Sidor som bilder


door, being never permitted to remain in the middle. conquered, but the people of the highland country When the mass is over, the women must all have de- still presented an undaunted front to the Mohammedan parted before any of the men dare go forth.

This ac

invaders. In the time of the Caliph Moawiyah, about count we have from Abraham Ecchellensis, but there the middle of the seventh century, the people of Libanus, can be no doubt that it remains correct to the present finding that no military assistance could be obtained day, oriental people being very tenacious of their ancient from their sovereign the Eastern Emperor, provided for

their own defence, and elected a chieftain, under whose Pope Gregory XIII. granted a college at Rome to command they gained many advantages over the Sarathe Maronites, for the education of their ecclesiastical cens, and not only repelled attack, but made predatory students, and great facilities have thus been afforded for

incursions into the enemy's territory. Their success ensuring correctness and uniformity in the liturgical however was not pleasing to the Imperial Government, books which had previously existed only in manuscript. which was so far from approving of those volunteers, When Clement VIII. sent Father Dandini to the that it designatod them Rebels, and hence the Maronites Maronites in Syria, one especial object of his mission were long afterwards known by the appellation of was to make proper regulations as to the students who Mardaites, derived from a Syriac word which means to were to be sent to Rome for instruction in that college. resist lawful authority. They had even reduced the The Pontifical government defrays the whole expenses neighbouring Saracens to become tributary to the of that establishment; the students are not only taught Eastern Emperor, when Justinian II. sent an army but maintained gratuitously till they are sent back to into Libanus, and compelled twelve thousand of their own country; and a number of learned men who these Mardaites to remove into the provinces of have been thus educated, attest the excellence of the Cilicia and Armenia. The Maronites, together with system. Among these may be mentioned Joseph Simon the other inhabitants of Libanus, succeeded in always Assemani, who in the year 1715 was sent by Pope Cle- preserving a considerable degree of independenco ment XI. into Egypt and Syria to explore the monastic under their own princes or Emirs. They maintained libraries in search of ancient Christian MSS. The Biblio- this advantage of their position under the Eastern theca Orientalis Clementina Vaticana, in four volumes Emperors, and afterwards under the Sultans of folio, which he published at Rome in 1719-28, contains Egypt; nor was it until near the end of the sixteenth but a part of his extensive labours, and is highly com- century that they, as well as their heathen neighbours, mended by the learned. It has commanded the praise the Druses, were so far subjugated as to become tribuof even the unbelieving Gibbon, and like many other tary to the Turks. Both the Christian and Drnse ingreat monuments of literature, was printed at the sole habitants of Libanus still remained under their own cost of the papal government, which, moderate as its princes with suzereign authority, and never were subresources were, always managed to devote them to the ject immediately to the Turkish Sultan. From the service of learning and religion, while other monarchs

earliest appearance

of the Maronites in history, to the prewere expending and exceeding their ample revenues in sent day, the Maronites have been noted for their braarmaments and aggressive wars.

His Eminence Car- very and skill in arms. The Cardinal Jacobus de Vit.. dinal Wiseman, in his learned Horae Syriacae, has riaco speaks of them as expert archers at the time of shown how important the ancient Syrian literature is the first crusade, when they must have been most usecapable of becoming in the service of theology, and he ful auxiliaries to remarks that for almost every thing published in that “The sacred armies, and the godly knight, language we are indebted to the Roman Pontiffs. The

That the great sepulchre of Christ did free.” Arabic has now for many centuries been the common “ They are a very stout and warlike people, very well language of Syria, but the Maronites retain in their

provided with bows and guns,” says the old traveller, divine service that ancient Syriac language which was Rauwolff; and that they have not degenerated is testispoken on earth by our Lord and his Apostles, There fied by all who have visited their country, one of the is a very old and not improbable tradition that the

latest of whom is the eloquent and poetical Lamartine ; Evangelist St. Mark first wrote his gospel in Latin,

but he is far from being exact in his historical details. then in Syriac, and at last in Greek, so that all three

A strange example of incorrectness is that of the German were equally authentic and original,

lady, Frau Ida Pfeiffer, who speaks of the Maronites as But the Maronites are not more remarkable for their

if they were not yet Christians. The recent attempt constancy in the Christian faith, than they are for their

made to extirpate them evinces a most atrocious policy. strong feeling of nationality, and the valour with which

