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The Exhibition of Painting, Sculpture and Architectural Designs of the Royal Hibernian Academy, now about to close, fills us with hearty satisfaction for the present, and with, we trust, well-grouuded hope for the future. Hitherto art in Ireland bad little or no encouragement.

Before the comparatively recent establishment of Art Unions, as we have been informed, it was not an unusual occurrence for a series of years to pass without the purchase of one single picture being made from the walls of the Academy.

The artist may have spent, what was to him, a small fortune, in frames, materials and models, and many months in thoughtful labour-his only return was the admiration of a few connoisseurs, perhaps paragraph or two in the morning papers; and at the close of the academy he might reclaim his work, thankful if, through its exhibition, he had attracted a few more pupils to his studio. It is not wonderful that men who felt and knew their power would gladly relinquish the precarious and irksome office of drawingmaster, to which at home they were generally compelled to resign themselves, and seek abroad a more congenial field for the pursuit if not of fortune at least of fame. In thus losing many of our greatest painters while

very young men, we as a nation have lost more than might at first be apparent. What Scott in his novels has done for Scotland is universally admitted. Word painting, and pictures, properly speaking, have but the same end. A good painting is but a good epic, or history, or pastoral, as the case may be, presented through various combinations of light and shade, and color, instead of written or printed words. In losing men like Barry, Maclise, Danby and others, Ireland has lost artists whose genius, ripened under Irish skies, would in all probability have impelled them to become great teachers of our country's history, masters whose “annals,” in this age of cheap prints, would be read from generation to generation, even by those who, like William of Deloraine, “letter or line knew never a one.” What Irishman, on viewing Maclise's wondrous painting of Alfred in the Danish camp, will not grieve that the Irish painter had not instead given us, as a subject, Brian at the battle of Clontarf? Emigration, too, from causes which it would be out of place here to analyse, seldom tends to the healthy development of the arrist's original power. Many instances might be referred to; Wilkie, who had achieved the highest distinction as a delineator of home scenes, saw his fame decline after his continental experiences. Our Own Burton touched every heart in his first great picture, the “Blind Girl at the Holy Well.” For years past he has lived upon the continent, or in London, where his position as one the very first painters of the day, is freely admitted. Yet we have seen nothing from his pencil, for feeling and excellence of the highest order, to compare with his Blind Girl.

The exhibition of the Royal Hibernian Academy, we

have said, is for the present highly satisfactory and suggestive of hope for the art future of the country. Not many years since our resident Irish painters were few, and from the scant encouragement which awaited even their most successful labours, the walls of the Academy generally afforded but slight attraction, except when some picture was sent from the other side of the channel to add importance to the collection. A very different state of things prevails at present. We may be well proud of our young and rising school of painting—a school which has boldly and effectually discarded that old conventualism, which looked for precedents in every touch, and year after year seemed to be growing more prolific in feebleness and mediocrity. It was MacManus, we believe, who first set our young painters on the right path to originality and excellence,

-to the fields and glens, to the headlands and islands of our own beautiful country, where they worked earnestly, and we see how well, in portraying the aspects of nature by sea and by land, in shower or in sunshine.

We have nothing to fear for our school of Landscape Painting. We trust now that there is a cheering prospect of encouragement, our young artists will remain among us, and continue to paint home scenes, like several which we shall presently notice, and which possess an interest to the educated Irishman beyond even that which must be accorded them as works of poetic excel. lence.

In one most important department our school has as yet shown but little sign of vitality-we allude to the want of compositions of a sacred character, and to that of historical works. A country which bąs produced Barry, Hogan, O'Neill

, and other artists scarcely less famous for the grandeur of their conceptions, need not despair. We trust that one result of the rising prosperity of the country shall be that future O'Neills, McClises or Maguires, may find that encouragement in Ireland which is due to their genius, and by which the necessity to cater for foreign tastes will be obviated. At home, surrounded by catholic and national associations, their minds will take a congenial direction, and our sacred edifices, conventual buildings, and private mansions, may often be enriched by native works of high art, and not, as is too frequently the case at present, by French or Italian pictures of high cost and doubtful merit.

We now propose to review some of the more remarkable of the Irish pictures, and otber works of art which have been purchased from the present exhibition in Abbey Street, either as prizes in the Art Unions, or by private individuals.

