Sidor som bilder

Researches, with remarkable minuteness and more than bis usnal accuracy, is now deposited in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy; and the reader may be induced to pay a visit to that national repertory of curious and valuable antiquities, in order to see this ancient victoryensuring reliquary of the O'Donnells, by the following history and description of it.

It consists of an elaborately-ornamented box, in which is enclosed a copy of the Psalter of David in Latin, believed to have been written by the hand of St. Columbkille, the relative and patron saint of the O'Donnells, and the very MS. about which he and St. Finian of Clonard had such a terrific quarrel, so graphically described in the Life of St. Columbkille, compiled by Manus O'Donnell, (Prince of Tirconell) in the year 1520. (See Recves's " Adamnan," preface, pp. xxxiv., xxxv.)

This consecrated reliquary was considered by the Kinel-Connell (the great tribal name of the O'Donnells and their correlatives) as a sort of spiritual talisman, which would procure victory for the forces of O'Donnell, if carried round the army thrice, by a coarb or a priest free from mortal sin. The custody of it was committed to the head of the family of Mac Roarty, of Ballymagroarty, near the town of Donegal, and it was always carried to the battle-field along with the banner of Tirconnell. It was taken from the O'Donnells in 1497, by MacDermott, chief of Moylurg, but again recovered in 1499, when MacDermott was obliged to submit to O'Donnell, to pay tribute, and to restore the Tir Connell prisoners, as well as the Caah. It was afterwards carefully preserved by the O'Donnells, as they are warned to do by a passage in the book of Fenagh, in which St. Callin is represented as “admonishing the sept of Conall Gulban, which is the O'Donnells, to look well to the Caagh, that it should not come to the hands of Englishmen, which yf it did, it should be to the overthrowe and confusion of the sept of Conall Gulban, and to the great honnor of the English.”

Of this relic of antiquity, the following description is condensed from the work of Sir William Betham :

It is a brass box, nine inches and a half long, eight inches broad, and two inches thick. The top, which consists of a plate of silver richly gilt and chased, is rivetted to one of brass. It is divided into three compartments, or rather arches, supported and separated by clustered columns. In the centre is a sitting figure of St. Columba, with his hair flowing over his shoulders, holding up his right hand, of which the third and fourth fingers are bent down ; in his left he holds a book. The arms of the chair on which he sits are curiously ornamented with eagles' heads. In the right compartment is the figure of a bishop in full pontificals, with his mitre, holding up his right hand, having the third and fourth fingers folded, and grasping a crozier with his left hand.

In the third compartment is a representation of the Passion, with a glory round the head of the Savionr, and the two Marys, one on each side of the cross. Over the arms of the cross are engraved two birds, apparently doves; these figures are chased in relief. Over

the right arch is a figure, also chased, of an angel throwing up a censer, under which is engraved the figure of a priest, holding something like a basket, and above is a grotesque figure resembling what is called a wyvern in heraldry. Over the left arch is a similar figure of an angel with a censer, above which is a figure like a wyvern, but with a human face, and below a griffin. Round the whole box is a chased border, of about three quarters of an inch wide, on the top and bottom of which are grotesque figures of wyverns or cockatrices, and lions; and on the sides oak-leaves and acorns: in each of the corners is a setting of rock crystal: in the centre, at the top, over that part which may be called the tabernacle, is a crystal setting, surrounded by ten gems, a pearl, three small shells, a sapphire, and amethysts, all in the rough. Aflixed to the right side of the box, at the top, is a silver censer, suspended to a curious flexible chain. On the censer is an inscription in Gothic characters, but not now legible. It is probable that the silver plate just described, is more modern than the sides and other parts of the box, to which it is also much inferior in point of workmanship; the brass plate to which it was rivetted, is perforated with many holes, in regular shapes, as if some ornaments had been originally fastened to it, but which have no use whatever with reference to the present plate. The bottom of the Caah is of brass, plated with silver, and round the rim or outer plate is an inscription in the Irish character, of which the following is a literal translation : “ Pray for Caffar O'Donnell, for whom this bor was made, and for Sitric, son of MacAedha, [MacHugh) who made it, and for Donnell Magroarty, Coarb of Kells, with whom [i.e. at whose house] it was made." (See Reeves's “ Adamnan,” p. 319.)

