« FöregåendeFortsätt »
the convent was founded, for some assert that it was erected by William Barry, while others maintain, and perhaps with good reason, that we are indebted for it to the pious munificence of Daniel Mac Carthy, prince of Carbury. Be that as it may, there can be little doubt that the actual convent was built about the year 1320, on the site of an ancient house once inhabited by St. Mologa,* from whom the surrounding district takes its
The church was, indeed, a splendid edifice, having a spacious choir, aisle, lateral wing, and magnificent bell-tower—a remarkable feature in all our Irish churches-rising to a height of nigh seventy feet. The cloister was very beautiful, square, richly arcaded, and covered with a platform, on which there was a suite of apartments, comprising chapter-room, refectory, and the guardian's ample chamber; along with these the convent had also its dormitory, kitchen, cellars, and other appurtenances, which made it one of the noblest houses of our order in all Ireland. In the choir of the church is the tomb of Donald Mac Carthy, who is thought to have been the founder ; and there yet remain many other monuments of the O'Donovans, O'Heas, and De Courceys, lords of Kinsale. One of that noble family, Edmund, bishop of Ross, a member of our brotherhood, was a great benefactor to the church and convent; for, owing to the munificence of his nephew, James lord Kinsale, he rebuilt the bell-tower, dormitory, infirmary and library; and at his death, which occurred in 1518, he bequeathed to us many valuable legacies of altarplate and books. He, with many of his ancestors, is interred in the church of Timoleague.
When I visited the place,† the entire edifice was still standing, though sadly in need of being repaired; for, indeed, it had suffered much from the ruthless vandalism of the English soldiers ; and also from the sacrilegious rapacity of William Lyons, protestant bishop of Cork, and a certain Dr. Hanmer, an Anglican minister, of whom I will have occasion to speak hereafter,
During the late war, a body of English soldiers, consisting of a hundred infantry and fifty horse, halted before Timoleague, and, entering the church, began to smash the beautiful stained-glass windows, and destroy the various pictures about the altar, notwithstanding the earnest entreaties of the people, who strove to dissuade them. It so happened that the carpenter whom our friars employed to look after the repairs of the sacred editice, was present on this occasion, and, seeing the impiety of those creedless mercenaries, he addressed himself to our holy founder thus :-"St. Francis, in whose honour this house was built, I know that thou art all powerful with God, and canst obtain from him whatsoever thou askest : now, I solemnly swear, that I will never do another day's work in this monastery, if thou dost not take speedy vengeance on those sacrilegious wretches who have desecrated thy holy place.” And
indeed, it would appear that the poor man's prayer was soon heard ; for, on the following day, when the soldiers had struck their tents, after doing such serious damage to the church and monastery, they were encountered by Daniel O'Sullivan, prince of Bear, who, with the small force then under his command, fell upon them, and cut them to pieces. Of their entire number only one escaped.
The Anglican minister whom I mentioned, destroyed the dormitory in 1596, for he came in a small vessel to Timoleague, in order to procure timber for a house which he was building near Cork; and having learnt that the friars' cells were wainscoted with oak, elaborately carved, he pulled asunder the rich woodwork, and placed it aboard the vessel. But his sacrilege was duly avenged; for the ship had hardly put to sea, when a gale sprang up, and sent it with its freight to the bottom.
Lyons, the Protestant bishop, as I have already told you, was an unrelenting enemy to our convent of Timoleague, and never spared that beautiful house when he required building materials. In 1590, having commenced building a mill, he and his posse made a descent on the mill belonging to our friars, which stood on the Arrighideen, and carried off the hammer stones, and machinery, which he re-erected in his own neighbourhood. Soon afterwards, however, an inundation swept away all his work, and many who witnessed the fact attributed it to the indignation of heaven.