The united arins of the inhabitants of Libanus were althey have always defended themselves against invaders

ways sufficient to secure their independence; but by inand oppressors. In the early ages of Mohammedanism,

stigating one party against the other, by hounding on when the Saracens were rapidly extending their con- the Drases to the slaughter of the Christians, the Turks quests in the East, the first effectual resistance that they would have attained a long-desired object, and have beencountered was from the inhabitants of the mountain

come more completely masters of the country than they region of Libanus. The greater part of Syria had been ever had been before, and that withont encountering the quickly over-run. Damascus, Hems, the Holy City of risks and chances of undisguised warfare. Jerusalem, Antioch, and Aleppo had successively been

A SCHOUL HISTORY OF IRELAND.* It is universally admitted that no department of profane history should be dearer or more useful to a man, than that which treats of the land that gave him birth; and we may add, that no one deserves to be called educated, as long as he remains ignorant of the general history of the country from which he derives his origin, nurture, nay, and all that he has of good. A knowledge of Greek and Roman history has at all times been deemed indispensable for any one desiring to be ranked among the well-instructed classes; but while we allmit the great value of such lore, we will insist that a familiarity with one's own native history is paramount. In the absence, however, of a School History of Ireland, it was almost impossible for those who are charged with the education of youth, to impart that knowledge, without which a man may be said to be an alien in his own land; unconscious of its bygone glories and vicissitudes, and deprived of those sources of grand inspirations with which almost every page of our chequered annals abounds. Spenser has justly stigmatized ignorance of one's native country as brutish;nor do we think that any one can censure him for his choice of such an unenviable predicate. Surely it is “brutish” to pass through life with no other knowledge than that which the present supplies, heedless of the great events which preceded us, and untaught by the example of those—the great and renowned in their generation-whose virtues, genius, and valour still flame in the dim past like so many constellations.

We are well aware that no class of men lamented the absence of such a work as this, more than did the superiors of schools, who have been obliged to eliminate the study of Irish history from the course, simply because they had no book which could have enabled them to make it easy and a greeable to the teacher and the pupil. Happily, however, the want no longer exists, and we feel assured that Mr. Haverty's work will be the means of introducing a new element into the curriculum of every college and school in Ireland. The results will be highly beneticial to both literary teachers and their pupils ; for we need hardly remind the former, that some of our most celebrated men, of all creeds, are devoting their best energies to the diffusion of Irish history; and as for the latter, be their calling what it may, we can as. sure them that the time has come, when polite society will set little value on their general acquirements, if they do not comprise a thorough knowledge of their native history,

What country is there that can lay claim to a history like ours, so intensely interesting, and so replete with wonderful episodes ? Assuredly no other people ever devoted so much attention to the preservation of their antient records and genealogies; and it is beyond doubt, that our native chronologers have bequeathed to us a series of annals, of which any other nation might be justly proud. The industry and love of fatherland exhibited, in almost every age, by Irishmen, who, at home and abroad, have devoted themselves to the investigation of our historical resources, might be instanced as a proof of this. But irrespective of sich a reflection, the painstaking and earnest fidelity with which those treasures have been transmitted to our times, should persuade us that it is a shame, nay a disgrace, to be ignorant of the all-important facts which they evolve. Pitiful, indeed, is the condition of an Irishman who, standing in the presence of the cromlechs and sepulchral mounds, with which the fields and hill-sides of bis country abound, can form no definite idea of the purposes for which those monuments of the pre-Christian period were erected ! Surely no Irishman can say that he is thoroughly educated as long as he is ignorant of the social condition of his forefathers, anterior to the jutroduction of Christianity, and of the events which succeeded that great revolution in religion, arts, and literature. 'Tis little less than “ brutish," to wander among the memorials of the past, unconscious of the associations identitied with them; and if this be true in respect of

