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1807, M. Foaques, Chimiste Manufac. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. turier, as he styles himself, published the SIR, result of his enquiries into the nature of IN the Monthly, Magazine of last this kind of syrup obtained from grapes month, I observe a claim to the in. growing near Paris, and in the beginning vention of the means of relieving ships in of the last year, the following remarks: distress by firing a shut fastened to a
1. That 4 hundred weight of the must rope, made by Mr.Carey. I think it but of these grapes evaporated at the heat of justice to others to mention, that near 90 degrees of M. Reaumur's thermo- twenty years ago, I remember the same meter, produces 125 pounds of syrup, mode was suggested by Mr. Edward without any art or extraneous addition, Brim, a brazier, of Portsea; and the congealing into crystals of a spherical experiment was actually tried, as I unshape; and these being dried on linen derstand, in the presence of iwo naval cloths, through which all the more fluid ofhcers of the first eminence. A similar moisture passes, a quantity weighing experiment was tried here about fifteen about 75 pounds is left.
years ago, by a serjeant Bell, of the Aruil. 2. That there remains, after the crys. lery. How far Mr. Carey, or Captain tals are pressed out with proper force, Manby, is entitled to the merit of the disa 60 pounds.
covery, may therefore be very fairly ques. 3. That after having been purified and tuned..
W. N. refined, it yields 40 pounds of beautiful Portsea, Jan. 14, 1811. cassonade sugar.
4. That, should this be again refined and clarified, so as to possess a whiteness
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, equal to French Orleans sugar, it may be
SIR, formed into loaves like the West India
TN reply to Whistensis, on the game of sugar, but at a reduction of the quantity
1 Whist, I should conceive when A.A. to 16 pounds.
win two double games, and B.B. one 5. That it is in this shape so compact si
hort single, A.A, have gained four points : for and firm in all its parts, as to be able to
in this reason, viz. A. A.'s two double games
constitute a rubber, or five points; but bear exportation. 6. That a single pound evaporated to
B.B. having won a single game, deduct sugar lumps, leaves only 10 or 11 ounces,
it from A.A,'s score, which leaves four • Il. The Reverend Mr. Schregel's Sugar P
If A.A. win two doubles, and B.B. from the Stalks of Turkey Wheat.-Se- veral years ago. Mr. Schregel. Pastor of one double, three points are in favor of Schwedt, tried to extract a syrup from
A.A.: likewise, when A.A. win one dou. the stalks of Turkey wheat, and the ex
ble and one single, and B.B. one single, periments made on a sinall quantity were
A.A. gain three points: when A.A. wia very successful. He sowed a whole acre,
one double and one single, and B.B. one Magdeburgb measure, (about 14 acre do
à double, A.A. gain two: when A.A. English) with five metzen, (somewhat
win two singles, and B.B. another sinmore than of a bushel) of this grain,
gle, A.A. gain two: when A.A. get which produced about one wispel, (or
two doubles, and B.B. none, A.A, must 57% London bushels,) in grain, and about gay
** gain a bumper, which consists of five 250 pounds of leaves, at the same tine Po
points; when A. A. get two singles, and that four horse-waggon loads of tur.
B.B. none, A. A. gain three: and, in the
instance of A.A. winning two singles, nips grew in the intermediate spaces. The heads, after the grain is taken off, ai
e and B.B. one double, A.A, consequently are a very profitable fuel, and yield gain only one point thereby. ashes, of which one-fourth part is pot.
A.A. and B.B. ash. Mr. Scliregel made a report on this subject to the king of Prussia, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. offering to publish instructions relative SIR, to the best mode of cultivation, and to V OUR Yorkshire correspondent of explain the means by which the whole l last month, "A Constant Reader,' might be turned to the greatest advane desires I would give him information on tage. His majesty commanded his privy the folloiving points: "The species of counsellor, Mr. Thaer, to examine the grapes formerly raised in the vineyards facts more closely, and to report ace of this country; and whether there be any eurdingly.
