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No. 45. A Head of Aratus. It is not It is supposed to have been a copy of a common heud.
the Cupid of Prariteles, but probably No. 46. A Greet sepulchral Monu- without the slightest foundation. The ment.
face of this Cupid does not appear to No. 47. An Eugle.
me to have that sweet smiling' aspect No. 48. Base of a candelabrum. or beauteous features which characNo. 49. A Heud of Pluutilla. cerize in other figures the god of love. . No. 50. An Allar.'
No. 73. A Bacchante holding the No. 51, A sepulchral Cippus.
hind-quarter of a kid. The transparent No. 52. Libera.
drapery is the famous crocota, their disNo. 53. Adonis.
tinctive habit, when not clothed in the No. 54. An unknown Female.
tiger's skin. The kid is common. No. 55. Ceres crowned in the manner No. 74. A small Hercules. It is of Isis. Ceres was the emblem of the fine. productive power of the earth, whence - No. 75. Gordianus Africanus the she is confounded with the Egyptian elder, a bust. There are portraits of all lsis, the Phænician Venus, and Vesta, the Gordians, in the gems of the Palais
No. 56. & Head of Nero. Busts of Royal, tom. ii. pl. 48, 49, 50; but Nero are very rare. In the superb col- busts are not common. lection of imperial portraits at the villa No. 76. A Hand. Albani there is no Nero; of the two at No. 77. An unknown female Head, the Capitol, one is almost wholly reston with hoitow sockets, for coloured stones, red, the other represents Nero as a or other materials, in substitution of child.
eyes. The Egyptians began this fashion; · No. 57 to 62, include á dotive Foot; it was less coinmon amoug the Greeks; sepulchrot Cippus; an Urn; an Altar; but the Romans pushed it to such exa head of Minerva ; a funeral Monument travagang lengths, as to insert rubies,. of Damocles.
emeralds, or even coloured glass, in No. 63. An infant Bacchus. The stead of eyes. See Cayl. Rec. i. 30. crown of ivy, and the goat's skin, &c. ii. pl. n. 2, 3. and Winckelm. Art. iv. show this statue to be siinilar to that en- c. 7. graved by Montfaucon, o. i. p. 2. v. i. No. 78. Sarcophugus. . 6. 12.
No. 79. A fragment of a mask of No. 64. A votive Allar,
Bacchus. The masks which chiefiy refer No. 65. Caracalla. His busts are to the feasts of Bacchus are representcommon. There are two at the Capitol, ed upon many coins of Neapolis, in one in the Florentine Museum, another Macedonia; Populonium, in Etruria; at the villa Albani; French Museum, Abydus, in the Troad; Parium, in My&c.
sia; Camarina, Mazara, in Sicily; and · No. 06. Fragment of a Toe.
especially those of Thrace and MaceNo. 67. An dliar, sucred to Bac- donia; where these feasts were celebrachus.
ted with more solemnity. These masks No. 68. 720 Dogs. These have are, for the most part, hideous, and such been much admired; at least, by those as Virgil describes, Georgic, iii. $88. Of who like the animals of the ancients. masks of Bacchus, see Antiq. Expliq.
No. 69. bust of Mureellus. A o. ii. 89.; repeated in the Miscellunes bronze bust of Hercules, kuown to be of Spon. In the Maffei collection bis by the ears, has been mistaken for (Gemme Antiche, iij. tuo. 64.) is a trec Marcellus. (Bronzi Ercol. tud. 49.) upon which are suspended many small Qu, if this be a Marcellus ?
masks, alluding to the feasts of Bacchus. • No. 70. An unknown Head.