115. Clonmacnoise-Sunset, -by W. Colles Watkins. This we believe to be one of the finest if not the very finest landscape exhibited in Abbey Street for many years. In truthfulness and beauty of colouring, in accuracy of drawing, and in the abundance of poetical feeling which Mr. Watkins has displayed in the general treatment, there is nothing in the colleetion to surpass this picture. It represents a scene thus described by

the graceful pen of Petrie, whose finest picture some years ago was inspired by the same subject.

“ Clonmacnoise, commonly considered the central point of Ireland, is situated on the Leinster side of the Shannon, about nine miles below Athlone. As the seat of an eminent bishopric and monastery, founded by St. Ciaran in the sixth century, it was celebrated in our native histories as being in dignity and importance above all others in Ireland ; and as a seminary of Christian arts and learning, and the place of sepulture of its kings, princes, bishops, and eminent literary men. It held the same distinguished place among the Irish that lona--which was of contemporaneous foundation -held amongst the Gael and northern Picts of Scotland.

“ Here may still be seen the dilapidated remains of a catheilral and seven other churches, exhibiting various styles and ages of architecture; two of the ecclesiastical Round Tower's so peculiar to Ireland; and a moated Castle, sculptured stone crosses, and numerous tombstons of eminent persons of remote antiquity, bearing inscriptions in the Irish character and language.

“ Wrecked and abandoned in the sixteenth century, Clonmacnoise now presents a scene of melancholy ruin and desolation, which, heightened by the character of the silent and desert surrounding scenery, imparts to it a poetic interest, solemn, suggestive, and impressive in the higbest degree."

The sun is just about to sink below the horizon. Alreadly the low-lying grounds are in hazy shadow, but the old time-stained wall of the cathedral, and the great round tower, catch the departing rays. The river Shannon, once the chief highway of Ireland, flows on its sluggish course to the right, its banks fringed with a perfect wilderness of reeds, to a wonderfully painted clump of which a string of startled wild ducks are flying.

This is one of the pictures selected as a prize by a ticket-holder of the Art Union of Ireland ; its price was £100.

We trust to see this interesting work popularized as a cromo-lithograph, for which purpose its prevailing colors are peculiarly suited.

49. The Pass of Glencoe—Scotland—by John Faulkner. A truly fine picture, exhibiting a scene of stern and desolate grandeur, perhaps, in its way, unsurpassed in the British Islands. The play of light and shadow on the mountains to the left is very skilfully rendered, and the sky is beautifully clear and silvery. But for the size of this picture, and the evident care with which it has been handled, we would believe it to have been entirely painted on the spot, so true to nature is its every touch. One thing is wauting, however,—a figure or group of some kind in the foreground, without which we can scarcely realize the immensity of the scene. Mr. Faulkner is one of the most prominent of our younger artists; in truthfulness of color, force, and

general knowledge of nature, he is second to no Irish painter. Uncompromising sincerity of execution, elaburate finish, and wflinching study from nature, are expressed in all Mr. Faulkner's works. If we were

inclined to find fault it would be with the over-richness of his most truthful and admirably-studied details; each weed, or briar, or stone, or little pool, is a pictura in itself, but so many little pictures crowded together into a whole do not always constitute one agreeable work. We trust that Mr. Faulkner will live long to enjoy his well-earned fame as a truthful landscape painter, and we have little doubt that time and observation will soften those peculiarities of style which even his greatest admirers must have remarked, in some at least of his exhibition pictures.

182. Lugduff Mountains, County Wicklow; a small and well-finished painting. Mr. Faulkner exhibits his usual power; the rays descending almost perpendicularly from behind a cloud, are admirably painted. Wicklow has long been celebrated for the richness and variety of its scenery.

Mr. Faulkner has drawn his experience of nature chiefly from the glens and woods of that beautiful county, and Dargle-like scenes, or mountain solitudes, form the subject of his most successful paintings. We confess that instead of Glencoe, we would rather hare had a picture of equal importance from some subject nearer home. Wicklow alone would furnish hundreis of scenes of the highest interest.

This artist has sent several other charming contributions to the present collection, but as the limits assigned to this article will allow only of a notice of the more important of those works which have been selected by prize ticket holders, or have been otherwise purchased, we must reluctantly pass them over. Glencoe has been selected for a £100 prize in the Art Union of Ireland.

