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obtained a promise of the prebend for Swift; but the and “Remarks” on Burnet's Introduction to the third truth of the apothegm, “put not your faith in princes," volume of his History of the Reformation, in which he was soon manifest. Swift happily found a new patron gave that learned prelate a castigation not likely to be at this juncture. Lord Berkley, on proceeding to Ire- soon forgotten. Swift aspired to a bishopric, but land as Viceroy, invited Swift to act as his private Archbishop Sharpe warned Queen Anne, that one who secretary and chaplain. He accepted the proposal, and could write “ The Tale of a Tub," had scant orthoaccompanied that nobleman to Dublin; but a quarrel doxy, and that the deanery of St. Patrick's was the soon after separated them for ever. Swift was in fact only preferment which might with safety be given a bad confidant for a certain class of state secrets; he to him. To this dignity Swift was accordingly was an Irish patriot at heart, and he honestly and presented in 1713. He lost little time in effecting courageously resisted whatever he thought inimical to à meritorious reform in the chapter of St. Patrick's, bis country's good. In 1700 we find him installed in over which he obtained an ascendancy and authority the living of Laracor, where his conduct as a clergyman unequalled by any of his predecessors. His house in is described as being most exemplary. His church was Kevin street became the centre of opinion and attraction. thinly attended, however, and Lord Orrery records that He twice a week entertained the best company-Stella Swift, on one occasion, addressed the service to a con- regulating the table, but always departing at night with gregation consisting only of his clerk. In the following the other guests.
In 1716, a private marriage year Swift's mental powers may be said to have shot between Stella and Swift was solemnized by the Bishop into their zenith. The incidents of his grand public of Clogher; but the matrimonial contract was never life, and brilliant literary career, may be dated and traced consummated, and Stella, after a time, languished and from this period. They are already engraven on the died. As a solution of the mystery, Dr. Wilde appreciative heart of Ireland, and it might seem supere- has recently hinted the opinion, that Stella was the rogatory for our feeble pen to seek to imprint them daughter of Sir William Temple, and Swift his son, deeper. We have rapidly sketched the compara- consequently Stella's half brother. This would account, tively little-known years of Swift's early life, and it as Dr. Wilde remarks, for many hitherto inexplicable but remains to jot down, in a few recording words, portions of Swift's conduct relative to both Stella and his principal acts, achievements and death. Dr. Wilde, Vanessa. Sir Walter Scott, however, has materially we may add, in “ The Closing Years of Swift's Life,” disturbed this theory by the statement, that Swift's has left little to be desired regarding that interesting parents resided in Ireland from before 1665, until his period of his career.
birth in 1667, and that Temple was residing as ambasIn 1701, having then taken out his Doctor's degree, sador in Holland, from April, 1666, until January, 1668. Swift first entered on the political arena, by publishing In 1720, the dean was roused into honest indignation “ A Discourse of the Contests and Dissentions between by the oppressive manner in which Ireland was governed; the Nobles and Commons of Athens and Rome,” and in and some patriotic pamphlets appeared from his pen, 1704 appeared that inimitable piece of humour, “ The including: “ A proposal for the universal use of Irish Tale of a Tub." 6 The Battle of the Books," after Manufactures,” which rendered him a great popular the manner of Rabelais, a burlesque comparison between favourite. His celebrated Drapier Letters followed, in ancient and modern authors, in which Dryden was which he fearlessly and ably exposed the gross job of made to feel the rebound of Swift's wounded pride, Wood's patent for a supply of copper coinage. A large was appended to "the Tale of a Tub." In 1708 no reward was offered by the government for the author of less than four distinct works on religion and politics these letters, but the secret was never communicated appeared from his pen; and in 1710 we find him on officially to the law-officers of the crown, although no terms of intimacy with Addison, chief secretary to the one had any doubt of Swift being the author. From Lord-Lieutenant. He also gained the confidence of this date the Dean became the public idol of the Irish Bolingbroke and his friends to such a degree, that he people. The late Rev. J. F. Ennis, of Meath Street, told became one of the sixteen brothers who dined alternately us that he had once professionally attended an old feat each other's tables. In 1711 was published, “A male centenarian in the neighbourhood of Patrick Street. Proposal for Correcting, Improving, and Ascertaining the She often spoke to him of Dean Swift, and added, that English tongue,"—in a letter to Lord Oxford, which he never left the deanery house in Kevin Street without sought to establish an Institution on the principle of an inmense attendance behind him of washed and unthe French Academy, with a view to preserve, intact, washed admirers, who cheered enthusiastically their the purity of the language, which had latterly begun to 66 darlin' dane." In 1726, Swift became as popular suffer from the rhymes of poetasters, and the flippancies among youths as he had previously been with adults, by of illiterate pamphleteers. His own style had long the publication of “Gulliver's Travels,” a work so well elicited the admiration of critics, for its simplicity, clear- known that we need not add a line of commentary upon ness, and purity, though we regret to add, not always it. In the same year, he co-operated with Pope in the in a moral sense. The same year introduced to the compilation of three volumes of " Miscellanies,” leaving world, The Conduct of the Allies,” written to promote the poet all the profits of the publication. Stella peace, and which was received with immense favour. had lingered until about this time, and when the hectic In 1712 appeared, “ Reflections on the Barrier Treaty," flush of consumption had proclaimed the ruin of her.