treatise extant in our language, which
describes describes the method of training the vine, to make the wine, after we have provided adopted in the wine countries;" by which the grapes: that is to say, real wine, and expression (wine) I apprehend his ques- not that wretched sugared and babytion to extend to the process of making slipslop, which passes muster under the the wine, that precious liquor bemg denomination of home made wine; and naturally the object of the vine culture, which, were it capable of making an
As to the species of grapes formerly in Anacreon drunk, it would be rather with ase, I know of no means by which sucheructation than inspiration. Colonel information can be obtained, since, not- Thornton's late Tour in France, and the wichstanding our press is overladen with Ilistories of the Cape of Good Hope, I tracts on the subject of almost every are think, give some account both of training ticle of culture, it is remarkably short on the vine, in those parts, and the process, that of the grape. Perhaps some light of wine-making. The chief ditierence, might be obtained from the compilations as I understand, between their wine. of Barnaby Goge, Gervase Markham, manufacture and ours, and one reason and others of their time; and since, from of their high superiority, is the total abs. Bradley and Laurence, and froin the sence of water in their process, their county histories of those districts more wine being the pure fermented juice of peculiarly adapted by soil and climate to the grape, with little or no additional the vine culture. Specchley's Culture of ingredient but brandy; and in the red the Vine, is the only treatise of the pre- wines of Portugal, a certain root, both sent time, which has reached my know for strength and colour sake. lestyc, and with his book I have yet pro. The pure grape-juice of this country, ceeded no farther than the title-page, so however, it is said on experience, will cannot ascertain lether it will furnish make nothing but vinegar, it turning the desired information. With respect sour in a very short tiine; in course, that to iny own opinion, formed on proba our wine-makers are compelled to the bilicy and some enquiry, the sorts of common process of boiling, and using grapes used in our vineyards of old in water and sugar. This arises, we may Gloucestershire, kent, Surry, Essex, and suppose, from the inferior quality of our other counties, were the white and black, grapes, which should yet be a motive to now found aipong the middling and lower is not to lower that quality still farther housekeepers of those parts; the same by the addition of water; and I have varieties, in all probability, which are this year made the experiment, proalso found in Yorkshire.
viding, as far as my small skill will adThe method of traieing the vine in mit, to counteract that acidity which I the wine countries, I apprehend, is of really found to result, as I had been prelittle consequence to us, wbose climate viously informed. Any farther infor. will not admit its adoption. In conse- mation on this, or other subjects, in my quence, we may always find the necessity power to communicate, shall always be of adhering to our established plan, of most heartily at the service of the confining the out-door culture to our Monthly Magazine.. buildings, unless indeed it might be exe Middlesex, Dec. 16.
I.. tended by the mode of sheltered espuliers, of which I purpose to make experiment. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Mr. Gibbs, seedsunan to the Board of SIR. Agriculture, I observed, seyeral years M IGHT not debtors, and those who since: had some vines at Brompton, WI are put in prison, but not to be trained to stakes ; but as I have not seen huny, as in America, be made to work them of late, I conclude, although I ain to support theinselves? Might not much not certain, that they did not succeed. useful labour, in this way, be perforined However, granting the shelter of a wall in the Fieet, the King's Bench, and other is absolutely necessary to the vine in this prisons in England, as well as Scotland country, there are very many inhabitants and Ireland. Besides helping to support of both town and country, so well pro- themselves, and forming a fund, on their vided in that respect, as to be able to release froin prison, would not this keep raise grapes enough to furnish their own many of them from ille pernicious table with wine. In the inetropolis even, habiis, often the chief cause of their where, in some parts grapes both black becoming prisoners at all. The making and white, succeed well, what an iminen- a prisoner work, and live soberly, would sity might be grown! But the object is naturally tend to retorin hiin from luxe
or marriage, hy the parish-officers, with excite painful associations, or any strong the assent of two justices, to be 'aappren- emotion. tices where they shall see convenient. The tranquillising power of music is no
And it has been determined, that both new idea. Ti is a fact of repeated expejustices must be present, for that it is a rience, more or less observed in every judicial* act, and not merely ministerial; age and country; and whether we regard they being bound to exercise their best that assemblage of sensative powers, deliberation as to the fitness of the per- whichwe call our body, or that active son, the place, and the employment, to energy which we denominate mind, the which the apprentice is to be bound. It salutary and benign influence of harmo. would be void, if they were not both nious sound appears every way conforinpresent at the binding: their assent is able to Nature. not formal, but necessary; and they are Nov. 22, 1810. CAPEL LOFFT. bound to withhold it if they see any reasonable objection.