113. Ross Castle, Killarney-Moonrise, by P. Vincent Duffy, R.H.A One of several pictures which this favourite artist has this year produced. Its general effect is extremely good, the old grey historic tower of Ross stands majestically against the glowing moonlight which, with the dark shadow of the building, and the surrounding clumps of natural wood, afford a play of subdued light and shade extremely well arranged.

Mr. Duffy is perhaps the most romantic of our rising school of landscape painters. He revels in sunsets and moonlight effects, which are worked out with wonderful skill and ability.

Ross Castle, though a small painting, affords a very good specimen of his peculiar style, -generally broad and effective, he yet contrives to add just so much detail as will give an appearance of high finish to his picture.

250. Old Weir Bridge-Killarney, by the same artist, is another moonlight. The deep, rich, mellow tone of this picture, no less than the romantic character of the subject, renders it one of his most successful efforts.-But perhaps Mr. Duffy's best effect is No. 192, Autumnal Moonrise. The subject is simplicity itself; a lonely shore, the horizon broken only by the ghost-like sails of two trawlers, and the moon rising full and majestically as it were from the bosom of the deep. An exquisite bit of painting is the ripple in the foreground. The little waves

" which fret And chafe against the stones they scarcely wet."

a few years.

As a contrast to his moonlights, No. 243, “ Watch- through a fine tumbling sea, upon which they rise like ing the Sunset,” well deserves notice. This is a very

corks. Mr. Kenrick's chief painting represents the beautiful little picture, simple and truthful, and carefully melancholy loss of Captain Boyd and six of bis men on finished. An old, strained, many-tinted boat, which the 9th February last, but this we must reluctantly pass looks as if it might have belonged to the “ ancient over for reasons already statel. mariner,” lies upon a little sandy hillock upon the shore. No. 103, “ French Mackerel Fishers running for HarTwo fishing boys sit in the stern of the wreck, and con- bour," is an exquisitely fresh bit of painting. The clouds template the sun just as it sinks below the horizon. and sea are full of light and motion. Mr. Kenrick is the There is a sentiment of repose in this picture most hap- painter of the celebrated picture of " The Queen's deparpily carried out. We regret that without breaking ture from Kingstown Harbour,” which was purchased our rule already alluded to, we cannot, on this occasion by her Majesty. at least, notice either of Mr. Duffy's more ambitious Mr. Mc Evoy is one of that school of Irish landpaintings, “ The Vale of Rest," a large and important scape painters which has sprung into existence within work, and “The Eagle's Nest,” a well-known scene at

llis picture, No. 68, “Dublin Bay, Killarney.

from the Hill,” is a truthtful representation of a scene 143. “Blowing fresh off Ireland's Eye,” is one of which must be familiar to most of our Dublin readors, several pictures from the studio of Edwin Hayes, R.H.A. As a subject, nothing in its way could be finer. The This artist, a Dublin man, was well known in art circles rough picturesque foreground, the middle distance of some years ago by his paintings of shipping and coast wood and meadow, the noble bay, with grand old hisscenery, but within the last few years he has made such torical Howth for the distance, form a scene wbich might a stride in his profession that he bids fairly to rival Stan- well move the enthusiasm of the landscape painter. In field, the greatest painter of marine subjects of modern the extreme left old Dublin appears with its atmosphere times. The picture speaks for itself. Some ill-fated of smoke, but as a set-off, we have the bright harbour vessel has perished in a recent gale off Lambay, and her with its pier, the longest in the world, and in the indenmasts are being secured by the hardy crew of a Howth tations of the bay north or south of the city many a fishing-boat. A schooner running between Ireland's green nook, or sandy cove, which seem to invite a visit. Eye and Baldoyle, likely to get foul of the wreck, is No. 31, "Evening," by the same artist, is a large being warned by a picturesque figure, who guides the ambitious picture, too large for the subject, and displaymovement of the boat. The violence of the recent gale ing a monotony of colour, a redness in the distance as is further indicated by a large barque riding heavily in the foreground, which mars the effect of a work at anchor, and having her masts and yards made “all otherwise possessed of fine qualities of breadth and snug.” The sea seems fairly to seethe and heave, and execution. When Mr. Mc Evoy paints from nature his there is a freshness and saltness in the atmosphere which pencil is usually fresh and truthful. His “Evening” are rarely expressed in painting. The lovely combina- looks like a composition based on the recollection of an tion of colour in the sea, the look of light and life, in effect which he had seen in nature, and of which, no short, the truthfulness of the whole work are truly doubt, be had taken a note. admirable.