A School History of Ireland, Ancient and Modern, for the l'se of Schools and Colleges, With Questions for Examination, fc. By MARTIN HAVERTY, Esq. Dublin: Jams Duffy, and Paternoster Rew, London,

merely pagan remains, what are we to think of a system of education which has hitherto left our youth entirely ignorant of the men who raised those splendid Christian temples and monasteries, whose ruins strew our island from end to end? We have no hesitation in pronouncing such a system highly defective, so much so, indeed, that no amount of ordinary school acquirements can compensate for its shortcomings. If the literary teacher be really anxious to elevate an Irish boy's intellect, it is his duty to make him conversant with every battle-field in the country, till he is able to realise to his own mind the men who fought and fell on those menor. able scenes, the ambition that impelled, and the hopes that nerved their arms. The round-tower, rath, sculptured crosses, anchorets' cells and those battlemented piles-strong even in their decay-so numerous in this island of ours, are adamantine witnesses of an early civilization, with whose history a well-educated Irish boy should be familiar; and we have no difficulty in affirming that it is the duty of the teacher to see that his pupil be not one day compelled to resort to some superficial guide-book, for that information which should have been imparted to him with the same care that is usually bestowed on what relates to Greek and Roman antiquities. Let the ladds who leave our educational estab. lishments come back to us with minds richly stored with all that is remarkable and noteworthy in our history, ancient and modern-let them be familiar with the memories and deeds of the men who, in times past, as well as in those nearer our own, impressed the ages in which they lived, and then indeed the mighty moral of history shall not have been hidden from them ; nor shall they be deprived of advantages which lessons so great and grand are calculated to impart.

At no former period was learning of this sort so absolutely necessary, and we need only point to what is being done, just now, for the dissemination of Irish history, in order to stimulate the zeal of those to whom Irish boys are entrusted, and to impress on them the paramount duty of making their pupils intimately familiar with a department of literature hitherto overlooked or disregarded. The learned societies springing up in every province, the researches of O'Donovan, Curry, Todd, Reeves, Petrie, Wilde, Gilbert, and other eminent men who have devoted themselves to investigating our native records, are so many arguments which should have due weight with those who undertake the educating of our youth; and they may be certain that society will think very little of their fitness for such a responsibility, if the present generation of their scholars does not excel their predecessors in larger knowle Ige of all that pertains to Irish History.

Mr. Haverty's work has removed a reproach from us, and placed our educational establishments in possession of a manual which will facilitate the duty of the teacher and the taught, and render it a pleasing one to both. The mode which Mr. Haverty has adopted in compiling this volume from his larger work leaves nothing to be desired, either as regards the general matter or the style. Every thing that the student can desire to know of Irish History, from the earliest colonization of the island till the Act of Union, will be found in the pages of this faultless school-book, which comprises chronological tables of reigning popes and other sovereigns, and what we value just as much, a succinct series of questions on the subjects of the various chapters, in order to exercise the pupil's memory catechetically. Why should not this volume be included in the entrance course for our colleges at home and abroad! The pains bestowed on the work, and the amount of research which it exhibits, do honour to the latest an! best of our historiaus, and it will be no fault of his if those for whom it is intended do not leave their respective seminaries with minds truly patriotic and enriched with lore so eminently calculated to make them a credit to the land of their nativity. The few observations we have made apply chiefly to those who have devoted themselves to the education of youth, and we trust that they will estimate the spirit in which they are written. The book is admirably brought out, and at an exceedingly low price.


No. 5.




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When Patchy noticed Captain Power, who was then, as always, in the garb of a gentleman, he respectfully touched his hat to him, observing as he did it:

“ I think I see a gentleman here who's a stranger to me—I'm Patchy Baccah, sir, the setter--and now that you know me, I hope you won't keep the advantage of me.”

“ Not at all, Patchy, I have heard of you from the chief;

; you are a very valuable man, Patchy--I'm Captain Power."

“God bless my sow), sir,” replied Patchy, taking off his hat—" is it possible that the great Captain Power is one of us.”

“Yes, but only for a time, Patchy. I thought myself at the head of my profession, Patchy, and I came down here to have an interview with the Great Northern; but I soon found that clever and able as I considered myself, I had much to learn from him !"

"Well, indeed, I'm not surprised at that, sir," replied Patchy " for if ever there was a maricle at the business, he is one. He never was done but once, and that was by the Dundalk apprentice.”