See too the famous Vase of S. Dennis, No. 71. Fragment of a Foot.
where are numerous masks of this No. 71. A Muse holding & Lyre. It kind. Sce further Plutarch's Roman is Terpsichore. Wincklemann(Art.4.2.) Questions. . says thus of the lyre in the hands of a No. 80. A totide Foot, with a serpent Muse, in the paintings of Herculanum, twined around it. The serpent is cerwith this inscription, TEP*IXOPH Ar tainly the known symbol of Esculapius, PAN. It is a small lyre, and made pro. and medicine; because, every year, bably like that made by Mercury, with casting its skill, it resembled renovation the shell of a tortoise, and which was and fresh youth. Father Montfaucon called chelys
has published a similar foot with a serNo. 73. d Cupid bending his Bow. pent, froin Bonanni, and, after conceding
the appropriation to Esculapius, says bird in one hand, and a bunch of grapes thus : " Tivis sort of font, with the set in the other. At her feet are a dog and pent, is also found in Egyptian monu- a bird, anxiously looking up to her. ments, as in the image of Serapis and No. 98. A votive Altar, with a dedi. Isis, published by Fabretti." Vol. ii. catory inscription to Bonu Deu Annita p. i. 6.4. c. 6. This overturns the above nensis. In Boissard, (v. iii. pl. 06) appropriation.
is a singular coincidence: we have there • No. 81. A Vase.
a marble, with Annia. P. and Flora No. 82. A Foot, as hefore.
et testamento. Bonai deai sacrunt, No. 83. A Mask, as before.
Annia soror, Isiu libertu faciundum cu. No. 84. A Sphinx, &c. Here it is rarunt. Goltzius mentions coins of a the base of a candelabrum. It was a Roman family nained Annia. - I can favourite decoration. At the famous fiud no name of nearer allusion in Leutfeast giren at Alexandria, by Ptolemny priere. Philadelphus, there were 100 beds of : No. 99. Is a Jupiter Seropis, opoe gold, with the feet of sphinxes.
painted. No. 85. A bust of Sabina. There is one also at the Capitol, and another in To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. the Pio-Clementine Museum, and a por. SIR, trait upon a gem. Pier. Grad. Pal. THE paper signed " A True Briton," Roy. tom. ii. pl. xxxix.
1 in your last volume, page $57, eir No. 86. A recumbent Satyr.
titled, on the blue cover, “Queries reNo. 87. A sepulchral Cippus, orna- lative to the Folly and inutility of the mented with festoons of fruit. The present War," brings to my recollection flowers so coinmon around funéral mo- similar queries and pertinent observa. numents alluded to those which were tions on war, contained in a public fast spread over the grave at the anniversary, sermon preached during the heat of the and, according to Winckelmann's opinion, late American war. upon a similar representation of a gob. The following quotativns are from the let, &c.; the fruits are the emblems of works of the Rev, and eccemtrio Willian provisions, which were customarily left Thone, late minister of Gowan, near for the soul of the defunct.
Glasgow, consisting of a small volume No. 88. An Egyptian Tumbler, proc. of sermons, letters, tracts, &c. printed at liting his art on the back of' a tume Cro. Glasgow, 1779. If you think thein codile. This is an exquisite and curious worthy of a place in your interesting pube tarbie.
fication, as m any degree subservient in No. 89 to 99. include sepulchral forwan ding the ideas of your feeling corCippi, an unknown Bust, and a Tro. respondent H. W. on the sulject of war,
expressed in your Nuinber for August No. 94. A Head of Messalina. This last, paye 15, or as containing any in is not, I believe, a common bust. provemeut on the plan for abolishing There is a very curious gem of her in war soggested by Mentor, in the last Seoseis, with a snail, the einblem of volume, page 271; or as in any salacity, priapi, &c. See too Daerval, way it point in the present enquiry, I in a dissertation printed at Paris, 410. shall be obliged by an early insertion of 1708.
ther. No 95. A corso of Hercules.