The sides and ends of the box are of brass, and consist of eighteen pieces, and four connecting plates, joined together like hinges. On the front, in the centre, is affixed a semicircular piece of silver workmanship, divided into four compartments by three pillars ornamented with silver wire, all richly gilt, and which was apparently intended to represent a shrine, or perhaps the Tabernaculum where the priest deposits the Host on the altar. At the bottom is a silver plate, on which is engraved in Irish letters, richly gilt, I H S. On the right of the Tabernaculum are four, and on the left six oblong compartments, divided in pairs, one above the other, and surrounded by silver borders; the centre, being richly inlaid with pure gold, and chased. The back is also divided into fourteen similar compartments; the ten interior were also richly inlaid with gold, and chased; the gold inlaying of two is gone, and in four others much injured; the four outer compartments were plated with silver, and chased in leaves and flowers. Between each pair of compartments are three silver round-headed rivets. The two end plates have been richly enamelled, on which is a silver serpentine pattern; very little of the enamel now remains. At each of the four corners is a hollow pillar, by which the top of the box was fixed to the body with four thick pins, with silver heads, which were so contrived as to be moveable



open at the

at pleasure, so as to allow the top to be taken off, in that on the side of Niall Garve and the English fell order to get access to the MS.; different in this respect Con Oge, son of Con, the brother of Niall Garve, from all other boxes. This box has evidently been and many others. Con Oge was not more than frequently repaired.

twenty-eight years of age at this time. The name of Brigadier O'Donnell had, in 1723, a silver case made his wife has not been handed down by our genealogists, to preserve this box, and placed round

but we learn from a pedigree in the possession of Maxtop and bottom, so as to show them, but which totally imilian, Count O'Donnell, of Tirconnell, at Vienna, hid the sides. On this case he caused to be engraved attested in May, 1767, by some of the highest dignithe following inscription :-Jacobo 3o, M.B. Rege taries of the nobility, and of the Roman Catholic erulante, Daniel O'Donel in Christianiss. Imp. pra- Church in Ireland, that he had one legitimate sontectus rei bellicæ hujusce hareditarii sancti Columbani Manus O'Donnell-who married Maria, daughter of pignoris, vulgo Caah dicti, tegmen argenteum, vetustate Dowell Campbel, (of the family of the Duke of Argyle, consumptum, restaurarit anno salutis, 1723.”

of Scotland) by whom he had one son, Calvagh Roe. This hereditary pledge of St. Columbkille was always This Manns might have lived till 1675, but he does not considered by the O'Donnells as containing reliques of appear to be the Manus appointed by Balldearg as next the great patron saint of their race and principality. in remainder after his own immediate family. After its being repaired by Brigadier O'Donnell, it was The name of this Calvagh Roe has been inserted in

its of friendly to Irish exiles, as well from community of re nells, in the handwriting of Charles O'Conor, of Belanligion in modern times, as from its inhabitants having agare ; there is an Irish poem addressed to him by been anciently so much indebted to Ireland for their Geoffry Oge MacWard, in which he is called Calvagh conversion to Christianity,—and the Brigadier directed Roe, son of Magnus, son of Con Oge, son of Calvagh. by his will, that this old family memorial should be there is also extant another poem addressed to him on given to whoever could prove himself to be the head of his marriage with Eleanor, daughter of Walter Mac the O'Donnells. The Caah was discovered in that Sweeney, in which the bard asserts that he was the monastery in our own times, and the purport of the great liberator of Erin, foretold by Finn and St. Kieran, Brigadier's will also ascertained by the late abbot of and that it was expected he would re-establish the anCong, in the county of Mayo, who, on his return to cient splendour of the palaces of Emania, Ailech, and Ireland, acquainting the late Sir Neal O'Donnell, of Tara, which then invited him, as they had invited Newport, of the circumstances, Sir Neal, believing him- ('on and Conary of yore. This Calvagh Roe is called self to be “the O'Donnell,” as being a baronet, applied 56 colonel” in the Austrian pedigree, and it is very profor and obtained the Caah. For more information on bable that he held this rank in the king's army during the history of this reliquary, the reader is referred to the Parliamentary wars, but no authentic document has Adamnan's “ Vita Columbæ,” edited by the Rev. Dr. yet been discovered to prove that he was a colonel

. Reeves, pp. 319, 233, 249, 284, 320, 329, 463; also He was the first of the O'Donnells who settled in the O'Callaghan's “Irish Brigades," vol. i. pp. 223, 231, county of Mayo. He had one son, Hugh O'Donnell