health, it is said that he offered to acknowledge her as a his mental strength, only rendered the great man's state wife, but she faintly replied, " It is too late.” Rogers, the more pitiable and wretched. in his recently published “Recollections,” records a con- Swift had a presentiment that his fine, bright mind versation of Grattan’s, from which it appears that Siella would one day be bathed in utter darkness; and Young used frequently to visit his aunt, and sleep with her in relates a very touching anecdote illustrative of this feelthe same bed, and weep all night.
ing. Swift was walking with some friends in the neighSwift acquired a similar ascendancy over the feelings bourhood of Dublin. "Perceiving he did not follow of Hester Vanhomrigh, alias Vanessa, another beautiful us," says Young, “I went back and found him fixed as and accomplished woman, and the result was also a statue, and earnestly gazing upward at a noble elm similar, Possessed of great talents, great beauty, and which, in the uppermost branches, was much decayed. great fortune, her society was eagerly sought after. Puinting at it, he said, 'I shall be like that treo-I Swift loved to guide her literary instruction: the pupil shall die at the top.'” became enamoured of the master; and he could ill re- In October 1745, he fell with the leaves, in the strain the boast, that a girl of cighteen had con- seventy-eighth year of his age. His fortune, though tracted a romantic attachment"for a gown of forty-five.” not large, was sufficiently ample, and he bequeathed He culpably trifled with her passion. She hinted mar- the major part of it to an hospital in Bow Lane, for the riage, but the bint failed to take. The flush of youth reception of lunatics. This intention he had already and beauty gradually merged into the hectic glow of a made known in his admirable verses upon his own death, ferered mind, and a breaking heart. In Vanessa's will sie charged her execntors, including Bishop Berkeley,
“To shew, by one satiric touch,
The nation needed it so much." to publish Swift's correspondence with her ; but singular to say, they declined to act upon the dying With one memorable exception, Swift's memory has lady's request. His letters to Vanessa are, we be- suffered long and severely from the calumnious misrelieve, still extant. Some mutilated extracts from them presentation of Scotch writers, both during his own were intrusted to Sir Walter Scott for publication, life-time and since. Jeffrey, in the Edinburgh Review There is also in existence the Dean's correspondence for Sep:ember, 1816, made a savage onslaught upon with Knightly Chetwode, Esq., from 1714 to 1731 ; Swist, and in 1819, there appeared from the pen of the and Dr. Wilde expresses a wish (Closing Years of Rev. Edward Berwick, editor of the Rawdon Papers, Swift's Life, p. 29) that the present R. W. Chet- “A Defence of Dr. Jonathan Swift, in answer to certain wode, Esq., of Portarlington, could be persuaded to observations based on his Life and Writings, in the publish this interesting correspondence.
66 It is a
Edinburgh Review.” It, however, was not until the debt he owes to his ancestors, his country, and him- publication of Monck Mason's “ History of St. Patrick's self."
Cathedral,” that Swift's reputation was placed upon a After the death of Stella, Swift's life became much steady and respectable basis. Rowley Lascelles, in the retired; but he continued, as of old, to send forth from Liber Hibernice, ii. 22, says, " that book has vindicated his study an uninterrupted and energetic succession of talent and virtue from personal envy, faction, and efforts to ameliorate the condition of his country and national prejudice : in fact, the reputation of Swift had his countrymen. Innumerable effusions, both in prose been again and again rendered next to infamous by and verse, had in view this generous end : in addition Scotch compliments," &c. It is easy to shew that to which, he regularly dedicated a third of bis income the stream of Scotch hypercriticism, which has so long to charity. Some of his most striking poems were continued to flow upon the memory of Swift, is not of written at tbis period, including the celebrated “ Verses a very disinterested character. In 1704, Swist, in “ the on bis own Death.” In 1736, he sustained a severe Public Spirit of the Whigs,” found it necessary to adattack on the brain, attended by deafness, which pre- vance some wholesome truths against certain doings in vented him from attempting, during the remainder of Scotland. The entire country, from Caithness to Solway his life, any work requiring much thought. His “Polite Firth, rose indignant at Swift's daring. The Duke of Conversation" was no doubt published subsequent to Argyle, and other Scottish peers, issued a proclamation, this illnes3, together with his inimitable satiric “ Direc- offering a reward of £300 for the discovery of the autor, tions to Servants ;” but both works had emanated from and a prosecution was with great difficulty avoided. his brain, at a period when his mental powers were Sir Walter Scott, in his able Life of Swift, occasionally in their zenith. This, and other ironical compositions to hints that the dean hated his country, and longed for which we have adverted, constitute Swift the Lucian of an excuse to abandon its shores for ever. It is, howthe modern world. The faculties of Swift's mind had ever, evident from his MS. notes, in Clarendon's “ Civil begun to decay long before those of his robust consti- Wars,” that it was to the country of his biographer, tation, and in 1742, a gradual evaporation of the reason- and not to his own, that Swift's “ hatred” was implaing power at length reduced his once splendid " dome cably directed; and it is mainly for the purpose of of thought—the palace of the soul,” to a sink of directing attention to these singular and hitherto unidiotic stagnation. A glimmering of reason, at very published memoranda, that we have de licated a few wide intervals, occasionally shot forth, like the convulsive pages to this summary sketch of the illustrious and bounds of an expiring taper; but this effort to re-assert eccentric Dean of St. Patrick's.