Many and many a heart-rending tale could I relate to you of Lyons' implacable hatred to the Catholics, and our poor friars in particular. In 1595, he was appointed a Commissioner to outroot the Irish population from their homesteads in Munster, and plant English in their pleasant fields. How any man, and particularly one calling himself a Christian bishop, could undertake such a work, appears unintelligible; but assuredly, a fitter instrument could not have been chosen by Queen Elizabeth than that remorseless tyrant. Even in his extreme old age he persecuted the Catholics with fire and sword; and it was not till he felt the hand of God heavy upon him that he desisted, as will appear from what I am going to tell you. On the Christmas eve of 1612, word was brought him that the people all around Timoleague were to assemble in the convent to assist at midnight Mass : and no sooner was he made aware of this, than he resolved to set out, attended by a posse of ruffians who usually accompanied him, to disperse the friars and congregation. Hardly, however, was he outside Cork, when he was seized with a sudden illness, which so alarmed his companions that they besought him to return home. Heedless of their remonstrances he a'ighted from his horse, and, wrapping himself in clothing, he mounted again, intent upon his bloody mission. God, however, battled him ; for, a few hours afterwards, the intensity of the pain compelled him to retrace his steps to Cork. Ever since then, for he is still living,|| he has become somewhat forbearing. Lot
* Tigh Mologa, i.e. Mologa's house, + In 1603. * Appointed by Queen Elizabeth, 1533, died 1617.
$ This occurred probably in 1600. || A.D. 1617.
me not forget to mention, that among those who await tracts of the Irish coast ? We answer, yes: that the resurrection within the hallowed precincts of Timo- poor unfavoured island in the remote west, nearly half league, lies Eugene Mac Egan, bishop-elect of Ross, the surface of which is covered by a lough and a who, when acting as chaplain to the Catholic troops com- spewy marsh, while the other half is little better than manded by Daniel O'Sullivan in 1602, was mortally drifting sand, the scanty vegetation on which is frewounded by the English, and died on the field of battle. quently blasted by the “red wind” of the AtlanticHe, in sooth, was a man of great promise, having been that island, we say, has a history of its own. It was the educated at Rome, whence he had just then returned. “ Imagia insula” of the old Latin hagiologists, and was, O'Sullivan and the sept of the Mac Carthys had his re- as far as we know, the very last spot in which paganism mains conveyed to Timoleague, where they buried him lingered in Ireland. In the latter half of the seventh in the cloister, just at the north-western angle, and under century, St. Fechin, the holy abbot of Fore, in Westmeath, a little cross which they set in the wall to mark the found the inhabitants of Omey still pagans, and encoun. resting-place of one who was faithful to his God and tered violent opposition from them when building a mocountry. Such are the few memorabilia that I have nastery there, although he obtained the island from the gathered concerning Kilerea and Timoleague, and I trust good king of Connaught, Guaire the Generous. We are that they will be of use, ages after you and I shall have not, however about to ransack the pages of Colgan or passed away."
Ussher for ancient references to Omey, but shall for the
present content ourselves with such incidents of its history TRADITIONS OF OMEY ISLAND.
as we find preserved in the traditions of the islanders.
The sands which separate Omey from the mainland If the tourist, who contemplates a journey through the may be about half a mile across at the point where they majestic scenery
which intervenes between the towns of are most frequently traversed by the people at low Clifden and Westport, consent to leave the high-road water. Sometimes the sea which rolls over them is after crossing the bridge of Streamstown, about a mile lashed by the storm into gigantic waves; but in calm and a half from the former place, and turn with us in a due weather the inhabitants venture to ride or wade across westerly direction, we will undertake to conduct him
even when the tide covers the greater part of the inalong one of not the least interesting bye-ways of the tervening strand. When that wide expanse of sand is will region of West Connaught. The road lies for deserted by the sea, an immense accumulation of small about two miles by the northern shore of the narrow stones may be seen below high-water mark, in a long channel or inlet known as Streamstown bay, which in- ridge on the island side, parallel with the shore. deed in some places is scarcely a hundred yards across, These stones are said to have been collected there preand is frequently enclosed among rugged and blackened paratory to a conflict celebrated in the traditions of the rocks of hugh dimensions. We pass the old church-yard neighbourhood, as having taken place on the occasioa of Tempul Athdearg, or the church of the Red-ford ; of an invasion of the island by the O'Flaherties, of and a little further on, the ruins of the old house or Moycullen. The sept of O'Flaherty are generally recastle of Doon, which stands on our side of the inlet, presented in those traditions as fierce and relentless while on the other side of the water are the ruins of the aggressors, and the chieftain of Moycullen in this case ancient church of Kill, covered with ivy. This inlet appears to have been eminently entitled to that cha. was once a famous resort of smugglers, and a good racter. He demanded tribute from the lords of Bunstory is told of a contrivance by which they succeeded, on owen, Ballinahinch, and Doon, and proceeded to exact a certain occasion, in escaping from the crew of a re- his claim with a strong force of his retainers, at whose venue cruiser who pursued them in boats; a nnmber of head he role accompanied by his two sisters, who were spade-handles having been so placed as to resemble a as warlike as himself; while the alarmed vassals, reformidable array of muskets projecting from a steep solved to resist the oppressive exaction, fled with their bank, and the king's people being induced by these cattle and other moveable property, and all the men " threatening” preparations to make a rapid retreat to they could muster, to Omey, where, under the command their vessel.
