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said to have declined in some particular districts, but to be increasing yearly, as a general practice.

The stock of turnips and cattle food at present, very sufficient and good, remaining onhart by the frost. The stock of cat:le itself, very great, and markets going on in the general routine. Store pigs, although in considerable plenty, very dear; much pork expected to be made. Great demand from Ireland for breeding stock of this description. The fiorin grass, the uses of which have latety been discovered by Dr. Richardson, of Clonfecle, in Ireland, under experimental culture in various parts of England, Scotland, and Wales, and great hopes entertained of its utility. The wbeat markets have been for some time at a stand, but to expect them cheaper, seems out of all probability, since the crop has at last turned out considerably below an ave. rage one; and the increasing demand, both for home consumption, and that of our armies and allies abroad, will be fully equal to our power of supply, however considerable may be the imports.

Smithfield. Beef, 5s. to 6s.-Mutton, 53, 60.-Veal, 6s. 8d. to 8s. 88.-House. Jamb, 7s, to 10s.-- Pork, 5s. 4d. to 7s. 8d. - Bacon, 7s, 2d. to 7s. 60.-Irish bacon, 0s. 8d.-Fat, 45. 60. to 4s. 8d.-Skins, 25s. to 40s.

Middlesex, Jan. 2?.

· MONTALY BOTANICAL REPORT. TIE BOTANICAL Magazine for last month contains,

Alöe Radula of Jacquin, the attenuata of Haworth. Of the smaller alöes, which are better suited to the size of the work, Mr. Edwards has given some excellent spe. cimens of his superior skill as an artist. Indeed we have seldom witnessed any thing superior, even in the splendid botanical productions of the Paris press.

Alöe saponaria B. latifolia; one of the old varieties of perfoliata; a very large species, but of which a good idea is given by the insertion of a diminished outline: representing the habit of the whole plant. Mr. Ker has in this, as in all the tribe, taken great pains to elucidate the confused synonimy. He informs us that the smaller variety of this (a) minor, is the umbellata of Decandolle, excluding all his synonyms, which belong to A. picta: and is also the picta (B) minor, of the new edition of the Hortus Kewensis, as far as regards the synonym of the late edition; but that those qnoted from Linnæus and Dillenius belong to A. picta. Although this species has been called American aloe, and Carolina aloe, it is not a native of America, but of the Cape.

Taonus Eliphantipcs, a female plant of the Cape Bryony, from Mr. Knight's col. lection in the King's-road, Chelsea. A male plant flowered in 1783, in the Ker. garden, from which M, L'Heritier had a drawing taken for his Sertum Anglicum ; the engraving, however, though quoted in books, was never published; nor is there any figure of it that we know of extant. To those who have never seen this very singular plant, Mr. Edwards's outline sketch behind the flowering stem will not be easily anderstood. It represents the curious rootstock, which rises above the surface of the ground, and somewhat resembles a hemispherical section of the trunk, or rather of a warty excrescence, of some old tree. In this apparently lifeless state, it sometimes remains many months, now and then putting forth climbjag stems, bearing alternate cordate leaves, with liere and there branches of flowers in the axils of their footstalks, much in the same manner as the common black bryony. It is this shapeJess, massive rootstock that has occasioned its being called, by the inhabitants of the Cape, the Elephant's-foot.

Hermannia tenuifolia: a new species, which is probably lost to our gardens, as the drawing was taken in Mr. Curtis's time, and, except an imperfect specimen in the Banksian Herbarium, Dr. Siins has not been able to find any thing respecting its existence.

Hermannia flammea, a beautiful little shrub from Mr. Knight's collection. Al. though we are presented with a good drawing of this plant, with flowers fully ex. panded, yet, as it is rarely seen in this state, we could have wished that some of the flowers at least had been represented in their very remarkably tight-twisted state, in which they look almost as if the tips had been rounded off with a pair of scissárs. Mr. Andrews, in his Botanist's Repository, though his figure is otherwise very indiffcrent, has seized this peculiarity. The nocturnal fragrance of the flowers adds to the value of this plant.