This last-mentioned and humane corNo. 96. Monuincntal Inscription. respondent suggests the propriety of
No. 97. Stutne ending from the submitting to arbitration the disputes 'woist downwards in a terminus. In the which may arise amongst nations, with right hand is a bunch of grapes, at which a view to prevent the misery and destruca bird, held under the left urm, is peck- tion cotist:quent on war, instead of re. ang. Representations of this kind are soring to that desperate and inhuman coinmon on funeral monuments; In expedient. But Mr. Thone, besides Boissurd, tol. i. pars iv. pl. 105. is making the same proposal, goes much a child with a bunch of grapes, one of farther; thinkmg that princes or their 'which he holds out to a cock perched ministers, “ rather than drench the na upon his knee. The allusion to tions in blood, should weet and finisha domestic animals kept for pleasure, is their senseless differences by fighting it proved by another monuinent of He- out themselves, and, in their own persons, teria Superba, in the same work, (iii. finish the war which they have prowwed." 101.) There is a female figure, with a I am the more strongly induced to hand.
you the following extracts, not having his lous, that, many years ago, I have heard therto noticed this last plan for abolishing some able and enlightened people mainwar hinted at by any of your correo tian, that the time would soon come when spondents.
the princes of Europe, and their minis· Mr. Thone, in a sermon from James ters, however weak and ignorant they iv. 1, 2, 3, “ From whence come wars may be supposed to be, (and weak and and fightings amongst you," &c. preached ignorant, it is said, inany of them are, to in the parish-church of Gowan, on the an ansazing degree,) will so clearly perpublic Fast 1779, after describing the ceive their interest, that they will finish misery of countries become the theatre all their differences by arbitration, or some of war, in terms sufficiently pathetic to other quiet means, without any longer produce in the most un feeling mind a entering into war; a state of things dislike and aversion to the horrors thereby which I fear is rather to be wished than produced, proceeds thus, page 140,“ Let hoped for. Hitherto it would seem that me add, that it is very seldom that a the rulers of kingdoms do often kindle prince or a kingdom gains any thing at all up the flames of war without knowing either money or territory, even by a suc- why, without having any special reason cessful war. They lust and have not, to do so. A long and bloody war was they kill and desire to bave, and cannot not. long ago between Great Britain and obtain. On either side, let the war be France, and, upon a retrospective view ever so keenly entered into, let the prin. of it, politicians and historians are, it cipal subjects be all a-stir, and grasping seems, at a loss to tell what was the cause at the executive power from the sove of it. Aukward children, when they meet reign's hands; let them levy many regio in the street, or in the field, they perhaps ments at an enormous experice ; let it be for a little look angrily at one another, supposed that the war hath cost the lives then one of them reaches his neighbour of millions of brave men, and millions a blow, which is soun returned each of also of treasure; and that, in the dreary the two is joined by his friends—the clacourse of many tedious campaigns, manymour rises on the green-hats fly offof the enemics being killed, and their the hair is pulled-faces are scratched treasure also exhausted, the war on one heads perhaps are broken-and coats and side is so far crowned with success. shirts are torn;-in a while they grow weary Let it be further supposed, that each of of giving and receiving blows, and leaving the parties bath conquered from its op- off the fray, they agree to live in peace. posite some town, or some barren island, Kings and ministers of state are just bigor equally barren territory ; yet, in the grown children; they are like the children conclusion, it commonly happens that I speak of, with this particular and unall things are agreed to be restored and bappy difference, that, instead of fighting settled on the same footing they were out the needless quarrels they hare raised, whien the war began. Look at the trea. betaking themselves to places of shelter, ties of peace that have been made in Eu- they hound out their innocent subjects rope for above one hundred years past, to battle, and involve the nation they and you will find that this, or something misgovern in bloodshed and expence, nearly like this, is a preliminary article and, perhaps, by leyies and by heavy in the tre::ty. The high belligerent or taxes, first weaken it, and then gradually contracting parties agree, that whatever reduce it to absolute poverty, to utier any of them has conquered from the ruin and contempt." ocher, in the course of the war, shall be He also adds, page 142, “Whensoever faithfully restored, and that every thing a war even a lawful war, hath commenced, shall reinain for ever in that same state there are many unjust and cruel things in which it was when the war broke out. dope, done from immemorial practice, Ridiculous ! Why then did the war break some of which,perhaps, cannot be avoided. out at all? What is now become of the In war, it is usual to consider the prince elevated hopes, the loud boasting, and and his subjects as making only one person, the proud expectations, of thorough suc. and of course to conclude, that whatever cess? The inountain was in travail, was injury the prince hatla done, the subjects in hard labour, was uttering mighty may be justly punished for it; and from groans, and not so much as one con- this fiction the injured fall upon the subtemptible reptile is produced. Why then, jects of the injurinus prince by sea and after so many instances of successless war, land, and either kill them, or strip thein why venluluto repeat the dangerous trial of all they have. This is at present, and This view of war is so evidently ridicu- bath long been, for aught I know, the