of O'Toole, the chief of the island, they made the best At length we obtain a view of the vast ocean, with preparations they could to defend their families and the islands of Innisturk, Croagh, Omey, and others, scat- chattels. tered over its bosom, and the grandeur of that prospect Soon the belligerents were only separated by the narcompensates for the dreariness of the scene which im- row strait which divides St. Feichio's island from the mediately surrounds us; although this same granite mainland, and the ebbing of the tide was to be the wildernes3 of Claddaghdnff, rivals for barrenness and signal for O'Flaherty's attack. The only thing in the wretchedness any other spot in all Conamara. The shape of firearms which the beleagured force possessed road here deserts us at the low beach from which, at was an old matchlock of enormous length of barrel
, ebb-tide, we may cross almost dry-shod to the once and the stock of which was held together by severu famous island of Omey. But why do we call it famous ? convolutions of twig-wythes ; but it was entrusted to Can there be anything to distinguish that flat unpic. a famous marksman named Brian-na-broig, or Brian of turesque abode of misery from any other spot in which the shoe, who took up a convenient position to direct human wretchedness prevails along the most desolate it with advantage against the approaching enemy.
was the obligation imposed on her once more of seeing her guests home, and thus did they, in their turn, feel it their duty to repay the civility; and so they continued going and coming, and might have continued, no one can say how long, had not their attention been attracted, on the way, by a pleasant lake, in which it occurred to them, as their journeying to and fro had caused some fatigue, that they might enjoy a refreshing bath. The lake selected for the purpose is said to have been Loch-an-gerrane-bane, or the lake of the white horse at Ballynakill; and here their wearisome ceremoniousness terminated; for one of the ladies having got beyond her depth, was drowning, and another of them who went to lend her assistance, was about to share her fate, and so required the aid of a third ; and so on, until the twelve daughters of Brian-na-n'oinsioch sunk to rise no inore in the boggy waters of Loch-an-gerranc-bane. Tohishteul O'Toole thus found himself without a wife, but he was blessed with a pair of sons, one the offspring of each wife ; and these, when they grew up, quarrelled incessantly, calling each other certain naughty names, to which, in truth, the grandson of Brian-na-n’oinsioch was alone entitled ; and such, says tradition, was the origin of two branches of the family of O'Toole of west Connaught.
The first prosperity of this family is attributed, in the legends of Iar-Connaught, to one of its progenitors named Diarmot Sagagh, or Merry Dermot, of whose good fortune we shall relate the story as we have it from the seanachies of the west.
Brian-na-broig soon spied the leader of the assailants, whom he covered with the muzzle of his unerring matchlock, and addressing his favourite weapon, he said: “You make a great boast, with your gad-match, that you are able to wing a water-wagtail ; now let us see how you will behave !" And the matchlock maintained its character, for the next instant it shot the leg off O'Flaherty, and spread consternation among the Moycullen army. O'Flaherty's sisters, however, soon rallied their men; and causing the wounded chief to be placed on a hurdle, and carried at their head, they charged with great fury across the sands. The assailants were received with shower of stones that darkened the air ; but they persevered, and succeeded in obtaining a footing on the shore of Omey, where the battle raged for sometime, with great fierceness; the ladies urging on their people with great determination. In the midst of the conflict O'Flaherty died of his wound, and his loss decided the fortune of the day; the Moycullen men fled, leaving the strand covered with their slain ; and the sisters having dipt their kerchiefs in their brother's blood, swore by it to be revenged; and then, putting spurs to their horses, fled with all possible speed through Ballynakill and Joyce country, never looking back, it is said, until they reached Maam Turk, where they halted and wept over their disaster. There is a small cemetery on the island near the scene of the battle, and it is said to have been first opened to receive the bodies of those slain on that occasion; its name of Ulla-brean, or the fætid burialground, being very probably derived from that event.
