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SECTION 200. Instrument; how discharged.
201. When persons secondarily liable on, discharged.
204. Cancellation; unintentional; burden of proof.
206. What constitutes a material alteration.
§ 200. Instrument; how discharged.
A negotiable instrument is discharged:
1. By payment in due course by or on behalf of the principal debtor;
2. By payment in due course by the party accommodated, where the instrument is made or accepted for accommodation;
3. By the intentional cancellation thereof by the holder;
4. By any other act which will discharge a simple contract for the payment of money;
5. When the principal debtor becomes the holder of the instru ment at or after maturity in his own right.
§ 201. When persons secondarily liable on, discharged.
A person secondarily liable on the instrument is discharged:
1. By any act which discharges the instrument;
2. By the intentional cancellation of his signature by the holder; 3. By the discharge of a prior party;
4. By a valid tender of payment made by a prior party;
5. By a release of the principal debtor, unless the holder's right of recourse against the party secondarily liable is expressly reserved;
6. By any agreement binding upon the holder to extend the time of payment or to postpone the holder's right to enforce the instrument, unless the right of recourse against such party is expressly reserved.
§ 202. Right of party who discharges, instrument.
Where the instrument is paid by a party secondarily liable thereon, it is not discharged; but the party so paying it is remitted to his former rights as regards all prior parties, and he may strike out his own and all subsequent indorsements, and again negotiate the instrument, except:
1. Where it is payable to the order of a third person, and has been paid by the drawer; and
2. Where it was made or accepted for accommodation, and has been paid by the party accommodated.
§ 203. Renunciation by holder.
The holder may expressly renounce his rights against any party to the instrument, before, at or after its maturity. An absolute and unconditional renunciation of his rights against the principal debtor made at or after the maturity of the instrument, discharges the instrument. But a renunciation does not affect the rights of a holder in due course without notice. A renunciation must be in writing, unless the instrument is delivered up to the person primarily liable thereon.
204. Cancellation; unintentional; burden of proof.
A cancellation made unintentionally, or under a mistake, or without the authority of the holder, is inoperative; but where an instrument or any signature thereon appears to have been canceled the burden of proof lies on the party who alleges that the cancellation was made unintentionally, or under a mistake or without authority.
§ 205. Alteration of instrument; effect of.
Where a negotiable instrument is materially altered without the assent of all parties liable thereon, it is avoided, except as against a party who has himself made, authorized or assented to the alteration and subsequent indorsers. But when an instrument has been materially altered and is in the hands of a holder in due course, not a party to the alteration, he may enforce payment thereof according to its original tenor.
§ 206. What constitutes a material alteration.
1. The date;
2. The sum payable, either for principal or interest;
4. The number or the relations of the parties;
5. The medium or currency in which payment is to be made; Or which adds a place of payment where no place of payment is specified, or any other change or addition which alters the effect of the instrument in any respect, is a material alteration.
BILL OF EXCHANGE; FORM AND INTERPRETATION.
SECTION 210. Bill of exchange defined.
211. Bill not an assignment of funds in hands of drawee.
213. Inland and foreign bills of exchange.
214. When bill may be treated as promissory note.
215. Referee in case of need.
210. Bill of exchange defined.
A bill of exchange is an unconditional order in writing addressed by one person to another, signed by the person giving it, required the person to whom it is addressed to pay on demand or at a fixed or determinable future time a sum certain in money to order or to bearer.
§ 211. Bill not an assignment of funds in hands of drawee. A bill of itself does not operate as an assignment of the funds in the hands of the drawee available for the payment thereof and the drawee is not liable on the bill unless and until he accepts the
212. Bill addressed to more than one drawee.
A bill may be addressed to two or more drawees jointly, whether they are partners or not; but not to two or more drawees in the alternative or in succession.
§ 213. Inland and foreign bills of exchange.
An inland bill of exchange is a bill which is, or on its face purports to be, both drawn and payable within this state. Any other bill is a foreign bill. Unless the contrary appears on the face of the bill, the holder may treat it as an inland bill.
§ 214. When bill may be treated as promissory note.
Where in a bill the drawer and drawee are the same person, or where the drawee is a fictitious person, or a person not having capacity to contract, the holder may treat the instrument, at his option, either as a bill of exchange or a promissory note.
§ 215. Referee in case of need.
The drawer of a bill and any indorser may insert thereon the name of a person to whom the holder may resort in case of need, that is to say, in case the bill is dishonored by non-acceptance or non-payment. Such person is called the referee in case of need. It is in the option of the holder to resort to the referee in case of need or not as he may see fit.