universal practice : and yet it appears to less differences by friendly conference, be unjust. Have we not been struck or compromise them by arbitration, or . with a sense of this injustice, on seeing by casting lots, or even, as I hinted be. French merchants carried prisoners along fore, finish them by single combat; which our streets, who, having acquired a for- last, however wrong it is in private quartune in the Indies, and knowing nothing rels, is surely a far less evil than to thin of any hostility between France and Eng- the human species by a desolating war, land, were returning peaceably home, which the rulers have, from arrogance and were, on the open seas, fallen upon and a spirit of domination, hastened to by our privateers, and robbed of every commence. Indeed, if the subjects have farthing they had got? And I believe foolishly approved of the rash steps of the humane among the French are struck their rulers, and have even loudly encou: in the same manner, when they see car. raged them by fomenting their arrogance, ried into their prisons any British mer- and publicly calling upon them to enter chants who had been captured and robbed into and to continue in coercive, violent, by the privateers of France. It is just and sanguinary, measures, offering to that the injurer and not the innocent spend their lives and fortunes in the war, should suffer. Would it not be right, it seems but just in Providence that they and agreeable to what nature dictates, should be made to suffer for a long time that kings or their ministers should fight the calamities of war. Alas! it is com. it out, and in their own persons finish the monly the grandecs of a country, who, war which they have provoked? Should for selfish ends, do thus slavishly beat they not feel and speak the noble sen- time with the rash measures of their timents and language of King David, rulers, and the bulk of the people are when, for a particular offence of his, a made to suffer. If war may be in some great plague was to come upon his inno- sort just, yet it may be very imprudent cent subjects: here, I think, David ex. and inexpedient to enter into it." prestes a strong and a proper sense of In page 152, he says, “ Whilst we fast justice; here the generosity of his soul and pray for success in this tedious and appears as illustrious as it doth in any lamentable war, let us, let our rulers, and other prayer, or psalm, or speech, or cummanders, examine whether there be in any action of his life. David said not some unjustifiable steps which we unto God, Is it not I, even I it is, that have already taken." And, in page 153, have sinned, and done evil indeed; but it is added, “We have fasted several as for these sheep, what have they dove? times before. We have prayed for sucLet thine hand, I pray thee, O Lord my cess, and that this inglorious war might God, beon me, and on my father's house, soon come to an end; but hitherto things but not on thy people, that they should be continue just as they were. It is well if plagued.' So delicate a sense of jus- our condition be not worse than when we rice is surely rare."
commenced the war: we looked for Again, in page 150, it is further added, judgment, but behold oppression; for " War is so horrible in its aspect, and so righteousness, but behold a cry. Stili we desolating in its progress, that it is not look for righteousness, but there is none; to be gone into from a sudden fit of pas. for salvation, but it is far off. One year sion, but after long, and calm, and se- of this riresome war, a second, a third, a rious, deliberations, after every method fourth, hath gone over our heads, and to procure, to buy, peace, hath been another year of it is begun. The barvest tried, and tried in vain. And it should is past, ihe summer is ended, and we are not ke begun on account of any transient not saved. May not this be a presumpor frivolous act of injustice, nor should tion that Heaven is displeased with our it be begun at all, unless the prince who aim, and, by repeatedly counterworking hegins it is rich, and strong, and power. our efforts, intimates to us that abundance ful, and is in a manner certain of success. of blood is shed already? I sincerely Indeed Providence oftentimes confounds wish, that the fomenters of this war, on the proud and mighty, raises the spirits, both sides of the Atlantic, may be of this and increases the strength, of the weak; mind. I remember that when Otho, in and the battle is not always to the strong. his contest against Vitellius for the RoEren this consideration will render a man empire, had lost a battle, but had cautious prince, or a wise minister, slow stiligreat resources, and, in the opinion of to enter into war. One would think that his friends, great cause to hope for sucprinces, rather than drench the nation in cess, he chused at once to take the desblood, should meet and finish their sease. perate step of a Roman death, rather
than to be the occasion of any more that to them it yields no profit whatever. bloodshed of the Romans his fellow.citi. The liberality of the owners and occu
J. Mc. piers has induced them to fetch in the Dumbartonshire.
coals free of carriage, and this more than
balances what is lost by the tax. For the Alonthly Magazine.