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. It is manifest that convenient means SIR, that is riting, (naby non in every view. I WAS exceedingly glad to see the subThe circums:auces of the case must be i ject of the present war taken up by peculiar and clear, and very strongly your correspondent, “A True Briton ; proved, that would justify binding-out to and I further hope that it will be rea very great distance from the dwelling sumed in every succeeding Magazine, till of the child, or of the parent; much the thing itself, melancholy and distresmore froin almost one side of the island ing in every point of view, shall wholly to the other.
cease to exist. If an evident abuse of power should in Descriptions of this kind, in order to 2ny such case be detected, the justices leave behind them a due impression on would, of course, be criminally answer the reader's mind, should be as brief as able; either by indictment or informa. possible; and therefore I shall instantly tion, according to the circumstances; or proceed to answer your correspondent's the father might bring an action of spe- questions. cial trespass on the case.
1. What are the English fighting for? The binding-out of apprentices at the I was about to amend this interroga. age of ten years, under 3 Anne, c. 6, tory, and to make it “ coinpelled to is certainly an exceedingly strong in- fight for," till I recollected that, from the stance of legislative interference.
most artful means that perhaps have P.S. Where an incornorated hundred in ever been practised, the very people terfered to bind-out a child to service, with themselves have been deluded into a out consent of the child, the legislature not belief in the justice and necessity of the having entrusted them with such a power, it mensure. Indeed, a very considerable met with the strongest reprehension from portion of the public, in the various Lord Chief Justice Ellenborough.
shapes of loan-monyers, contractors, I should greatly doubt the validity of à arry-agents, newspaper editors, tax. binding under either Act, where the child gatherers, vun-smiths, gun-powder merwas not present at the binding: for how chants, and merchants of all kinds, are otherwise are the justices to judge of its
most materially benefited by a continu. ftuess to be bound as proposed.
ation of tlie war. The wild beasts too
at the City Menagerie, the StockILLNESS MITIGABLE BY MUSIC. In a late illness, which has been and is
:. Exchange, are incessantly grunting the subject of public solicitude, I take
against peace, or roaring for eternal war, the liberty of intimating, and especially
that they may fatten on the carcases of considering the habitual predilection of
inuocent men. All the jubilee tribe too, the sufferer for the highest compositions
are greatly interested on this occasion; in that divine art, that the disorder may they, or their descendants, will celebrate
and there is some reason to fear that be at least considerably alleviated, and
another jubilee for the fiftieth year of the possibly even removed, by music; mean.
an war. Eien a branch of the constitution ing, assoredly, music of the slow, soft, Ecole de chief member of which we de. and soothing, kind. In the selection, care would of course be taken, if it is
!: clare, and indeed happily know to be should be thought adviseable to try its
' incapable of doing wrong, might be inte
plicated in the suspicion of being ininfluence, to avoid every thing likely to
terested in the profits of the war, if we
did not likewise know that all the proT. 29, E. III. K. v. Hams tall Ridwaer. fits, or droits, as they are legally termed,
were generously applied towards the the concerns of the state, or in sober rereduction of the public expences, or in flection on the miscries that await thein : rewarding the merits and services of emnic and fourthly, though not lastly, by any ment characters. But to return to the means, from the terror that almost every question: it is to gratily all the above honest individual feels of the conse. classes, with the last exception; it is to quences to his interest, from any rowist. humour and adıninister io the spleen ance to the principles of those on whoin and malice of clumsy, baffled, and dis. they may have dependance. appointed, ministers, against a successful Liverpool, Nov. 8, 1810. Z. toe, who has by their means alone been elevated to his present height of glory To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, and pre-eminence; it is to satisfy their SIR, unquenchable thirst after power and IN the Life of Mr. Beddoes, lately patronage, that we are still pursuing a published by me, an accidental error hopeless and indefinite contest, and that has been detected, which I should be we are bleeding at every pore,
happy to avail myself of the medium of 2. What have been the motives and your Magazine to correct. objects of those persons who are the pro. From the account given at page 389, moters and a bettors of this war?
it would appear as if Dr. Craufuird had Their motives and objects are to enrich expressed a wish that further advice themselves and their adherents at the should be called in, when the alarming public expence; to accumulate all the change had already taken place, which Wealth, and consequently the power, of so shortly preceded Dr. Beddoes's dise the country into their own hands; and solution. The fact however is, as I have by the continuance of a war of unex. since been informed, that this wish was ainpled expenditure, and which has cre- expressed not by Dr. Craufuird, but by ated taxes to an amount unknown in any some members of the family, and, though other time or country, to extinguish the complied with on his part, was accoin. middle classes of society, and to depress panied by a remark that it must necesthat spirit of independance which, by sarily be useless.