“How was that?" asked Power,

“Why sir, there was a merchant in Dundalk who had a draft on another in Newry for the sum of two hundred pounds. Such was his terror, howandever, of the Captain, that he was afeard either to go for the money himself, or to send for it by another. In this state of mind he was one day consultin' wid his wife as to what was best to be done in the matter, when his apprentice-a lad about sixteen-happened to overhear them. He offered to go for the cash, and said, he would let them cut the ears off his head if he did not bring it kome safe to them. Now, both the merchant and his wife knew he was a smart chap, and always had his wits about him, so after another consultation, they agreed to let him make the trial, and accordingly gave him the draft. Well, sir, the first thing he did was to saddle an ould entire horse, so lame wid the spavy, that he could hardly go a mile an hour; an', what was worse than all, the brute, from sheer viciousness and a hellfire temper, would suffer neither horse nor man to come near him on the road—the 'prentice himself bein' the only person he would allow to handle or mount him. Well and good; the lad got two pounds changed into halfpence, which he tied in a bag-one half in

each end, wid a string about the middle, and havin' mounted his horse, he went on his way towards Newry; when, as it happened, on comin' to a lonely part of the road, who comes up wid him but the Captain. The chap seemed very innocent, and soon tould him the whole story of the money; and how he was to bring it back the next day. The Captain said it was wrong of him to mention the circumstance to any one, for 'fraid he might be robbed ; and on partin' gave him a guinea to drink his health, and hire another horse if he wished.

"When do you expect to be back, my lad,' he asked.

666 About this time to-morrow, sir,' replied the boy ; and bedad I wish I had you along wid me all the way, for then I'd have no fear of bein' robbed of it.'

“All right so far; the lad got to Newry, where he remained that night; and the next mornin', havin' got the cash in bank-notes, he sewed them up in the linin' of his waistcoat, and set out on his return home. Well, to make a long story short, he had just come to the same lonesome part of the road where he met the gentleman the day before, and, sure enough, there he met him again, “« Well, my good boy,' said the Captain, 'did you money

?' 6 + Bedad I did so, sir,' replied the shaver, every penny.'

6. And how did you get it?' asked the gentleman.

6. Faix, in hard goold,' said the other; and here I have it, a hundred in each end o’this . bag; but I wouldn't tell that, sir, to any one but yourself, for fraid I might be aised of it—but I know by your appearance you're a gentleman, and that I needn't be afeared of you."

“Yes, but hand me the money,' said the Captain, till I see if it's all right.'

« • I know it's right,' said the boy, 'for I counted it myself; and, besides, my masther made me take an oath, before I left home, that afther I got it I wouldn't let it into anyone's hands but my own.'

“ Hand it out immediately,' said the Captain, I must have it.''

66 But, sir,' said the chap, “my masther will blame me for it, and say that I made away wid it myself.'

6 Deliver the money immediately, you young scoundrel,' says the Captain, pulling out a pistol, or I'll blow your brains out.'

66 I couldn't think of doin' sich a thing,' says the youth ; 'I promised to let him cut my ears off if I didn't bring it safe home to him, and I will, too.' “The Captain immediately rode up to him, in ordher

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to secure it, but, lo and behould you, the devilish ould “ Me!” replied Cahir, in his broken English—a cappul (horse) the lad was on turns round and threw man, by the way, in every lineament of whose face out at him and his horse, which made him keep his nature had set the stamp of thief and robber—“me, distance; and, in the manetime, the cunnin' young Patchy-fwhy now, Patchy, don't she knows dat i vagabone moved him over to the roadside, and threw never staled a baste in my life. Sure I haven't gottel the bag that contained the coppers across the hedge, no canscience about stalin' 'em-I never staled any, and a good distance into a quagmire that happened sure.” to be in the place.

“Well, if you don't stale them yourself, Cahir, you “ If you want to get it, sir,' says he, you must go know who does, so that it all comes to the same thing. for it, bekaise I tuck an oath to my masther, that I But you, Billy Pethers, in the manetime, tell us somewouldn't give it into the hands of any one ; and now thing to amuse us and pass the time.” he can't say I perjured myself.'