Amongst the pictures of animal life, perhaps the very No. 56, “ Dublin Bay, from the rocks at IIowth." best is No. 91, “Setters," by W. Osborne, A.R.H.A. Mr. Hayes presents us with a scene familiar to most The dogs are beautifully painted, and seem almost ready of our Dublin readers. The deep, clear green of the

to start from the canvas. The elaboration and delisea, where the wave is curling to burst


the cacy of this picture are very remarkable. Mr. Osborne beach, is a beautiful bit of nature. Like No. 143, will doubtless take high rank in his peculiar department this picture is a marvel of silvery brightness, and of art. He has several other pictures remarkable for their it also readily suggests an atmosphere keen and truth and finish, but which it is not necessary to refer. salted, and laden with perfume peculiar to the “flowers Nor should we omit to mention with special commenof the sea." These two works constitute Mr. Ilayesis dation some exquisite works from the pencil of Edmund chief contributions. Several other of his pictures are Fitzpatrick, who gives every promise that he will very equally well conceived and worked out, especially No. soon rank among the most distinguished of our national 113, “Hay Barge on the Thames,” where the colour of painters. An incident in the Life of Burns, No. 22, the water is admirably represented ; and we may add, has furnished Mr. Fitzpatrick with a subject for a pic“ Boats in a Calm,” No. 10, where the handicraft of torial episode which he has treated most admirably; ocean is shown in the caverns and tunnels which abound and “The Unfortunate," No. 130, from Hood's Bridge along some portion of the coast of England.

of Sighs, is a picture of which he may justly feel proud. M. Keorick, R.II.A., contributes several pictures But in our judgment this artist's great power lies in painted in his usual vigorous and truthful style, but we delineating Irish peasant life, and in this particular regret his works this year are not so striking or impor. department we may state unhesitatingly that he tant as some we reinember to have scen on former oc- stands pre-eminent. The Poor Scholar," at precasions.

sent in the Art Exhibition, and the exquisite illus. No. 28, "Luggers working to Windward," is a gem trations to Carleton's “Evil Eye,” are works which

The little vessels close hauled are crashing leave no doubt that he may fear no competitor in

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that department of art which, as we said before, mention No. 302, “A Mountain Stream, Radcliff's Glen, he has made peculiarly his own. Mr. Fitzpatrick's Co. Waterford,” by Edward Hayes, R.H.A. It reprepictures found ready sale before they were long on sents a wooded Dargle-like glen, through which a peatview ; and although this may not be the place to allude stained stream ruos between richly tinted banks fringeid to the matter, we have no difficulty in asserting that with herbage, amongst which the foxglove, beautifully his designs for the ILLUSTRATED DUBLIN JOURNAL, the painted, is conspicnous. Mr. Hayes is possessed of a first number of which has just appeared, will entitle rare combination of talent, which enables bim to es. him to a foremost place among the most eminent of hibit not only as an admired landscape painter, but also the painters who reflect honour on Ireland.

as one of our most successful likeness painters in waterIn the ante-room and sculpture-room there are seve- colours. Of his works of the latter class, we shall preral paintings in water-colours, a style of drawing which sently have to speak. we regret to say is inadequately represented in this Mr. Hayes exbibits several other landscapes and an year's exbibition. The most notable is undoubtedly interior of Atbassel Abbey, Co. Tipperary. No. 336, Burton's "Franconian Peasants-Interior of a Church, “Lime-kiln at Longfield, Co. Tipperary,” is a small, fresh, a work every way worthy of that painter's high repu- well painted drawing of a subject so simple, and at first tation. In richness and strength of colouring, in de- sight unimportant, that we must seek in its truthfulness licacy of finish, and in all that constitutes a good and delicacy of finish, the secret of its success. picture, this is second to no contribution in oil or in Mr. W. P. Rogers, one of our younger artists, has water-colour in the present exhibition. In looking at exhibited some promising works, of which one, “ A View it we have but one regret--that the painter had not de- in South Wales,” is perhaps the best. voted the time and thought necessary to its production It is with very great regret that, up to the time of to a subject more like that by which he first became going to press, we have not heard of the purchase of famous amongst us, - we allude to the “ Blind Girl at some of the very best pictures and drawings, exhibited the Holy Well.” This picture has been exhibited be- at the Royal Hibernian Academy by Irish Artists. fore, in London, where it elicited the highest adıniration Andrew Nicholl, R.H.A., for instance, is represented by among the art critics, and in Dublin, where it was so several works painted in his asual masterly manner. As poorly hung that to many it now comes forward as a a delineator of coast scenery, Mr. Nicholl, we believe, new contribution. The various expressions of devotion

