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Daemoniack phrenzy, mopeing melancholy,
And moon-struck madness, pineing atrophy,
Marasmus, and wide-wasteing pestilence,

Dropfies and afthmas, and joint-racking rheums."* The onely mode in which man or brute can be useful or hapy, with respect either to the generality or to the individual, is to be just, mild, mercyful, benevolent, humane, or, at least, innocent or harmless, whether such qualitys be natural or not; but if the present system of murder, bloodshed, cruelty, malignance, and mischief, should continue, it would be better that such diabolical monsters should cease to exist :

« Let heaven kiss earth! Now let not Natures hand
Keep the wild food confine’d! Let order dye !
And let this world no longer be a stage,
To feed contention in a lingering act;
But let one fpirit of the first-born Cain
Reign in all bosoms, that, each heart being fet
On bloody actions, the rude scene may end,
And darkness be the buryer of the dead.”-

Shakspeare, Second part of Henry IV.

* Paradise loff, B. 11.

CHAP. II.

ANIMAL FOOD

ANIMAL FOOD NOT NATURAL TO MAN.

VOT

The two most general distinctions of the carnivorous tribes of quadrupeds are deduce’d, one from the figure of the teeth, and the other from the conformation of the intestines. The ani. mals that subsist on vegetables have all of them blunt teeth, as the horse, the ox, the sheep, and the hare; but the teeth of animals naturally care nivorous are harp, as those of the car, the dog, the wolf and the fox. As to the intestines the frugivorous have some, such as the colon, which are not to be found in the carnivorous. It seems, therefor, that, the teeth and intestines of man being like those of frugivorous animals, he should, naturally, be range'd in this class. This question is not onely confirm’d by anatomical observations, but is greatly favour'd by the monuments of antiquity. *

* Rousseau, Dissertation on the inequality of mankind, note 5. The hypothesis of Buffon on this subject is satisfactoryly confuteëd by doctor Sparrman, in his Voyage to the cape of Good-bops, ii, 227, &c.

Quadrupeds of the hog kind, like the rapacious kinds, are found to have short intestines, their hoofs, allso, though cloveën to the fight, wil, upon anatomical inspection, appear to be supply'd with bones like beasts of prey; and the number of their teats, allso, increase the fimilitude: on the other hand, in a natural state, they live upon vegetables, and feldom seek after animal food, except when urge'd by necessity. They offend no other animal of the forest, at the same time that they are furnish'd with arms to terrify the braveëst.*

From the tenderness of mans skin, and the great care that is require’d, for years together, to rear him; from the make of his jaws, the evenness of his teeth, the breadth of his nails, and the flightness of both, it is not, in Mandevilles opinion, that Nature should have design'd him for rapine.t.

One proof, says Rousseau, that the taste of meat is not natural to the human palate, is the indifference which children have for that kind of food, and the preference they give to vegeta. ble aliments, such as milk-meats, pastry, fruit,

* Goldsmith's History of the earth, iv, 201, 214. † Fable of the bees, I, 226. i win .

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&c* (which, certainly, agree with them better.] +

Lord Monboddo says, “ though i think that man has, from nature, the capacity of liveing, either by prey, or upon the fruits of the earth, it appears to me, that, by nature, and in his ori. ginal state, he is a frugivorous animal, and that he only becomes an animal of prey by acquire'd habit.”

* Emilius, i, 286. Brassavolus reports, of the younger daughter of Frederick, king of Naples, that she could not eat any kind of Aesh, nor so much as taste of it; and, as oft as the put any bit of it into her mouth, she was seize'd with a vehement fyncopé, and falling to the earth, and rolling herself thereupon, would lamentablely shriek out. This she would continue to do for the space of half an hour, after she was return'd to herself. (Turners FIistory of remarkable providences, 1697, fo. part 2, C. 2, § 6.)

+ Of males and females, chriften’d, within the general bil of mortality, from December 9, 1800, to December 15, 1801, were in all - - - - - - 17814 Whereof dye'd under two years of age - 5395 - con between two and five - 2063

- 7458 so that near 7,500 of these tender infants perish in the first five years of their life; moft likely in consequence of their being stuf'd with flesh-meat, which is unnatural to them, and, cannot be digested at so early an age : this horrid practice gives rise to a variety of fatal diseaseës, which carry them off; nor can such a numerous obituary be imputeëd to any other cause.

No argument in fact, can be less decisive, or more fallacious, than that deduce'd from the canine teeth of the human jaw. The kanguroo, an animal of the gerboa kind, has canine teeth, and yet its onely food, at least the onely food it is known to eat, is grass.* There was once an ape in the French kings cabinet with twentyeight tecth, of which four were what we call canine, resembleing those of the human species. Nevertheless, these apes feed entirely upon fruit ; our canine teeth, therefor, are no proof that man is naturally carnivorous.

The ourang-outang, or pongo, described by Battel, which resembles man more nearly, and is furnish'd with a much greater share of fagacity, and appearance of reason, than any other animal but man, never meddles with animal flesh, but lives on nuts and other wild fruits.t Neither are baboons, which bear some, though less, resemblance, to the human species, at all carnivorous ; they principally feed upon fruits, roots,

* Goldsmiths History of the earth, iv. 351.

+ Rousseau, On the inequality of mankind, note 10.' The animal of this kind dissected by doctor Tyson, had two dentes canini, as in a man. “ The teeth,” he says, “ of the cynocepbali {baboons] are like a dags; those of our pygmie exactly resembled a mans. It had, also, intestines like those of a man.” (See his Anatomy, &c. p. 65, 7.)

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