The O'Tooles (O'Tuathail) who were unquestionably a branch of the great Leinster sept of that name, were for many ceoturies the lords of Omey, but only as vassals of the O'Flaherties who exercised over them a tyraopical sway. An instance of this is preserved in a whimsical tradition of the country.
It happened that a certain chief of Omey, named Tohishteul O'Toole, was married to the daughter of Mac Teige Arna, or the O'Brien of Aran; and at the same time there lived not many miles distant, at Ballynakill, a chief of the O'Flaherties, generally known as Brianna-n'oinsioch, or Brian of the fools, from the circumstance that he had twelve daughters, all of whom were idiotic. The despot of Ballynakill, accompanied by one of his silly danghters, paid a visit on a certain occasion to the lord of Omey, and without further ceremony, insisted on the latter discarding his lawful wife, and taking the lady whom he brought with him in ber stead. O'Toole remonstrated, but was compelled to submit, and received the vinsioch as his partner, instead of the daughter of Aran.
What became of the outraged wife, or what revenge her friends proposed to take, tradition saith not; but as to the fate of the silly daughter of O'Flaherty, is is sufficiently explicit. It appears that after a certain lapse of time she was visited by her eleven sisters, whom, at their departure, she considered herself bound in good manners to escort home. However, on their arrival at Ballynakill, the sisters resolved not to be outdone by her in politeness, and accompanied her back again. Thus
whether he spent all his wealth, or never had any to spend, we cannot precisely determine--and like many poor men who cannot devise any ordinary means to obtain money, he conceived a strong desire to employ snpernatural means for procaring it. He had often heard that the fairy hills are open on All Hallows' Eve, and as there was a remarkable bri or hill of that description in his immediate neighbourhood—namely, the famous Kroc-a-dun, or hill of Bunown, in Errismore—he determined on repairing thither the next November eve, and trying his fortune in a search for the istre buidh, or fairy halter, which would answer for him all thu purposes of the philosopher's stone.
November eve arrived, and Dermot did not fail to hover, after dusk, under the shadow of Knoc-a-dun, watching very carefully those parts of the hill, where he supposed the “good-people” were most likely to have their grand portal. At length be observed a long cavalcade approaching the hill. He soon perceived that it was a funeral ; moreover that the corpse was that of a beautiful young lady, and there could be no doubt that these were the fairies who were bearing her on their shoulders with great pomp to the hill. Dermot understood very well the pranks of this mischievous race, and he felt quite sure that the lady whom they had thus got into their power was not dead at all; so he resolved to forfeit the chance of making his own fortune, and at all hazards to try to rescue her. Accordingly he took a steady aim with that it is so considered by some persons who reside near the locality, although, to be sure, the beautiful princess whom the fortunate Dermot Sugagh saved, was not a dead woman at all.
his cross-bow—'tis needless to say that he lived before the age of gunpowder-and shooting one of the foremost of the four bearers, the others scampered off in consternation, leaving the lady behind with Dermot, who carried her to his cabin, and used every means in his power to relieve her from the effects of the diabolical drugs which had been administered to her. To some extent he succeeded, but unfortunately the lady remained dumb, and was unable to convey any information about her family or home. Dermot, however, could perceive that she was a person of high rank, and, as he was a man of honour as well as a merry fellow, he treated her with the profoundest respect, and confided her to the care of his sister, still hoping to be able to discover her family.
The next November eve arrived, and Dermot Sugagh again went in search of the istre buidh. He now understood the ways of the place so well, that he actually got inside the door of the fairy hill; and while he there lay concealed, he overheard the conversation of two of the “good people,” who had a violent dispute as to which of them should go and fetch some water. Their words ran so high, that at length one of them threatened to knock the other down.
“ A pheist! you despicable wretch !” exclaimed the insulted fairy, “ 'tis long until you would think of doing that to Dermot Sugagh O'Toole, who took away your bride this night twelve months !”
" And what if he did take her?” replied the other, who was evidently a poltroon ; “'tis little good she is to him, as she cannot speak.”
“Oh,” said the other wizen-faced elf, with a knowing wink, "it would be easy enough to make her speak, if he only plucked out the traneen that's sticking in her hair.”
Dermot did not wait to hear any more of the altercation or even to look for the istre buidh; but, returning home in all haste, he immediately searched for the traneen in the young lady's hair, and having found it, and extracted it without delay, she at once began to speak, and returning him thanks most fervently for all his kindness, she told him that she was no less a personage than the daughter of the king of Leinster.