, 401, 402.

who married Margaret O'Neill, daughter of Colonel We have not been able to identify any other indi- Terence O'Neill, of Oldcastle, in the county of Mayo, vidual of the race of the Irish Achilles of the sixteenth who had been transplanted thither by Cromwell

, century-Hugh, son of Hugh Duff O'Donnell—who from the territory of the Fewes, in the county of cut any figure in history, either at home or abroad ; Armagh. and believe that they are all either extinct or unknown. This Hugh had by his wife Margaret O'Neill, an We shall therefore return to the representative of the only son, Charles O'Donnell, commonly called Calvagh race of Con, son of Calvagh, son of Hugh Duff, chief Duff, i.e. Charles the blackhaired. On the forfeiture of Tirconnell, who died in the


of the O'Neill property of Bellahough, alias Oldcastle, As already remarked, Con O'Donnell, who died in in 1703, he became a lessee under the Ecclesiastical 1583, had several sons, who all died without issue, ex- Court of Tuam, (the only kind of tenure which the new cept three, namely, Sir Niall Garve, Hugh Boy, and laws left open to the Catholic) of some church lands in Con Oge; Sir Richard O'Donnell, of Newport, is the the barony of Murrisk, and was pretty affluent during senior representative of Niall Garve; the O'Donnells of his whole life, but looked up to by his neighbours Larkfield and Greyfield are the descendants of Hugh more on account of his descent than of his property. Boy. We have now to treat of the race of Con In the priest's-letter in defence of Hugh Balldearg Oge, who are by far the most illustrious of the O'Donnell, already given (p. 53, supra) we are told O'Donnells.

that “ notwithstanding the great sufferings of the native This Con Oge joined Sir Niall Garve and the English to Irish families, from the domineering powers, many of crush the famous Red Hugh, and was killed at the battle the chiefs or beads of clans had wonderfully preserved of the Monastery of Donegal, on the 29th of September, and kept up their credit and reputation among their 1601. Docwra informs us that “ Sir Neale Garve had followers and dependants, to that degree that they were many of his men slain at this siege, and amongst the rest treated by them with all the love and duty, deference a brother of his owne." And the Four Masters record and respect formerly paid to their more rich and power

pondence which he strove fruitlos-ly to have with them. He states that while his uncle in Spain was alive, le used to write punctually to his brother in that coin'ry [Austria), who was also dead ; that while these were living, he got now a :d then from the correspondence between them information about everything concerning his relatives in Ireland ; but that since the decease of his uncle in Austria he had the discomfort of hearing no more about them. He then goes on to state that it was from that uncle he had in Spain, that he knew of his brother Joseph's returning to Ireland, from the Spanish service wherein he was, of his marriage in Ireland, of his going to Santa Cruz, and finally of his dying there. He adds that he feels very deeply for all the troubles which oppressed that poor brother, and sympathizes with the afflictions of bis sister-in-law.

Ile then comes to the main suhject of his letter, and about which his sister-in-law had written to him, namely, the removal from Ireland of her son Joseph, his n phew.

The remainder of this letter is so curious and so important to the history of the Castlebar branch of the family, and so characteristic of the Irish in foreign serv.ce at this period, that we are tempted to give it in his own words and spelling.

ful ancestors ; so constant and sincere are these old natives in their friendships and professions, and so just and grateful to benefactors, as to be extraordinarily careful and zealous to infuse and transmit their grateful feelings into all their children and relations ; from all which, it may be easily inferred what they had been, what they have lost, and what their present condition is."