6. Troth, the story I'm goin' to tell,” replied Peters, “ The Captain immediately lit down off his horse, 66 is as much Cahir na Cappuls there as mine ; but hooked him to the branch of a tree, and with a good sich as it is you

shall have it." deal of time and strugglin' got through the hedge, and “ Ay do," said Cahir, “ tell her up for de gentlemin." afther that had quite as much difficulty in wadin' 66 Well, then,” proceeded Peters,

some time after through the quagmire. This ripe youth, in the mane- I got the bite from the girl that was whipped through time, unhooked the Captain's fine horse-mounted him, the town of Maryborough, for several acts of thievin’ set off at full speed, laving him two pounds' worth of she committed, and who palmed herself upon my father coppers in a bag, and a spavined ould garran, as full and me as Captain P's daughter, I became acof venom and mischief as an egg is of mate, instead of quainted wid worthy Cahir na Cappul here; and, bethe two hundred pounds he expected; and what was coorse, I wasn't long a croneen of his until I tuck a better still, robbin' the robber of his fine horse before strong fancy for horse-stealin'." his own face into the bargain. There now is the only “You wor a big tief afore you comes to me," obcase in which the Captain was ever done—but, be my served Cahir. sowl, he was done there, and in style too."

“ Well, if I was, Cahir, you soon improved me; “But did he ever recover his horse ?" asked Captain troth, I was nothing till I knew you; but no matter. Power. .

Soon afther I got rid of my doxy, it so happened that “ The horse," replied Patchy, “was put to livery in I tuck a strong fancy to a fine sorrel horse, wid a Dundalk, and advertised; but I need not tell you that bald face and a white foot, that belonged to a gentlethe Captain, for a reason that he had, never claimed man in the county of Carlow. I got into the stable him—but he wrote a letter widout a name to his one night, by means of a thing that I'm sure,” he masther, statin' that his owner made a present of him added, with a grin, none of you ever heard of—a to the young rogue, in reward for his cleverness and false key. It isn't, nor ever was, my custom to do ingenuity. He never can tell that story himself wid- a thing unfairly, so, says I, whispering to the horse, out laughin heartily, and wishin' that he had the trainin' * have you any objection to come wid me and see the of the lad."

world ?'-throth I thought it but fair and reasonable It is not to be supposed that these worthy Rapparees to put the question to him—but, at any rate, devil a sat here without the necessary requisites to keep them word he said against it. That's all right, says I, 'silence comfortable. There was a large fire, around which gives consent;', and off we went on the best of terms they disposed themselves on such temporary seats as wid each other. Well, I sowld the horse at a good they could procure, together with an ample stock of price, but the toir (pursuit) was soon up afther me, provisions, and other refreshments, such as wine, and in a short time I was lodged in Carlow jail

, wid whiskey, brandy, and malt liquor in abundance. Of

every proof strong against me, so that I saw clearly those they partook, some sparingly, some more freely, there was little else for me but to dance that pleasant but not one to excess or intoxication; for on this jig called the Hangman's Hornpipe. Not that I was necessary point their captain kept them in an excellent much troubled about that either, in regard that I was state of discipline.

once hanged* before, and escaped the noose twiist “Come, my bowld comrades," said Patchy, “let us afterwards, and all by raison of a charm I got against have a glass of comfort, and amuse ourselves as well hangin' from the same woman that gave Cahir na is we can until the Captain and the others come back. Cappul there the enchantment that enables him, wid Captain Power, here's long life, good health, and a a weeshy whisper in his ear, to tame the wildest and happy death-bed to you; and, as I said before, may wickedest horse that ever went upon four feet. Be none of ever see his own funeral ! anima

this as it may, I was very much troubled about the chiernah !"

matter, and hardly knew how to act. At last I beThis was drank, and Patchy proceeded : “ Come, thought me of Cahir here, and sent to let him know Billy Peters, or Delany, or whatsomever you

your- how I was fixed. I desired him to look at the horse, self, let us hear a little of your skill and experience. and to find me ont a mare as like him as possible, and You're nearly as great a horsestealer as Cahir na Cappul there."


* A fact.