Next morning Dermot and his fair charge set out for Leinster, nor did they make much delay until the latter was restored in perfect safety to the arms of her royal parents, who, shortly after, gave her in marriage to her noble-minded deliverer, as the very proper reward of his gallant and honourable conduct. Dermot Sugagh became a great man at the court of Leinster, and such, according to the Conamara seannachies, whose authority does not always agree with that of the published annals, which indeed are at direct variance with them in this instance, was the origin of the renowned sept of O'Toole, in the eastern province. The spot where Dermot rescued what appeared to be the corpse of the young lady from the “good people,” is called, to the present day, lahach-na-una-marava, or, the dead woman's pool; which circumstance, we presume, will be deemed a sufficient verification of our story—at least we know
WILDE'S CATALOGUE OF IRISH ANTIQUITIES.' The Museum of Antiquities, initiated by a few private members of the Royal Irish Academy, little more than twenty years ago, was rapid and prosperous in its growth.
After two or three years it comprised a large collection of objects illustrating the ancient history of this country, and very soon confounded the incredulity of those who imagined-as many did at that time—that the Irish were ignorant of the arts of civilized life previous to the English invasion. Subsequently the works carried on in several parts of Ireland by the Shannon Navigation Commissioners, the Drainage Commissioners, and the various Railway Companies, brought to light a vast amount of ancient remains which, by purchase or presentation, came to be deposited in the museum ; until, at length, the collection became one of the largest and perhaps the most valuable and perfect of its kind in all Europe. Still it was little better than an interesting chaos. The objects to constitute a museum were there, but there was no proper classification or arrangement, and above all, there was no catalogue. Matters were in this state at the end of March, 1856, when the acade ny voted £250 for arranging and cataloguing the museum. How far so small a sum may have gone on the mecharical details of so vast an enterprise-on the mere manual labour, the copying work, the printing, the illustrations, etc. we know not--we suppose only a very short way; but the herculean task of classifying and arranging the museum, and of preparing the catalogue, was grataitously undertaken by Dr. Wilde, whose name has been 0 long and so honourably associated with our scientific and historical literature, and with our national antiquities ; and since that date he has successfully and zealously devoted to the work an enormous amount of research, Icarning, and valuable time. Previous to the meeting of the British Association in Dublin, in Augu-t, 1857, the first part of the catalogue was published-although during the whole of the intermediate time the museum was occupied by the tradesmen employed by the Board of Works in fitting up and decorating the premises— circumstance which must have interfered considerably with Dr. Wilde's labours. This first part contained : descriptive catalogue of the antiquities of stone, eartlien, and vegetable materials in the museum; the second and much more copious and elaborate portion of the work now before us, contains those of animal and bronze materials ; and there remain still to be catalogued the other metallic antiquities, as those of iron, &c., the ex
ceptional classes, namely "Finds," (or groups of antiquities found together in particular localities, such as crannoges, etc.) coins and medals, human remains, and ecclesiastical antiquities. Under the primary division of materials there is the secondary division according to use ; the objects being thus subdivided into weapons; tools or weapontools; food implements ; household furniture and other articles; dress and personal decorations; objects used in games, as chess, etc.; musical instruments; sepulchral monuments, etc. etc. This classification appears to be as clear and satisfactory as any that could be derised; bat as to the age of the respective objects, that very frequently is only to be determined by conjecture or deductions, and for it the catalogue must be consulted, the essays with which each class of articles is introduced affording generally to the reader all the information that can be gleaned on the subject.
The value of such a museumi as that of the Royal Irish Academy is obvious to any cdacated person.
We do not envy those Irishmen who would fail to appreciate it either their good taste or their sentiments of nationality. Many of the objects here exhibited may boast of an antiquity far beyond the range of bistory in this or the other countries of northern Europe ; and their utility to the historian in illustrating the social state of this nation in those remote ages, is not less than the interest which they must derive from their extraordinary age in the eyes of the mere lover of curiosities.