ranks second to none. His early art-education among in the faces of the peasants; the solemn dignity of the the cliffs of our northern coast, has contributed to his officiating priests, the wonderful aerial perspective of the pre-eminence, at least as a delineator of the grand and venerable church, are effects which none but a master- terrible in na!ure, as exhibited in the cloud-capped prohand could execute.

montories of Antrim and Donegal, rising all but perpen381. “ Dumbarton Castle, on the Clyde," from the dicularly from the almost fathomless depths of the everpencil of Mr. William Dillon, is a very bright, clear, well- surging Atlantic. In soft pastoral scenes such as the executed drawing by a rising Irish artist. The water banks of the Lagan or Bınn present, Mr. Nicholl is is beautifully transparent, reflecting a sky painted in equally in his element. Mr. M. A. Hayes, too, has sent a broad vigorous style, and which offers a striking som fine pictures, which we are selfish enough to wish contrast to the feminine stipple of some other water- he had sold, as they would therefore come within the colour drawings which we need not particularise. Mi. scope of our present article. Our talented countryman, Dillon has come ont in considerable force this year, es- George Malvany, has distinguished himself again this pecially in Nó. 393-A Study of Birch Trees—which year, as also have Bridgford, Sharp, Marquis, and we believe to be his best picture.

other public favourites, and we trust we may have a 390. “The Cross of Muiredach, and the Round future opportunity of referring to their successful works. Tower and Church, Monasterboice, county Louth," In the mean time we shall glance at the labours of our Mr. F. W. Wakeman. The artist in this drawing portrait-painters, both in oil and water colours, as rehas faithfully rendered one of the most remarkable presented upon the walls of the Academy House. scenes of ruin to be found even in this country of ruins. this particular branch of art the President of the AcaToe scene is thoroughly Irish,-a group of churches, demy, Catterson Smith, bas long held a very distinguished crosses, and a round tower, one of those mysterious position. Though not an Irishman by birth, Mr. Smith structures, the origin of which has so long been a vexed has long been, as it were, naturalized among us, and as question amongst antiquaries. A solitary figure adds his finest paintings have usually been associated with to the sentiment of oppressive loneliness which the Irish names, and as from his office of President of our landscape suggests. Tower, crosses, churches, and an Academy of Arts, be represents the head of the artistic only tree, stand sharply relieved by a glowing evening body of Ireland, we may safely claim him as sky. Mr. Wakeman seems to delight in selecting for adopted Irishman. His portrait, No. 116, of Sir Thomas subjects the antiquities of his country. He has sent Staples, Bart., “ The Father of the North-East Bar," is another characteristic drawing to the present exhibition, one of those pictures which strike a stranger to the apwhich, represents one of the remarkable tower-houses pearance of the original, as being most certainly a likeness. of Ireland.

The power of the President in representing the mind Amongst the more remarkable landscapes, we may of his sitters is very well known; nor are his works less

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remarkable for the graceful ease and naturalness of his figures, so different in every respect from the distorted and generally bedaubed productions of the photographer. For a considerable time photography seemed destined to supersede the legitimate miniature, and even life-sized portraits in oil. Likenesses, or at least portraits, were to be had in every town or country village at prices Varying from sixpence to five pounds, frames included. Then came the painted photograph, which was all the rage until the public began to find that the money paid for it was thrown away, owing to the perishable nature of the picture. We have reason to believe, that, within a recent period, a great reaction has set in, and that the better-off class of people at least, will soon cease to be satisfied with a manufacture which, for certain well-ascertained scientific reasons, can never yield any but a distorted picture, or likeness if you will, which even under the most favourable circumstances is prone to fade and decay. We have been tempted to the foregoing digression, not by any feeling hostile to photography, which as far as it goes we believe may be used as a great and powerful auxiliary to legitimate art, both in landscape and portrait painting; but in viewing several works in the Academy collection, we could not fail to remark the contrast between the art of the educated artist and that of the manufacturer. The President's other pictures are in keeping with his well-earned reputation, but our space will not admit of further detail.

