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In such another trick: go, bring the rabble,
Ari. Before you can say, Come, and go,
you love me, master? no. Pro. Dearly, my delicate Ariel : Do not ap
proach, Till thou doft hear me call. Ari.
Well I conceive. [Exit. Pro. Look, thou be true ; do not give dalliance Too much the rein; the strongest oaths are straw To the fire i’the blood : be more abstemious, Or else, good night, your vow! Fer.
I warrant you, fir; The white-cold virgin snow upon my heart
9 - the rabble,] The crew of meaner fpirits. Johnson. . Some vanity of mine art;] So, in the unprinted romance of EMARE, quoted by Mr. Warton in his differtation on the Gesla Romanorum, (a Prefix to the third Vol. of the History of English
“ The emperour faid on hygh,
“ Or ellys a vanite. i.e. an illufion. STEEVENS.
Come, and go,
“ Come, and trip it as you go
Abates the ardour of my liver.
A Masque. Enter Iris. Iris. Ceres, most bounteous lady, thy rich leas Of wheat, rye, barley, vetches, oats, and pease; Thy turfy mountains, where live nibbling Theep, And flat meads thatch'd with stover, them to keep; Thy banks with peonied and lilied brims, Which fpungy April at thy hest betrims,
bring a corollary,] That is, bring more than are sufficient, rather than fail for want of numbers. Corollary means surplus. Corolaire, Fr. See Cotgrave's Dictionary. STEEVENS,
§ No tongue ;] Those who are present at incantations are obliged to be strictly filent, “ else” as we are afterwards told, “ the spell is marred," JOHNSON.
6 - thatch'd with ftover,] Stover (in Cambridgeshire and other counties) fignifies hay made of coarse, rank grafs, such as even cows will not eat while it is green. Stover is likewise used as thatch for cart-lodges, and other buildings that deserve but rude and cheap coverings. The word occurs in the 25th Song of Drayton's Polyolbion :
“ To draw out sedge and reed, for thatch and flower fit.” Again, in his Mufes' Elyzium : “ 'Their browse and stover waxing thin and scant.”
STEVENS Tby bank with peonied, and lilied brims,] The old edition reads pioned and twilled brims, which gave rise to Mr. Holt's conjecture, that the poet originally wrote
with pioned and tilled brims." Peonied is the emendation of Hanmer. Spenser and the author of Muleases the Turk, a tragedy, 1610, use pioning for digging. It is not therefore difficult to find a meaning for the word as it stands in the old copy; and remove a letter from twilled, and it leaves us tilled. I am yet, however, in doubt whether we ought not to read lilied brims; for Plini',
To make cold nymphs chaste crowns; and thy
broom groves, Whose shadow the dismissed bachelor loves,
B. XXVI. ch. X. mentions the water-lily as a preserver of chastity; and says, elsewhere, that the Peony medetur Frmoram in Quiete Ludibriis, &c. In a poem entitled The Herring's Tayle, 410. 1598, “the mayden pigny" is introduced. In the Arraigrement of Paris, 1584, are mentioned
“ The watry flow'rs, and lillies of the banks.” And Edward Fenton in his Secrete Wonders
of Nature, 4t0. B.VI. 1569, afferts, that “ the water-lily mortifieth altogether the appetite of fenfualitie, and defends from unchaste thoughts and dreames of venery."
In the 20th song of Drayton's Polyolbion, the Naiades are represented as making chaplets with all the tribe of aquatic flowers ; and Mr. Tollet informs me, that Lyte's Herbal says, of peonie is called by some, maiden or virgin peonie.”
In Ovid's Banquet of Sense, by Chapman, 1595, I meet with the following stanza, in which twill-pants are enumerated among flowers :
“ White and red jasmines, merry, melliphill,
“ Fair crown imperial, emperor of flowers ;
“ And cup-like t-will-pants ftrew'd in Bacchus' bowers." If twill be the ancient name of any flower, the old reading, Pioned and twilled, may ftand. Steevens.
