable of Tullamore, Parsonstown, and Shannon harbour.

DUFFY'S

HIBERNIAN MAGAZINE.

No. 3.

SEPTEMBER.

1860.

A HISTORICAL SKETCHI.

BY WILLIAM CARLETON.

THE RAPPAREE.

leader, yet for many a long year he could boast of but very slender success. Be this as it may, at the time we write of, whatever military forces lay in Ireland

were scattered over the kingdom at large, in order to be CHAPTER III,

able to check the outrages, and secure the depredators At the period of our narrative, there was no such and murderers, if possible, wherever they appeared. body in Ireland as a constabulary or police of any kind, The magistrates and other country gentlemen could not either to preserve the peace of the country, or to repress act either rigorously or safely without their aid, and the local outrages which were continually breaking out hence their distribution, as we said, over the general in it. All this duty—and a harassing one it was- surface of the country. For this reason, then, it so devolved upon the country magistrates and private gen- happened, that in the few barracks that were then to be tlemen, aided by the military, who were called upon to found in Ireland, there generally remained but a small discharge the duties of our present police, as well as handful of men-just enough as was calculated to prethose of soldiers. At this period, too, the country was serve the peace of the neighbourhood. The reader will overrun and ravaged by lawless bands of Rapparees, soon perceive why we allude to these facts, which are and the still more atrocious body of Tories, the latter of well known to every reader of Irish history to be correct whom spared neither life nor property in their merciless and authentic. depredations. With them religion, of which they were When the party who took away Rose Callan left her as ignorant as the brutes about them, was no safeguard father's house, they turned-after passing along the whatever. The Catholic was robbed and slaughtered boreen which led to it, and on reaching the highwaywith as little remorse as the Protestant, whilst among towards the town or city of Armagh. The poor girl's the Rapparees, on the other hand, there was moderation distraction was indescribable, and her grief such as and forbearance—the great and established principle on ought to have excited compassion in any heart in which which they acted being, never to shed blood unless in lay a single spark of humanity. Indeed it touched that defence of life, and under no circumstances to injure or of the man behind whom she sat. maltreat any one of the female sex, no matter what “Oh where,” she said, as well as her sobbing would their rank or condition in life might be. The humanity permit her, “where, in God's name, are you bringing of this regulation, however, was due to the celebrated me? Are you a man? have you no compassion ? You individual who drew up the rules of their conduct, and are a soldier, and ought to be brave—but surely no by whose skill and ability they were organized and com- brave man would suffer himself to become an instrument manded. The discipline which he established in such a cruel and heartless outrage as this. Have scarcely ever violated, and whenever it happened to be you not the Rapparees and Tories to pursue ; but what 80, the offending party was severely punished, and in have either I or my family done that we should be some cases handed over to the laws of the land. The treated as rebels and robbers ? They are neither Rapreader may think this a strange and imprudent proceed- parees nor Tories, but an innocent and inoffensive peoing on the part of the Rapparees, as it might be natu- ple, who conduct ourselves peaceably, and have never rally apprehended that such individuals would, as a mat- done or said anything against the government or the ter of course, betray their accomplices to the govern- laws. As for the Baccah, we know nothing about ment, from a principle of vengeance against them, as him, except that he says he was at the siege of Limerick, well as to secure their own pardon. This, however, is but he is not a drop's blood to us, and why should we a mistake; because the government had, from day to suffer for him ?

We only help him, and give him an day, exact information regarding them, so that very odd night's lodging, like any other poor man that's little could be added to it, even by one of themselves. forced to beg his bit.” They shifted their positions perpetually, and scarcely “God help you, my poor girl," replied the man, conever remained twenty-four hours in the same place, so siderably softened, " it was not for the Baccah we came. that the information of to-day was of no earthly use for

That Baccah's a favourite in the barracks—and if I to-morrow. The government of the day, besides, was don't mistake, is a spy for the government against the rather imbecile, and although the Duke of Ormond Rapparees and Tories.” issued many severe proclamations against them, contain- 5 He may be so," she replied, " and the greater viling offers of large rewards for the apprehension of their lain he is for it,”

was

VOL. I.

P

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