Astragalus sinicus. It seems remarkable that this pretty little annual should never have beca before figured, though it has been at times in our gardens for forty years past.

Tropæolum peregrinunt. This is at present a scarce, and considered as a tender plant; but being a native of the same country as the common tropeolum majus, there seems no reason why it should not become as bardy as that which is now almost naturalized to our clime: for Miller says, that this last will sow itself, and come up spon. taneous the following summer, in favourable situations. There are several species of

this singular genus recorded in the Flora Peruviana, and it is not improbable, that distinct plants have been confounded upder the name of T. peregrinum; Dr. Sims doubts if Feuillee's plant, cited as a synonym of this by all preceding writers, be the same, However this may be, there is no doubt respecting Jacquin's plant, well figured in his Hortus Schoenbrunensis.

The EnglisFlora, for last month, offers to our notice,

Rubus saxatilis, a native of high mountains in the northern part of the island. The specimen from which the drawing was taken was gathered by Mr. Borrex, at Roslin. famous for its antique chapel, and delicious strawberries.

Brasrica campestris. Dr. Sinita remarks, that great uncertainty has existed among British authors, even from the time of Ray, respecting this plant. Hudson's campestris is a mere yellow variety of orientalis. According to Mr. Edw. Forster, this is the come mon wild naves, growing abundantly by the sides of rivers, marsh ditches, &c.; and that the B. Nopus of English Flora, is the rape, or cole-seed, so commonly cultivated.

Hieruicium prenanthoides. Brorght from Scotland many years ago by Mr. Dixon. and has been ever since in Mr. E. Forster's garden, from whence the drawing was made, Dr. Sunith chserves that, in the Fiora Britannica, he had confounded this want with denticulatum. There continues to be great difficulty in settling the species of this genus. Dr. Smith believes, from the dried speciinens he has received from Mr. G. Don. that the Scottisb species are not yet all determined, but that the greatest attention to living plants can alone enable him to reduce them to order. When that is accomplished, he possesses ample materials for settling their synonyms.

Carex Micheliana, introduced into Dr. Sunith's Flora Britannica, he is now convinced is only a variety of recurva, as which he first received it from Dr. Beattie, of Aberdeen. The name of Micheliana being therefore superfluous, as Dr. Smith himself allows, ought aot surely to have been suffered to stand as the title of this mere variety of recurva.


On the 10th of Jan. the mercury was, as

Observalions on the Stute of the Weather, from the 24th of December 1810, to the 24th of January 1811, inclusive, Four Miles N.N.W. of St. Paul's. Barometer.

Hiehest, 30-10. Dec. 30 and 31. Wind N.E. | Highest, 57° Dec. 27. Wind S.W.
Lowest, 28:20. Dec. 25,

S.W. Lowest, 190 jan. 10. - N. E.
In the morning
of the second inst.

Greatest) 51 hun.
the thermometer

is seen above, at 19e, stood at 29.87, and variation in 23o. variation in dredths of


but on the 11th it was at the same hour 24 hours. · 24 hours.“ an inch.

at no time lower than on the third, it was no higher

than 29.36. THE quantity of rain fallen this month is but small ; it will be noticed in the next Report It has rained six or seven days, bug there was only a small quantity tell at a time.

The average height of the thermometer, for the whole month, is only 310, it will be in ebe recollection of all, that though at the commencement of our month, viz. the 25th ulcha weather was remarkably mild; yet, for about a fortnight from the 29th, it was very severe during which a good deal of snow fell. There have been some very thick fogs, and much dark and dull weather; nevertheless, the number of brilliant days has been nine. The wind has chiefly been in the northerly quarters, and some days it has blown very violently..

Our correspondent from the Isle of Wight, kas kindly transinitted to us the result of his observations, taken during the months of October, November, and December; by which is appears that the

Average heat for Oct. was 500 nearly.