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to try and exchange the one for the other otherwise horse, and not a mare. It was a horse I lost, and that's I had little chance, as the evidence was so clear against the animal.' me. Ah troth, Cahir my boy, it's you that wasn't «Mr. Tipstaff,' says I, “will you turn the binder long gettin' me the mare I wanted, nor in giving in- end of the beast towards his lordsbip.' structions how to have the thing done. The trial was 6. What do you mane by that, sirrah ?' said the now within a day or two of comin' on, and the stolen horse judge. was put under the care of the jailor, as is usual, till it 656 Simply to prove my innocence, my lord,' says I, should be over. When Cahir's messenger arrived, he put “turn it round, Mr. Tipstaff—there, that will do.' up at a place near the river-side, where the hostler used “ The short and the long of it was, that the animal to water the horse. He had got acquainted wid him, proved to be a mare, and not a horse at all. Such a and on this occasion asked him in to have a drink, to scene was never witnessed. Every one in the coort was which he willingly consented, lavin' the horse at the in convulsions, with the exception of my prosecutor, who door. In the manetime, the animals were exchanged had a face on him as long as to-day and to-morrow. by & comrogue of the messenger's; and when the As for the jury, you'd tie them wid tbree straws. hostler came out, after gettin' his mornin', he mounted «Gentlemen,' said the judge, addressin' them as the mare and rode her to the stable instead of the horse. well as he could speak for laughin', "you must acquit Well, very soon afterwards, in about an hour or so, the prisoner.' my trial came on, and, to tell the truth, every thing “We do, my lord,' said the foreman, we find a went against me—nothing could be clearer than the verdict of acquittal.' evidence; and the judge was goin' to charge the jury, 66 "Let him be immediately discharged, then,' said when I thought it was time to speak :

the judge. And so I was, comrades, and-here I am." 6 My lord,' says I, every man's life is precious to 6 Give Pether a glass for that,” said Patchy ; " if him-you all think me guilty, but I deny it

, and will that wasn't doin' them, I dunna what was.” prove my innocence, if you'll grant me one request.? 6 But, sare, as I tould you all, it was Cahir na Cap66 What is it?' asked the judge..

pul here that desarves the credit of that-for, what do “ It is, my lord,' says I, that the horse shall be you think he did ? Why, he painted the mare so like proluced in coort—when he is, if I don't show the the horse, that livin' eyes couldn't see the difference. whole world that I'm wrongfully charged with the crime Ah, Cahir ! Cahir! what are we all in the horse-stalin' I'm in for, why, then, hang me up as an example to all line, when compared wid you. I'm middlin' myself, and the horse-stealers in the kingdom ; and I'll go to my Shane Bernah's betther still, but neither of us could death willingly.'

hould a candle to you at the business.” " But how could the production of the horse save I never staled a horse in my life,” repeated Cahir ; you?' said the judge.

sure every one knows dat I never stales no horses," “My lord,' says I, "I cannot tell you that till the “Do you take apprentices still, Cahir ?" asked Manus horse comes into coort.

M'O'Neil, the goldfinder. “My lord,' says my lawyer, “ as the poor man thinks. “ Yes, I does," replied Cahir, “ when I gets a good bis life dependin' on it, surely his request ought to be fwhee (fee) wid 'em. Many o’ de Munster farmers does complied with

shend der shilders to me to larn the saicrits.”. Very well,' said the judge, smilin', let the horse “ And what fee do you charge, Cahir ?". be produced in coort.

“ Why, frwhom whifty to a bundars "pounds, and 6. The horse is my witness, my lord,” says I, and

fwhor dat I finishes dem." will bring me out clear.'

“Yes, Cahir," observed Power, drily, “I dare say * It is the first time I ever heard of such a witness, said the judge, laughin' outright, as did the whole This may seem strange, if not incredible, to our coort, "but as you think he'll serve you, it is but right readers ; but such was the fact. Some of the Monster that you should have his testimony.'

farmers--men of wealth and substance, too—felt no 6. We shall cross-examine him severely,' said the scruple whatsoever in binding their sods to this cele. pposite counsel, “and it'll go hard or we'll make him brated cattle-stealer, in order that they might afterbreak down.'

wards pursue such theft as a trade. Cahir, however, “By this time the whole coort was in roars of laughter, by his multiplied processes of, ingenuity, almost elevated and they were all on coals to see what would happen. it to the rank of a science, although he himself did not Well, in a short time the horse was brought into coort, know a letter in the alphabet, and I turned round to my prosecutor.

That the singular fact of such apprenticeships argued “Now, sir,' says I, do you swear positively and a very loose notion of the rights of property, can scarcely truly that that is the animal you lost ??

be denied; but, on the other hand, it is not altogether 6 • I do,' says he, ' by the virtue of my oath, that is without something in the shape of apology. The my horse the very one you stole from me.'

consciousness of wrong it is that constitutes guilt; but “ By the virtue of your oath, sir, whether is tbat here there was no such feeling. The possession of proanimal a horse or a mare ?'

perty by Protestants was looked upon as an act of in“. By the oath I've taken,' he says again, 'its a justice to the Catholic population, and the country at

you do."

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