This was exactly the case with Hugh O'Donnell, who although he was but a tenant of church lands, under the Archbishop of Tuam, was nevertheless looked upon by his followers and Irish neighbours, as if he held his share of Tirconnell in gavelkind, according to his place in the pedigree. He married Mary, eldest daughter of Colonel Manus O'Donnell, of Newport, by whom he had three sons : 1, Manus, the ancestor of the O'Donels of Castlebar ; 2, Joseph, from whom the O'Donells of Spain are descended 3, Henry, the founder of the O'Donells of Austria. Manus, the eldest of these sons, was born in the year 1720, and married in 1750, Eleanor, daughter of — Bole, Esq., of the county of Longford, by whom he had issue three sons and two daughters : 1, Joseph, from whom are the O'Donels of Castlebar; 2, Hugh, who went to Spain, whence he returned to Ireland, and afterwards settled at Vera Cruz, where he was living in 1798, but died in that year; and 3, Charles, who was born in 1760, and went out while a boy, to his uncle Henry, in Germany, and entered the Austrian service, in which he rose to the dignity of Count, and military rank of Majorgeneral. In 1798 the widow of his brother Joseph, being desirous of removing her son, the late Mr. Joseph O'Donel, of Castlebar, from Ireland, which was then in a state of insurrection, wrote to Germany to this Charles, on the propriety of sending him abroad. His reply is still extant in his own handwriting, and bas been examined and copied by the writer of this paper. It is dated at Vienna, 1st of December, 1798, and directed to “Madame Marie O'Donel, à Dublin ou Castlebarre, en Irelande ; "and though written in English, the idiom is evidently foreign, the writer of it remarking at the end that he had “ very much [difficulty] to write it, having almost entirely forgotten the English tongue." Were it not for the existence of this letter, it would be now difficult to prove the exact relationship between the three families of the race of Con Oge, now extant, because the Austrian pedigree omits Manus, the father of General Count Charles O'Donnell, the writer of this letter. Why this omission was made, we cannot at this distance of time even conjecture; and therefore we consider this letter of the highest importance. He tells his sister-in-law that he had been a commander of a free corps in Bavaria, but that his Majesty the emperor having thought proper to remodel the free corps in his army, he (Colonel O'Donel) has been for the last six months neither commander of a free corps, nor in Bavaria. He states that he was very glad to have at length received news from Ireland, becau-e, having quitted that country when a child, he was not able to keep up wih the relatives he bad in that country that corres

“As for your son Joseph, my nephew, I am most ready to do for him all that lies in my power. Nevertheless, the occasion to make him enter the Imperial service, at this moment, is not the best. A war of six years that we had, and was finished for some [time more than a year, filled up the army with so much supernumerary officers, that now there is but slight advancement to be got; my nephew, consequently, would have no hopes of a promotion for a good while, whatsoever could be his good qualities. As I am situated at the present, having no regiment, and only serving in the army, I could directly be of no use to him. My opinion is, therefore, my dear sister-in-law, that Joseph

uld not quit Irlande. The tranquillity being now re-est. lished in the kingdom, it will permit him to pursue some profession, and if he applies himself to it, he will certainly make more fortune there than by sokliership. Yet should a war begin, which our political position makes probable, and that my nephew would persiste to become a soldier, supposing that he is endowed with the strong constitution necessary in military state, I will charge myself of him with great pleasure, making no doubt that, if war breaks out. I will get a regiment to cominande, wherein I will be able to place him

“Having the intention to send my sister Elise five hundred florins of our money, which is 58 pounds, or there. about, and to renew to her every year, I pray you, my dear sister-in-law, to informe me on which banker in Dublin it would be the more convenient to let that money be paid. In the first letter you will write me, be so kind as to give me an exact account of my family, of which I have got no account since a too long a while. When did my poor mother die? Though I was a child as I seperated from her, I remember me of her with tenderness. What a misfortune it is to be in the necessity to quit one's own country, and to be exposed to the discomfort to never see no more the dear and respectable persons to whom we are beholden of our existence. My father's decease happened some years after my going abroad. You would please me highly by giving me some accounts of my brother Hugo, established in Sancta Cruse, and in informing me of the manner I should direct to him, that I might hope to get an answer from him. I often endeavoured to put myself in corres

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The English Tongue. At this period the better classes of the Irish all spoke and wrote English, and were also able to speak Irish, but very few of them could write it. There is an anecdote connected with the reception of this young cadet by his uncle in Austria, which is strongly illustrative of the spirit of nationality cherished by the exiled Irish at this period. It has been preserved by the late Dr. O'Donnell, Bishop of Galway, and his friend, the late James Hardiman, author of the "History of Galway," who had it from an Irish clergyman, who had lived many years on the Con