. Nov. - 440

... Dec. - 490
Quantity of rain that fell in the month of Oct. equal 5.125 7

Nov. 10:400 inches in depth.
........ Dec. - 4.500


By this it will appear, that in the island, as well as in the neighbourhood of the metropolis. those were very rainy months ; in the whole quantity being rather more than 20 inches in depth.

Highgate, Jan. 25, 1814.

PRICES OF STOCKS, from the 1xt of 'ANUARY, 1811, to the 25th of JANUARY, both inclusive.

I Bank


3 perCt. Reduc.

3 per Ct. Consols.

4 per Cell Consols.

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N.B. In the 3 per Cent, Consols the highest and lowest Prices are given; in the other Stocks, the highest only.

Wu. TURQUAND, Stock and Exchange Broker, No. 9, St. Michael's Alley, Cornhibe


No. 210.]

MARCH 1, 1811.

[2 of Vol. 31.

As long as thore who write are ambitious of makiar Converts, and of giving their Opinions a Maximum of

Influence and Celebrity, the trsoft extenfively circulated Miscellany will repay with the grearek Etect the Curiofity of chure who read either for Amusement or Infru&ion.- JOHNSON.

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. . . To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Philadelphia; and they are now forming SIR,

a line from Philadelphia to Baltimore: A FTÉR repeated essays by various when completed, a traveller may go from A ingenious men in different parts Baltimore to Montreal, near eight hunof Europe within thirty years, to navigate dred miles, in steam-boats, with only boats or vessels by the power of steam- about one hundred and fifty miles of landengines, all of which had failed to that carriage. degree which left little hope that the obe Companies are forming I learn to ject would be attained; Mr. Robert build boats on the Mississippi and Fulton, a native of Philadelphia, and Ohio rivers, for the transport of passen. well known in France and England, has gers and merchandize from New Orleans been the forlunate philosopher who has to Pittsburgh, a distance of two thou. established steam-boats with complete sand miles: thus one fortunate invention success in his native country. His first gives a facility of transport and interboat, 150 feet in length, 18 feet wide, course to an immense district of country, was built in 1807 on the Hudson river, õpens new resources to industry, and to carry passengers between the cities gives real strength to a nation. The of New York and Albany, a distance of advantages of these boats, in an agri. 160 miles; which boat, to the astonish cultural and commerciai point of view, ment of the inhabitants of those cities, are incalculable; and, in case of war, performed the voyage in 30 hours. A few their magnitude and certainty are of voyages, and the certainty of her arrival great importance for transporting troops at given places within a given time, soon without fatigue. No country is better established public confidence in this new watered than the United States, nor is mode of conveyance, and drew the pas there any country that we know of so sengers from the stages and common favourable to the extensive practice of sloops into the steam-boat, which prove this invention. As a work of art, your ing lucrative to Mr. Fulton, he, in 1809, scientific readers will take pleasure in started a second and improved boat, the success of Mr. Fulton's steam-boats : called the Car of Neptune.

as a nation, we may fairly calculate that I made a voyage on my way from every improvement which promotes Canada to New York in this vessel, American industry, and multiplies their which is fitted up in a style, and con means of exchanging the products of ducted with a degree of order, that their soil for our manufactures, is a real surpasses any mode of travelling yet in- benefit to us. This gentleman has there septed: however violent the wind, there fore, perbaps, done more for us than is no rolling or lossing, no cause of sick. many cf our countrymen who have added ness from the agitation of waves; the car millions to our national debt, and for moves on majestically, ever on an even this species of talent have their monu. keel.

