Systematics and Evolution
Mycology, the study of fungi, originated as a subdiscipline of botany and was a des criptive discipline, largely neglected as an experimental science until the early years of this century. A seminal paper by Blakeslee in 1904 provided evidence for self incompatibility, termed "heterothallism", and stimulated interest in studies related to the control of sexual reproduction in fungi by mating-type specificities. Soon to follow was the demonstration that sexually reproducing fungi exhibit Mendelian inheritance and that it was possible to conduct formal genetic analysis with fungi. The names Burgetf, Kniep and Lindegren are all associated with this early period of fungal genet ics research. These studies and the discovery of penicillin by Fleming, who shared a Nobel Prize in 1945, provided further impetus for experimental research with fungi. Thus began a period of interest in mutation induction and analysis of mutants for biochemical traits. Such fundamental research, conducted largely with Neurospora crassa, led to the one gene: one enzyme hypothesis and to a second Nobel Prize for fungal research awarded to Beadle and Tatum in 1958. Fundamental research in biochemical genetics was extended to other fungi, especially to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and by the mid-1960s fungal systems were much favored for studies in eukaryotic molecular biology and were soon able to compete with bacterial systems in the molecular arena.
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The Taxonomy of Anamorphic Fungi
R BAUER D BEGEROW F OBERWINKLER M PIEPENBRING
The Naming of Fungi
Cultivation and Preservation of Fungi in Culture
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agar Agaricales analysis anamorphic Aphyllophorales Appl Microbiol ascomycetes Ascomycota Auriculariales ballistosporic Bandoni RJ basid basidia basidiocarps basidiomycetes basidiomycetous yeasts basidiospores basidium Bauer Begerow Berbee Boekhout bolete clade Botanical Bruns cantharelloid cells characters chytrids clade clamp cluster Code conidia corticioid Cryptococcus culture Dacrymycetales dikaryotic diverse Donk Entyloma epibasidia euagarics clade evolution Fell JW fruiting bodies fungal fungus gasteroid gene genera genetic genus germination Hawksworth Heterobasidiomycetes Hibbett homobasidiomycetes homothallic host Hymenomycetes hyphae Ingold interaction iomycetes Malassezia McLaughlin meiosis molecular monophyletic morphology Mycol Soc Mycologia mycoparasitic Mycotaxon names neoformans nomenclature Oberw Oberwinkler F parasites parenthesomes phylogenetic phylogeny plants polyporoid clade rDNA sequences Rhodosporidium Rhodotorula ribosomal rRNA russuloid clade septa septal pore smut fungi species spores Sporidiobolus Sporobolomyces Stud Mycol studies Swann and Taylor Syst systematics taxa taxon taxonomic teleomorphic teliospores Tilletiopsis tion trees Tremella Tremellales Tulasnella ultrastructural unpubl Urediniomycetes Ustilaginomycetes Ustilago Vánky yeasts