"At the time he went to join his uncle, the latter was General of Division in the Austrian army, then somewhere on the French frontier. Young O'Donnell arrived, and slept at a convent in the neighbourhood, where there were some Irish priests. On the following morning he started for the Austrian camp, but to the surprise of the friars, who knew the object of his journey, he returned to them in the evening, in a very disconsolate humour. 'Did you see your uncle?' inquired his friends. 'Yes.' 'Well, what reception did he give you? Cold enough; he refused to acknowledge me.' Why?' 'I don't know, unless it was because I spoke English to him.' How was that? come, tell us all about it. "When I was introduced into his tent, he embraced me warmly, and spoke most kindly to me, and inquired about home, and my journey, and how I'd like to be a soldier. But when I spoke to him in return, his manner began to change; and after a little, he said there must be some mistake; that I could be no nephew of his; to return here, and he'd find means of sending me back to Ireland.' What language did he address you in?' He spoke in Irish.' 'And you?' 'I answered him in English.' 'Don't you speak Irish, then?' To be sure I do, better than English; but though he spoke Irish, I thought he'd understand the other better.' Oh, you foolish boy; go back, speak nothing but Irish, and he'll soon discover his mistake. The advice was good. The youngster stayed in Germany."


"If Siegenthal don't come, I have a fair chance of being made colonel; but it all depends upon chance, which L with Christian patience and resignation, wait for. Our regiment makes part of a corps, sent under Lieutenantgeneral Srolich, to re-establish order in this country, and to scour the pope's dominions; but Rome, Ancona, and Civita Vecchia, are still in the hands of the French; yet we hope they will soon surrender. You know by this, that Suwarrow is gone, with all his Russians, to Switzerland; and Melas, I fear, is not strong enough to act offensively here. I hope the English diversion will be of great use to us. In London there has been one hundred guineas to five bet, that we shall have a general peace this winter. I am not of that opinion. I and all those who were at the siege of Mantua, have been attacked with violent agues. We lost a good many men by its consequences. I am only now recovering, and have my four servants confined to their beds with it. Farewell, my dear cousin, believe me most sincerely, "Your affectionate kinsman and humble servant, O'FERRAL.


"Endorsed, "Reçu le 18 Xbre."

Joseph O'Donel, the eldest brother of this Count Charles, was born in the year 1751. As soon as he was of sufficient age to enter the army, he went out to Spain, to his uncle Joseph, then a distinguished officer in the service of Charles III. In 1776, he had attained the rank of Captain, when the fatal termination to a duel, in which he was a principal, involved him in such troubles as to make it necessary for him to quit Spain. To this, his brother Count Charles O'Donel refers in his letter already quoted, in which he writes: "It was by that uncle I had in Spain that I knew of my brother Joseph's returning to Ireland, from the Spanish service wherein he was; of his marriage in Ireland; of his going to Santa Cruz; finally, of his dying there."

He returned to Ireland towards the end of the year 1776. In 1779, he married Mary, daughter of Do ninic Mac Donnell, Esq. of Massbrook, in the county of Mayo, (she died in 1831). In 1781 he sailed for the West Indies, to join his brother Hugh, at Vera Cruz, from which he wrote a most affectionate letter, still preserved, to his young wife at Castlebar, and where he died soon after from the effects of climate. He left behind him in Ireland an infant son, the Joseph already referred to in the letter of his uncle. This Joseph was born in the year 1780, and when he was about nineteen years of age, arrangements were made with his uncle General Count Charles O'Donel, that he should enter the Austrian service under him; but it was not till 1803 that he started for Germany; but on reaching Hamburg, on his way to his uncle, he was detained for several months a prisoner. He was at length, together with several other British subjects, sent back to England. Shortly after his return, General Count O'Donel was mort lly wounded in the campaign of October 1805, and died of his wounds on the 16th of October in that year, which put an end to any further views of his entering the Austrian service.

The death of General Count O'Donel was announced to Joseph's mother by Ambrose O'Ferrall, Esq. of Ballina, first in a letter dated 27th of August 1806, and in another dated 4th of September, in the sme

year, in the latter of which he says: "I have to inform you that your brother-in-law died intestate, and that his next heir should write to his Excellency Count O'Donel, [Minister of Finance to Francis I.] who will be able to let him know the situation of his affairs, and the value of the effects he left, which, as he was equipped as a general of campaign, cannot be inconsiderable.

Ou the 8th of October, the same year, Mr. O'Ferrall transmitted to his mother the annexed form of power of attorney, in the German language, desiring her to get it translated into English, aud to conform to the instructions at the foot of it.

It should be premised that General Count O'Donel died unmarried and without issue, and that his heirs were his two sisters and his nephew, and that the last was also heir to his title, according to the law of Germany.