These marginal remarks of Swift's appear written with his own hand in nearly two hundred places on the margin of the copy of Clarendon's Civil Wars in England, in Marsh's Library, St. Patrick's Cathedral. They are, for the most part, ebullitions of the Dean's rancour against the Scots, but occasionally other persons aud subjects come in for a dash of his splenetic pen. The following may serve as specimens of the whole :-On the fly-leat of the first volume he wrote : 6. The cursed, hellish villainy, treachery, treasons, of the Scots, were the chief grounds and cause of that execrable rebellion;" at pages 94 and 95 he wrote: “Scots dogs-cursed Scots for ever," and the same expressions are repeated, with or without variation, on several pages, exbibiting the poor Dean's frantic wrath in a most ludicrous manner, and giving strong indications that when they were written he was already labouring under his last fatal malady. On the words, “ People of honour in Scotland” (p. 129), he wrote: “Cursed, hellish ScotsGreedy Scotch rebellious dogs!!" On “the rule of the Scots in Ulster" (p. 245), Swift's commentary was :“Sent cursed rebel Scots, who opposed the English in that kingdom as the Irish rebels did, and were governor's of that province.” "The godly divines of the Scots," he styles “cursed fana'ics” (vol. 2, p. 91); and again (p. 134), the “ Kirk” is annotated - Hell!" “Shaftesbury" he calls " An everlasting rogue” (vol. 2, p. 262); on the marriage between parliament and the Scots” (p. 284) he writes : “ Satan was parson;" the Duke of Hamilton, he describes, as a “hellish, treacherous villain of a Scot” (p. 293); Argyle was an odious dog, and so are all his descendants” (p. 351); Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper was "a rogue all his life" (p. 332). On the printed fly-leaf of vol. 3 he wrote : " The frequent expression - upon the word of a king,'I
have always despised and detested for a thousand reasons." The Marquis of Montrose he calls “ the only honest Scot.” The Duke of York (James II.) was “a sorry admiral” (vol. iii. p. 108), and “ Popery and cowardice stuck to bim all his life” (p. 109); Crom
a cursed hell-hound” (vol. iii. p. 241), and “a cursed dog” (p. 208); Argyle again (vol. iii. p. 272),
was that perpetual inhuman dog and traitor, and all his posterity, to a man, damnable villains ;" finally, (vol. iii. p. 306), Roman Catholics and Presbyterians were “ a blessed pair,” and so on to the end ; but we have selected these expressions as sufficiently characteris:ic of the writer, while there are many others of too coarse a texture to be suited for these pages.
As a postscript, we may add, on the anthority of Alderman Baniin, of Kilkenny, who communicated the fact to us, that when the old College of Kilkenny, in which Swift was educated, was about to be removed, the materials were sold by auction, and the desks, seats, and boards of the schoolroom became the property of Mr. Barnaby Scott, a thriving shopkeeper in the city of St. Canice. On one of the desks was cut the name “ Jonathan Swist”—no doubt by Swift's own hand and pocket knife. Mr. Barnaby Scott, solicitor, the son of the purchaser of the old desks, died in 1856; but previous to that event, he told Mr. Banim that, when a boy, he distinctly remembered to have seen the incised autograph, and added that this particular board was, with others of the same purchase, used for flooring his father's shop. The house has been lately rebuilt, but the floor of the shop was not disturbed; and it is more than probable that if any gentleman of antiquarian taste will communicate, in the proper manner, to Mr. Kenny Scott, the present proprietor, this interesting relic may yet be recovered.
THE BATTLE OF MANNING FORD,
BY ROBERT D. JOYCE.