ments erected in marble. If usefut She was then on her seventy-third talents were honoured, like those de trip for the season, and she was expected voted to destructive pursuits, genius to make eighty trips before the ice closed would seek for honour in the useful the river. In which case, this vessel arts; but an Arkwrigbt, a Boulton, will have run 12,800 miles in one year or a Watt, whose genius have added by the power of steam; or the two boats millions annually to the nation's wealth, equal 25,600 miles. A boat of this kind will not for ages have the honours of a has been established on lake Champlain; Pitt, who added millions annually to our one is contemplated from Montreal to taxes, and forced France to become an Quebec; a line, consisting of two boats, armed nation, whose strength seems to is in foll operation from New York to crush the world. I have on this sub. MONTILY MAS, No. 210,


lime subject of genius, and its useful himself of it in accounting for many application, been led into these res phænomena in the destiny of nations. flections, because in no country are use- A similar effect, but exasperated in ful talents appreciated equal to their degree, arises from the arrangement and worth, unless it be in America. .

constitution of a close corporation, or of W. R. Wilsox. any society which fills up its vacancies by

close election. The causes differ, but To the Editor of the Monthly Mugazine.

the effects are the same; the stupidity of

Bakewell breed, without mixture, for SIR,

eight or ten generations, is far surpassed W H EN our ancient monarchs began by the want of intelligence in the mem

Yo to grant privileges to corporate bers of any close corporation which has bodies, they provided for their contic filled up its own vacancies for an equal nuance by means which at once indicated number of generations. It would be intheir respect for popular rights, and their vidious to name particular bodies, bu knowledge of a principle which they every man's own observation will supply knew was essential to the well-being of him with examples of the justness of such institutions.

these conclusions. The charters of John, and of our The physical cause is not easily to be illustrious Edwards and Henries, were traced, alihough the effect is somewhat all so many charters of popular free. analogous to that which arises from condom; and even under the arbitrary do- tinuing the same crops on the soil; and I mination of the Tudors, the people were have heard even of a recent discovery, empowered by all the royal charters to by which it appears that successive genefill up vacancies in the corporations rations of seed-wheat on the same soil created by those sovereigns.

increase the bulk of the grain, perhaps, It was a refinement of the Stuarts to however, without adding to its vital enerdestroy the old charters and grant new gies. The moral cause may, however, ones, which named a corporation for the be traced with arithmetical precision, time being, and empowered the members and it will appear not to be difficult to to fill up vacancies in their body. Pa ascertain the ratio and degree in which triotism bad, however, little connexion Stupidity increases in close corporationis with the policy of that family; the con- during any given number of generations. sequences therefore of their measures If we suppose that twenty-four persons were regarded as matters of inferior con were named as the first members of any sideration, provided, like the policy of the corporation by the charter of a venal late Mr. Pitt, the evil of the moment was court, it is not very probable that they parried. • Existing circumstances are would consist of persons of superior inalways the measure of conduct, when the tellect, intelligence, and independance. ruling powers are not possessed either of For the sake of argument, however, I sufficient magnaniinity or wisdom to shall grant that they possessed the avecombine the removal of present difficul. Tage of intellect, because the inferences ties with the permanent advantage of will hold then in regard to many selfsociety.

constituted societies, which, at the time The late Mr. Bakewell made a great of their origin, contained an unquestionphysiological discovery, when he ascer. able average of public intellect, tained that all animals degenerate in Let us then attend to the natural proactivity and intellect, if their breed be not gress of such a body. In a short time crossed; and if they continue to breed one of the members dies, and his vain and in, for many generations, without cancy is to be filled up by the other the mixture of other families. By means twenty-three. They look about for a of this principle he enlarged the care successor-not among bold and spicase, and varied the shape, of sheep, rited members of the community-000 oxen, swine, and working horses; and among those who have dared to opowing to their inactivity, his breeds fat. pose the measures of the corporation, tened sooner than all otirer breeds. and who therefore have evinced indeDoubtless, the same principle extends to pendant minds, and superior energies the builan race; and has been produc. but they look for him among a docile and tive of analogous effects in the history of tractable class of citizens, who have been man, particularly in separate lines of roy. 'in the practice of complimenting the alty, nobility, priesthood, casts, and tribes wisdom of the corporate body, and who of people; and the historian may avail have acquired a habit of cringing, flatier.

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