The following is a literal translation of this document :

"For the well-born Herr Joseph Von Skeyde, chief war agent in Vienna, by which the same in best form of law, is hereby empowered by us, the declared legitimate heirs-atlaw of our Herr brother and respected uncle, Herr Majorgeneral Charles Count O'Donel, deceased, from wounds on the 16th October, 1805, to deliver in name and lieu of us, the declaration of inheritance to the inheritance left by the said Charles Count O'Donel, cum beneficio legis et inventaris, before a worshipful judicio delegato militari mixto in Austria, or where else it may be requisite to transact all oral as well as written business, to take up the inheritance, to acquit the same, to give our reversales, and to take measures for all that it would be incumbent on ourselves to do: which things we not only do and promise to indemnify him, the said Herr, chief war agent, but also impart to him the further power that in case of prevention; and if he in this case for any reason be unable to take upon himself these things, that he be authorized to substitute in lieu of himself any other lawyer he please.

"Further to testify this deed, we have signed this with our hands, and made the impressions of our armorial seals: "NN Sisters of Intestate. "NN (Seal.) Joseph Count O'Donel, the Nephew of Intestate; or instead thereof, if requisite:


"N N., legally declared Guardian of the Minor.


The attestation ran as follows :—

"Notum facimus atque testamur tenore presentium, hoc mandatum procuratorium ab hæredibus legitimis defuncti Caesareo Regii Generalis vigiliarum præfecti Domini Comitis Caroli O'Donel coram nobis personaliter constitutis, nempe ejusdem sororibus atque nepote ex fratre Domino Josepho Comite O'Donel (vel tutori Domini Comitis Josephi O'Donel) manu sigilloque propriis munitum fuisse. "Datum, &c."

This Joseph O'Donel, however, though he afterwards became a solicitor in Ireland, never took the trouble to get this German document translated, nor did he ever use his title or recover his uncle's property, which he was told was considerable. His imprisonment in Germany in 1803, created in his mind such a distaste for German titles and negociations as he was never able to remove; and his business at home as a solicitor was so


extensive, that it so engrossed his attention as to prevent him from bestowing a thought on his Austrian title or inheritance. He was very popular in his native county for his public spirit, manly deportment, and strict probity; and it may be safely added that he was as hospitable a man as appeared of the KinelConnell, since the time of Turlough "of the wine." He married Margaret, daughter of Randal MacDonnell, Esq. of Ballycastle, in the county of Mayo, and dying in August 1834, aged fifty-four years, was buried. in the family vault at Straid Abbey. He left one daughter Mary, who died unmarried in 1843, and three sons, the eldest of whom, Manus O'Donel, became a solicitor, and had extensive business at Castlebar for about twenty years. He was a gentleman of illibata fides, universally beloved by his friends, and admired by his enemies. He died unmarried on the 28th of January 1857, in the 45th year of his age. The writer has to boast of having been one of his friends, and may here be permitted to remark that if all the chiefs of the race of Connell Gulban had possessed his noble qualities, Tirconnell, and Ireland generally, must have sustained a great loss in their decadence and exile. His next brother Charles O'Donel, Esq. barrister-at-law, now inherits the family property, and is the representative and undoubted heir of General Count Charles O'Donel, who was slain in 1805. Lewis, the youngest brother, married Miss Kearney of Castlebar, by whom he has two sons, 1. Manus Lewis, born 5th Decr. 1858, and 2. Charles Maximilian, born 7th April 1860.


THERE is assuredly a poetic and picturesque, as well as a religious and philosophic, point of view, from which popular superstitions may be regarded; and however silly and objectionable they may be under the latter aspect, they are often, unquestionably, under the former, excecdingly curious and interesting. With either the philosophic or the religious view of the subject, we have nothing to do here. These strange popular phantasies exist, involving a thousand modifications of supposed intercourse between the visible and the invisible worlds, or of agencies which natural principles will not explain; but our business at present is neither to trace them to their origin, nor to lament over the ignorance and credulity which has adopted or continues to adopt them.

Of all superstitions, apparently, the most wide-spread was that of fascination or bewitchment, by means of which, if we are to credit some pagan and even Christian writers, death has been inflicted in innumerable instances, either suddenly, or by some slow, consuming malady. There were various means by which, as it was supposed, this could be effected, but they may be reduced to four heads: first, by breathing; as Plutarch

*The Evil Eye, or the Black Spectre A Romance, by WILLIAM CARLETON; illustrated with Engravings from Drawings by E. Fitzpatrick, Esq. Dublin, JAMES DUFFY, 7, Wellington-quay, and 22, Paternoster Row, London.

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