From experience of the benefits of this On the MEANS OF BETTERING the Conds, plan, in more than one parish, I tbink it TION of the poor.
worthy of public consideration, which LETTER III.-FIRING
may lead to its adoption in other places. I TAKE it to be a principle of poli The land is called the Poors? Estate ;
1 tics, humanity, and justice, that meetings are regularly held, the books whatever the poor can be taught and very exactly kept, the distribution in rendered to do for themselves, is best so spected, accounts published: the poor done, both for them and the commu. have not to beg, but to receive it as a mily, and therefore should not be done right, in proportion to the number of for them. I am therefore for every one which their families consist. And thus Who employs them, seeing the justice they have firing during the greater part rud expedience of giving good wages, of the winter regularly, and with cer according to the price of the necessaries tainty, and perpetually, supplied. of life from time to time. I am for
CAPEL LOENT, diffusing universally (it can now be done) Stunton, December 21, 1810. the knowledge of reading, writing, and arithmetic. I am for relief at their own bouses, when necessary, and not in work.
For the Monthly Magazine. houses, which, at best, destroy the spirit The Laws of SOLON und LYCURGUS and independence, and ofteu with these
Contrast ed. the health, morals, and all genuine com- THE great ends of civil government forts, of the poor. And I think the best I seein to be, to secure and promote charuy is, as far as possible, setting then the peace and trappiness of society by above the want of it, that is the best cha- wise laws and wholesome discipline, rity, because it is justice ; and is so Consequently, that must be acknowledged doing as we would have oebers do for us, to be the best constitution, which is miest if we inean (as we all suppose ourselves calculated lo answer these ends. The to do) that which is best.
turbulence of a democracy, the perpe. But there is one thing which the poor, tually-changing aspect of a popular form at a distance from the coast, and in the of government, is certainly incapable of southern part of the island, cannot pro maintaining either good order or publko cure in any tolerable kind and quantity prosperity. Its natural fruits are apashy their industry and money, and that chy and instabilityits ultimate conis coals, or fuel of any sort.
sequences, slavery or destruction. Yet : The disorders of the poor, and espe such was the polity instituted by Selon cially of their children, and with them at Athens. An inveterate enemy to ty. their miseries, their errors, and their ranny in whatever form, and to tyrants crimes, arise chiefly, in our cold and very of every description, he ran to the oppodamp climate, froin the want of sutticient site exireine, and committed the admi. warinth in their habitations.
nistration of public affairs to an incon. Mr. Parry first set the example, which stant and impetuous people. The reseveral in bilis of enclosure have followed, public of Athens, after being the sport of of setting apart land, and vesting it in the every popular commotion, and disturbed lord of the manor, the rector, the church by every licentious demagogue, at length wardens, and overseers, for providing perished, as the frail bark which is fuel for the poor. And I du know that iossed upon a stormy sea without an an. the rent of a moderate quantity of land, chor or helni, suddenly disappears, and nearly unprofitable before the enclosure, founders amongst rocks and quicksænds. is thus capable of providing fuel for be- However favourable such a system of tween three and four hundred persons government might be to the refinement in a parish, who before were necessarily of taste, to the culuivation of gepius, or ill supplied: though it has been by a de. tu the progress of science and letters, it cision, which I think, and which very could not possibly be tranquil or lasting. high law authority thinks, very erroneous, To those who bave studied the histery of by the Board of special Commissioners of man in society, and liave attentively obtaxes, taxed to the trustees 33 owners, served the natural course of all popular under the property tax, notwithstanding goveruments, it will not be a matter of