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PRO.

O, was she so? I must,
Once in a month, recount what thou hast been,
Which thou forget'st. This damn'd witch, Sycorax,
For mischiefs manifold, and sorceries terrible
To enter human hearing, from Argier,
Thou know'st, was banish'd; for one thing she did,
They would not take her life: Is not this true?

Ari. Ay, fir.
Pro. This blue-ey'd hag was hither brought

with child,
And here was left by the sailors: Thou, my Nave,
As thou report'st thyself, wast then her servant:
And, for thou wast a spirit too delicate
To act her earthy and abhorr'd commands,
Refusing her grand hests, she did confine thee,
By help of her more potent ministers,
And in her most unmitigable rage,
Into a cloven pine; within which rift
Imprison'd, thou didst painfully remain
A dozen years; within which space she died,
And left thee there; where thou didft vent thy groans,
As fast as mill-wheels strike: Then was this island,
(Save for the son that she did litter here,
A freckled whelp, hag-born) not honour'd with
A human shape.
ARI.

Yes; Caliban her son. Pro. Dull thing, I say so; he, that Caliban, Whom now I keep in service. Thou best know'st What torment I did find thee in: thy groans Did make wolves howl, and penetrate the brcasts Of ever-angry bears; it was a torment To lay upon the damn'd, which Sycorax Could not again undo; it was mine art, When I arriv'd, and heard thee, that made gape The pine, and let thee out.

I thank thee, master.

ARI.

Pro. Ifthou more murmur'st, I will rend an oak, And

peg thee in his knotty entrails, till Thou hast howl'd away twelve winters. ARI.

Pardon, master: I will be correspondent to command, And do my fpriting gently. Pro.

. Do so; and after two days I will discharge thee. Ari.

That's my noble master! What shall I do? say what? what shall I do?

Pro. Go make thyself like to a nymph o' the sea ;* Be subject to no sight but mine; invisible To every eye-ball else.” Go, take this shape, And hither come in't: hence, with diligence.

Exit ARIEL.

4 — to a nymph o' the sea;] There does not appear to be sufficient cause why Ariel should allume this new shape, as he was to be invisible to all eyes but those of Prospero. Steevens. s Be subject to no fight but mine ; invisible To every eye-ball elje.] The old copy reads

“ Be subject to no fight but thine and mine; invisible," &c. But redundancy in the first line, and the ridiculous precaution that Ariel should not be invisible to himjelf, plainly prove that the words and thine were the interpolations of ignorance.

STEEVENS. Go make thyself like a nymph o' the sea : be fubje&i

To no fight but thine and mine ; invisible, &c.] The words “ be subject"-having been transferred in the first copy of this play to the latter of these lines, by the carelessness of the transcriber or printer, the editor of the second folio, to supply the metre of the former, introduced the word to ;-reading, “ like to a nymph o' the sea.” The regulation that I have made, shews that the addition, like many others made by that editor, was unnecessary. MALONE.

My arrangement of this passage, admits the word to, which, I think, was judiciously restored by the editor of the second folio.

STEEVENS. And hither come in't: hence with diligence.] The old copy reads-

“ And hither come in't: go, hence with diligence.” The transcriber or compcftor had caught the word ge from the preceding line. Ritson. Vol. III.

D

Awake, dear heart, awake! thou hast Nept well;
Awake!

Mira. The strangeness of your story put
Heaviness in me.
PRO.

Shake it off: Come on;
We'll visit Caliban, my save, who never
Yields us kind answer.
MIRA.

'Tis à villain, fir,
I do not love to look on.
Pro.

But, as 'tis,
We cannot miss him:8 he does make our fire,
Fetch in our wood; and serves in offices
That profit us. What, ho! Nave! Caliban!
Thou earth, thou! speak.

Cal. [Within] There's wood enough within.
Pro. Come forth, I say; there's other business

for thee: Come forth, thou tortoise! when?!

? The strangeness ] Why should a wonderful story produce sleep? I believe experience will prove, that any violent agitation of the mind easily subsides in flumber, especially when, as in Profpero's relation, the last images are pleasing. Johnson.

The poet seems to have been apprehenfive that the audience, as well as Miranda, would fleep over this long but necessary tale, and therefore strives to break it. First, by making Prospero diveft himself of his magic robe and wand; then by waking her attention no less than fix times by verbal interruption : then by varying the action when he rises and bids her continue fitting: and lastly, by carrying on the business of the fable while Miranda Peeps, by which she is continued on the stage till the poet has occafion for her again. WARNER. 8 We cannot miss him:] That is, we cannot do without him.