[This battle was fought in the winter of 1643, by the troops of the Kilkenny Confederation, under Lord Castlehaven, against one of the armies of Murrogh O'Brien, Earl of Inchiquin, commanded by Sir Charles Vavasour. The two armies came in sight of each other in the morning, and marched side by side during the greater part of the day, each watching for an advantageous battle ground. At length they reached the Ford of Manning, across the Funcheon, near Glanworth. Here Sir Charles Vavasour attempted to cross the river, but was attacked by Lord Castlehaven, and his army cut to pieces, after the manner told in the ballad. Sir Charles Vavasour himself was taken prisoner, and all his principal officers either slain or captured. In this battle all the standards, save one, of the enemy, fell into the hands of the Irish forces, together with the preys of cattle, the baggage, and seven or eight hundred stand of arms.] (Carte's Ormond. MEEHAN's Confederation of Kilkenny, dc.)
I SHARPENED my sword in the morning, and buckled my basnet and jack,
Then down thro' that deep vale we clattered, and on by the hoarse-sounding rill,
We swept like the wind thro' the valley_deep quagmire and trench we defied,
Thro' the bog of Glendoran we waded, and up thro’ th3 sere forest crashed,
I rode up to the brave Castlehaven, and asked for a place in his rank,
'Twas then as we gazed down the moorland, a horseman came wild spurring in,
“ Ho! Baron of broad Castlehaven! last night in the Tower of Cloghlea,
And there, by the Bridge of Glenullin, they murdered these poor prisoners all, And the demons they laughed as they slew then-ah! well did they free them from thrallAnd now look ye sharp to the southward-on Vavazour comes with his horde, Then give him the murderer's guerdun, and pay him with bullet and sword !”
We looked to the southward, and saw them with many a creact moving on,
We answered their challenge as proudly, and threw out our skirmishers bold,
XI, Then ont spurred our brave Castlehaven, his sword flashing bright in his hand, And he cried, “ Now, my children, we've caught them, the foes of your dear native land, Brave horsemen, bear down on their rereguard-brave footmen, strike hard on their flanks, Till we give them a bed 'neath the Funcheon, or a grave cold and red by its banks!”
Oh! then came the clanking of harness, and the roar of the onset full soon,
As the frost-loosened crags thunder downward, thro' the wild woods of steep Gaultymore,
And there 'twas all shouting and swearing, and the clanging of hard stroke on stroke,
There's a flat on the far side of Manning, with grey cliffs and wood every side, 'Tis there in the blood of the foemen our pikes and our sabres we dyed ; 'Tis there you'd have heard the loud clangour, as the steel went thro' corslet and breast, As we slew them, and slew till the sunset glared red o'er the bills of the west.
Fierce Vavasour rode by his standard, and stoutly he stood to the charge,
And the remnant that 'scaped from the slaughter, we chased over valley and wood,
And soon o'er the red Ford of Manning we kiudled our campfires full bright,
The Monastery of Donegal. On the evening of the 16th of August, 1617, two Irish Franciscans were seated in the library of the house which they occupied at Louvain as a temporary domicile for themselves and community, pending the erection of the convent of St. Antony, the first stone of which had been laid a few months before by Albert and Isabella, joint sovereigns of the Netherlands. These two friars, Fathers Purcell and Mooney, were both advanced in
but the latter, though considerably older than his companion, was still hale and vigorous, notwithstanding the austerities of cloister life and the hardships of his early career, for in youth he had been a soldier, and served in the army of the great Earl of Desmond till the power of that once mighty palatine was utterly destroyed. Tired of camp life, and hoping to pass the remainder of his days in the calm seclusion of a convent, he ultimately took the habit of St. Francis, and after due probation and a brief course of studies, was ordained priest, and advanced to various offices in the venerable
monastery of Donegal, where he resided till the year 1601. Father Purcell, unlike his colleague, Mooney, took the habit of St. Francis when he was a mere stripling, and proceeding to Rome, passed the greater part of his life in that city, where his learning, and, above all, his profound knowledge of the classics, placed him on a level with the most erudite of his day. Returning to Ireland, he resided for some time in the convent of St. Francis at Kilkenny, till at length the combined forces of O'Neill and O'Donnell were routed at Kinsale, and he, like most of his brethren, had to fly for shelter and protection to Louvain, where the Irish Franciscans met cordial welcome from Albert and Isabella. Indeed so solicitous were the Archdukes (the title by which the joint sovereigns were designated, without distinction of sex) for the comfort and advancement of the Irish Franciscans, that they not only assisted in person and with great pomp at the laying of the first stone of the Irish monastery at Louvain, but also bestowed considerable endowments upon it, in order that it might serve as a sanctuary for the persecuted Irish, and a seminary for the training of future missionaries.