It must be borne in mind,” observes Dr. Wilde, in one of his preliminary observations, “that there is a long period in Irish history undescribed by any annalist, in which the rath, the cromlech, and the stone sculptured monuments, the terra-cotta urn, the golden ornament, the flint, stone, and bone weapons, and tools, and the early copper and bronze articles of the same class, were mon, but of which no historian has made mention. Of this pagan period there is no written history, and it is only by a careful study of the still existing monuments through. out the land, and of the articles in a collection, such as that of the academy, and by comparing them with kindred objects in other countries, that we can form any conjecture as to the social state of Ireland during the Druidic or preChristian period. It is not too great a stretch of imagination to suppose that, as our early annalists were Christians and ecclesiastics, they left unrecorded all notice of the religion that it was their object to obliterate, and all records of the habits of a people among whom they were missionaries; merely preserving the genealogies of kings, with notices of the battles, eclipses, plagues, etc., derived from the bards that supplied them with their only ineans of information."
We know that it may be urged against this assertion, that although our earliest written annals are not of the pagan epoch, they represent traditions, written or oral, which are of that date; and moreover that they do afford pictures of society which may consequently be taken as of pre-Christian authority ; but accepting the les enthusiastic view put forward by our author, the interest of our antiquarian collection is not diminished, while its utility is enhanced.
Dr. Wilde's introductions to the several classes and subdivisions abound with curious and interesting information. A few extracts will serve as evidence of the research and labour bé Las bestowed on the work,
and will convey information new to the greater number of our readers.
In introducing the class of animal materials, Dr. Wilde gives us the following exceedingly interesting particulars in ancient Irish zoology :
“Of the ancient fauna of Ireland, we as yet possess but imperfect knowledge. Among the larger carnivora was the bear, in Irish mathghamlain, probably the brown bear of Northern Europe, and which existed in Scotland until the year 1057; although said to be remembered traditionally, we have no historic reference made to it in any of our records. The majority of the bears' skulls discovered in Ireland, show that the animal was of rather a small size, although the great cave bear co-existed here with the mammoth. The wolf, called in Irish cú allaidh, or the wild hound, and occasionally styled in the manuscripts mac tire, or the son of the soil (filius terra), remained among our highland woods and caverns, until the beginning of the last century. The ancient dog, or cú, usually called the Irish grey hound, and believed to have been employed in chasing the deer, or exterminating the wolf, may be said to have passed from amongst us. The fox, sinnach, or madradh ruadh, the red dog; the badger, broc; the otter, dobhar chú, or water hound; the martin, or tree dog, madradh crainn; the stoat or weasel, blánait, or easog; and the wild and domestic cat, cai garman, include nearly all the carnivora of Ireland in early times. To this list may be added the seal, or ron, which abounds upon our coasts. Of the deer tribe, our gigantic Irish elk, the cervus megaceros, was the noblest animal of its class, of which we have any remains, but whether it co-existed with man is a mooted question. We have no Irish name for this extinct animal. That a small and probably degenerated variety existed with the human race in Ireland, may be assumed from the circumstance of the remains of one being found in peat overlying the clay; and others possibly may have been discovered in similar situations. The red deer, fiadh ruanh, was evidently the animal of this class that abounded most in Ireland, and was the chief object of the chase. Other varieties of the deer kind were, no doubt, to be found in great quantities during the middle ages; but it may be questioned whether they had not been introduced about that time. We had the sheep, caóra, and the goat, gabhar, at a very remote period, the former being many-horned. Oxen, daimh, were undoubtedly to be found in the greatest abundance, and of the finest breed in Ireland, from the earliest period to which our histories refer, and were probably long antecedent to man's occupation of the island. (See the author's paper on the ancient and modern races of oxen in Ireland,' in the Proceedings, vol. vii. p. 184.) The horse, capall, or each, was coexistent with the elephant ; and the wild boar, torc fiadhain, abounded in our woods up to a comparatively recent period. The hare, called in Irish gearr-fiadh, “the short deer,” and occasionally miol-muighe, or “the animal of the plain," and the rabbit, coinin, were also occup
of Ireland with man at a very early period.” (pp. 248, 249.)
A curious substance, well known to the peasantry who reside near some of the Irish bogs, is thus noticed. (p. 267.)
* The substance called bog-butter, or mineral tallow, has been found in the peat in various parts of Ireland, and is supposed to have been buried for safety, as well as to give it a peculiar taste and consistence, which it derived from being converted into a hard yellowish substance like adipocere, or old dry Stilton cheese. It is usually found in single-piece wooden vessels, somewhat like methers or long firkins. It was first noticed as a curiosity in Ireland in 1736, and his also been discovered in the Færo Isles, and in Scotland. It is usually found at a great depth, and in old solid bog, in which it was originally placed, or through