M. MASON. This provincial expression is still used in the midland counties.

MALONE. 9 Come forth, thou tortoise! when?] This interrogation, indicative of impatience in the highest degree, occurs also in K. Richard II, Act I. sc. i: " When, Harry ?" See note on this passage.

Re-enter Ariel, like a water-12ymph.
Fine apparition! My quaint Ariel,
Hark in thine ear.
ARI.

My lord, it shall be done. [Exit.
Pro. Thou poisonous save, got by the devil

himself Upon thy wicked dam, come forth!

Enter CALIBAN.

CAL. As wicked dew as e'er my mother brush'd With raven's feather from unwholsome fen, Drop on you both!? a south-west blow on ye, And blister you all o'er!

my

In Prospero's fummons to Caliban, however, as it stands in the old copy, the word forth (which I have repeated for the sake of metre) is wanting. STEVENS. : Cal. As wicked dew, as e er mother brush'd

With raven's feather from unwholesome fen,

Drop on you both!] It was a tradition, it seems, that lord Falkland, lord C. J. Vaughan, and Mr. Selden, concurred in observing, that Shakspeare had not only found out a new character in his Caliban, but had also devised and adapted a new manner of language for that character. What they meant by it, without doubt, was, that Shakspeare gave his language a certain grotesque air of the savage and antique; which it certainly has. But Dr. Bentley took this, of a new language, literally; for speak ing of a phrase in Milton, which he supposed altogether absurd and unmeaning, he says, Satan had not the privilege as Caliban in Shakspeare, to use new phrase and dićtion unknown to all others- and again to practise distances is still a Caliban stile. Note on Milton's Paradise Lost, 1. iv. v. 945. But I know of no such Caliban stile in Shakspeare, that hath new phrase and diction unknown to all others. WARBURTON.

Whence these critics derived the notion of a new language appropriated to Caliban, I cannot find: they ceftainly miftook brutality of sentiment for uncouthness of words. Caliban had learned to speak of Prospero, and his daughter; he had no names for the sun and moon before their arrival, and could not have invented a language of his own, without more understanding than Shakspeare has thought it proper to bestow upon him. His diction is indeed

Pro. For this, be sure, to-night thou thalt have

cramps, Side-stitches that shall pen thy breath up; urchins Shall, for that vast of night that they may work, *

3

somewhat clouded by the gloominess of his temper, and the malignity of his purposes; but let any other being entertain the same thoughts, and he will find them easily issue in the fame expressions.

JOHNSON, As wicked dew,] Wicked; having baneful qualities. So Spenser says, wicked weed; so, in opposition, we say herbs or medicines have virtues. Bacon mentions virtuous bezoar, and Dryden virtuous herbs. JOHNSON.

So, in the Booke of Haukyng, &c. bl. 1. no date : “ If a wycked “ fellon be swollen in such manner that a man may hele it, the “ hauke shall not dye.” Under K. Henry VI. the parliament petitioned against hops, as a wicked weed. See Fuller's Worthies : Efex. STEEVENS.

3 - urchins-] i. e. hedgehogs.

Urchins are enumerated by Reginald Scott among other terrific beings. So, in Chapman's May Day, 1611 : to fold thyself up

like an urchin." Again, in Selimus Emperor of the Turks, 1638 :

What, are the urchins crept out of their dens,

“ Under the conduct of this porcupine!” Urchins are perhaps here put for fairies. · Milton in his Masque speaks of “ urchin blafts," and we still call any little dwarfish child, an urchin. The word occurs again in the next act. The echinus, or sea hedge-hog, is still denominated the urchin. STEEVENS.

In the M. W. of Windsor we have “ urchins, ouphes, and fairies;" and the paffage to which Mr. Steevens alludes, proves, I think, that urchins here signifies beings of the fairy kind:

“ His /pirits hear me, “ And yet I needs must curse; but they'll nor pinch, Fright me with urchin-fbews, pitch me i'the mire,” &c.

MALONE. In fupport of Mr. Steevens's note, which does not appear fatisfactory to Mr. Malone, take the following proofs from Hormanni Vulgaria, 4to. 1515: P. 109 :-“ Urchyns or Hedgehoggis, full of Tharpe pryckillys, whan they know that they be hunted, make them rounde lyke a balle.”—Again,—“ Porpyns have longer prykels than urchyns.Douce.

4 for that vast of night that they may work,] The vast of night

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