No. 13—“Portrait of a Lady,” by William Brocas, R.H.A. Mr. Brocas has long been known to the Irish public as a conscientious, painstaking artist, whose works always evince considerable taste and skill in manipulation. He was one of the first to introduce to this country water-colour portraits on paper, of a size which could not be obtained on ivory. No. 13 is a very pleasing example of this artist's style in oil portraiture. He exbibits a landscape which we hope to have an opportunity of noticing on another occasion.

3494" His Excellency the Earl of Carlisle,” B. Mulrennin, R.D.A. This is a most successful and exquisitely-painted likeness of the Viceroy, by an artist who is deservedly considered the first miniature painter in Ireland. In delicacy of tone and perfect beauty of finish, this work would take high rank in any collection, even where Ross or our own Comerford had contributed. In the likenesses of John O'Donovan, L.L.D., and Professor Carry, Nos. 338 and 353 by the same artist, we have two little pictures that would be regarded with interest by many thousands of our countrymen, not merely as works of bigh art, but as likenesses of two men who have worked hard, and long, and successfully in the elacidation of Celtic history, literature, and law, at a period, too, when but for their exertions, much of the treasure still remaining was becoming as a sealed book. It is a pity that portraits, life-size and in oil, of these distinguished men, are not found in so ne of our public literary or scientific institu'ions. The likenesses of the Very Rev. Dean Graves, D.D., John Gilbert, and Martin Haverty, Esqrs. (names also well kuown to our natioual literature), are standing evidences

of Mr. Mulrennin's power in catching the characteristic expressions of his sitters. There are other pictures by this charming artist, which, on account of the limited space usually assigned to a review article, we must reluctantly refer, we hope, to a future paper. Mr. Edward Hayes, several of whose landscapes we have already noticed, has exhibited a number of portraits in water-colours. As likenesses they are highly characteristic, and as drawings they reflect great credit on his skill and judgment. Nothing could be better than the sketch of Charles Bianconi. His portrait of the “ Lord Mayor of Waterford,” (we were not aware that Waterford possessed a Lord Mayor) is perhaps as good. We need not particularize any more of Mr. Hayes's very charming portraits, but turn to a pair of companion pictures, "The Colleen Bawn," and "The Colleen Dhu," by T. A. Jones, R.H.A. These pictures we sbould, perhaps, have noticed on another page, but they are here among the likenesses, and bear internal evidence of their being portraits more or less idealised. The Colleen Bawn, as may be supposed, represents a fairhaired peasant girl, such as one may sometimes find in the northern counties of Ireland, where a light-haired race appears to have predominated from very early times. The “ Colleen Dhu,” on the contrary, is a fine specimen of a Munster or Connaught lass, of a race distinct from that of her fair companion. They are types of two great races who long contended for the mastery of this kingdom—the fair-haired, blue or grey-eyed Celt, and the dark mysterious Firvolg. The types remain to this day quite distinct and separate in several parts of Ireland, but they are now equally Irish. The “ Colleens” have merit of a very high order, and would be pleasing even to the unskilled in Art, on account of their natural grace and beauty of expression. Mr. Jones is one of our most successful painters of likenesses in water.colours. His contributions to the present exhibition are numerous. In our estimation his best picture is No 303—" Portrait of Mrs. W. Exbam and Children,” wherein he shows not only a mastery over the difficulties of expression and child drawing, but a really wonderful power of dress painting.

We believe we have now noticed most of the paintings by Irish artists in the exhibition of the Academy, which have ceased to belong to the painters. We cannot conclude without a few passing remarks on a subject which will, no doubt, interest many of our readers.

Amongst the architectural drawings, few can fail to be struck with the exquisitely beautiful designs for churches to be, or now being, erected in various parts of the country. Twenty years ago (we might, perhaps, write a less number) the state of ecclesiastical architecture in Ireland was as hopeless as could well be. Even when there was money to be expended on a large and important structure, the designs were generally so poor and tasteless, that we heartily wish the building in many instances had been deferred. Costly corbels sustaining nothing, windows in niches, buttresses terminating in swollen spikes, or perhaps pagan urns, windows filled

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