Mr. Warton, in his notes upon Milton, after filently acquiescing in the substitution of pionied for pioned, produces from the ARCADES “ Ladon's lillied banks," as an example to countenance a further change of twilled to lillied, which, accordingly, Mr. Rann hath foifted into the text. But before such a licence is allowed, may it not be aked-If the word pionied can any where be found ? or (admitting such a verbal from peony, like Milton's lillied from lily, to exift)-On the banks of what river do peonies grow ?-Or (if the banks of any river should be discovered to yield them) whether they and the lilies that, in common with them, betrim those banks, be the produce of spungy APRIL!-Or, whence it can be gathered that İris here is at all speaking of the banks of a river?_and, whether, as the bank in question is the property, not of a water-nymph, but of Ceres, it is not to be considered as an object of her care ?-Hither the Goddess of husbandry is represented as resorting, because at the approach of spring, it becomes needful to repair the banks (or mounds) of the flat meads, whose grass not only shooting over, but being more fucculent
Being lass-lorn;' thy pole-clipt vineyard ; *
than that of the turfy mountains, would, for want of this precaution, be devoured, and so the intended fover [hay, or winter keep) with which these meads are proleptically described as Thatched, be loft.
The giving way and caving in of the brims of those banks, occafioned by the heat, rains, and frosts of the preceding year, are made good, by opening the trenches from whence the banks themselves were at first raised, and facing them afresh with the mire those trenches contain. This being done, the brims of the banks are, in the poet's language, pioned and twilled.—Mr. Warton himself, in a note upon Comus, hath cited a passage in which pioners are explained to be diggers (rather trenchers] and Mr. Steevens mentions Spenser and the author of Muleasses, as both using pioning for digging. Twilled is obviously formed from the participle of the French verb touiller, which Cotgrave interprets filthily to mix or mingle; con found or shuffle together; bedirt; begrime; bejmear :-- significations that join to confirm the explanation here given.
This bank with pioned and twilled brims is described, as trimmed, at the behest of Ceres, by Spungy April, with flowers, to make cold nymphs chafie crowns. These flowers were neither peonies nar lilies, for they never blow at this season, but “ ladysmocks all filver white,” which during this humid month, start up in abundance on such banks, and thrive like oats on the same kind of foil:• Avoine touillée croist comme enragée.”—That OU changes into W, in words derived from the French, is apparent in cordwainer, from cordouannier, and many others. Henley.
Mr. Henley’s note contends for small proprieties, and abounds with minute observation. But that Shakspeare was no diligent Botanist, may
be ascertained from his erroneous descriptions of a Cowlip, (in the Tempest and Cymbeline) for who ever heard it characterized as a bell-shaped flower, or could allow the drops at the bottom of it to be of a crimson hue? With equal carelessness, or want of information, in the Winter's Tale he enumerates “ lilics of all kinds,” among the children of the spring, and as contemporaries with the daffodil, the primrose, and the violet. It might be added, (if we must speak by the card) that wherever there is a bank there is a ditch; where there is a ditch there may be water; and where there is water the aquatic lilies may flourish, whether the bank in question belongs to a river or a field. These are petty remarks, but they are occasioned by petty cavils. It was enough for our author that Peonies and Lilies were well-known
Where thou thyself do'st air: The queen o’the sky,
flowers, and he placed them on any bank, and produced them in any of the genial months, that particularly suited his purpose. He who has confounded the customs of different ages and nations, might easily confound the produce of the seasons.
That his documents de Re Rufticâ were more exact, is equally improbable. He regarded objects of Agriculture, &c. in the gross, and little thought, when he meant to bestow some ornamental epithet on the banks appropriated to a Goddess, that a future critic would wish him to say their brims were filthily mixed or mingled, confounded or shuffled together, bedirted, begrimed, and besmeared. Mr. Henley, however, has not yet proved the existence of the derivative which he labours to introduce as an English word; nor will the lovers of elegant description wish him much success in his attempt. Unconvinced therefore by his strictures, I shall not exclude a border of flowers to make room for the graces of the spade, or what Mr. Pope, in his Dunciad, has styled" the majesty of mud.” STEEVENS.
8 - and thy broom groves,] A grove of broom, I believe, was never heard of, as it is a low Thrub and not a tree. Hanmer very elegantly reads, brown groves. Steevens.
Disappointed lovers are still faid to wear the willow, and in these lines broom groves are alligned to that unfortunate tribe for a retreat.
allude to some old cuftom. We still say that a husband hangs out the broom when his wife goes from home for a fort time; and on such occasions a broom besom has been exhibited as a signal that the house was freed from uxorial restraint, and where the master might be considered as a temporary bachelor. Broom grove may signify broom bushes. See Grava in Cowel's Law Diat. TOLLET.
9 Being lass-lorn ;] Lass-lorn is forfaken of his mistress. So Spenser:
“ Who after that he had fair Una lorn." STEVENS. - thy pole-clipt vineyard ;] To clip is to tvine round or embrace. The poles are clipd or embraced by the vines. Vineyard is here used as a trifyllable. STEVENS.