J. E. Srock. constitutional exertions, could alone de Bristol, Dec. 19, 1810. feat their purposes.
3. How are we to account for the ap. For the Monthly Magazine. parent apathy and indifference of the On CONTINENTAL SUBSTITUTES to regreat mass of the people to the destrucc. medy the SCARCITY of SUGAR. tive, impoveristring, and truly calainitous,
By a German. effects of this long-protracted war? The THE still-repeated attempts of the answer is variously-as 1. From the gross people of the Continent to find out and general corruption of the times. some tolerable substitute for West India 2. From the selfishness of the commer- sugar, evidently proves that those cial part of the community, which, whilst already discovered, are not fully satis. it maintains by means of war carried on factory, and that all the improvements at the expence of others, a proud pre- and refinements of art and science have eminence in wealth, feels not for the not been able to supply the obvious de. distresses of those who are ruined by the ficiency of this almost indispensable arwar, and its unjust and unequal pressure. icle to the comfort of life, to which
3. From the monopoly of wealth in the greatest part of Europe is condemnthe hands of a few persons, and the con- ed, by ihe stubbornness of a tyrannic sequent interest which those persons usurper. The endeavours of Dr. Achard have, and the unfortunate power they to procure it from turnips, &o. are too possess, of governing and deluding others. old and too well-known to need to be
4. From the interest which the nume. mentioned. 'Two other experiments rous classes of individuals adverted to in seem about to sbare the same fate. the answer to question 1, bave in the I. M. Parmenticr's Syrup of Grapes, prosecution and continuance of the war. This syrup was at first so much apo
5. From the great mass of the people proved of in the south of France, that in themselves being driven from necessity the autuinn of 1808 nearly 200,000 cwt. to get money by every means in their were made, each valued at 100 franks, power, whether honest or otherwise; and it was called Sirop de Parmentier, from the consequent destruction of the to declare the common sentiments of moral principle, as well as of the means, gratitude entertained towards its inand even tine, to occupy themselves in ventor. In the mouth of December,
nearly all Europe. The word lias been found to have given name to the whole said to imply horsemen, warriors, men of that kingdom. In like manner, the of the woods, men with long hair and Headland of France gave denomination with tails, but wbether these tails were to a great part of that kingdom. But of long hair, or such as Lord Monboddo Headlands and Hills were very often de. describes belonging to his men in one scribed by the same words; and hence of the Nicobar islands, I dare not de- the hills on the borders of kingdoms, may cide. They have been derived also from also appropriately give names to their Celtus, a son of Hercules and Polyphe Border Lands. mia, and from many other inapplicable These principles being understood, etyions. From these, and others which I will now explain the name of a country I shall quote, you will, Mr. Editor, referred to by all writers, ancient and mo. scarcely know the Celts; but I will en- dern. They say, that from Gomer came deavour to point out the import of their the Galate. I will not deny this proname satisfactorily to your readers. buble conjecture; but from the principles
In doing this, you must not expect me here laid down, I ain to shew that Ga. to begin with Gumer, nor to trace them latia took its name from the features of froin Noah to Wales; you will allow me the country only. It is easy to conceive to survey a small part of the globe only, that the increase of mankind must have to view its features and its provinces. produced nations, and national names, as • An antiquary or historian describes above described: Galutiu is such an one. the remains of a people, a country, or Monsieur Brigande says, " that it is place; but the import of the name by the universal opinion of all authors who which this people, country, or place, is have written on the origin of nations, known, having rested in Cimmerian that the Celtes were the children of Godarkness from the earliest times, is al. mer, the eldest son of Japhet. This ways mistaken or omitted. I will there. nation, from which so many others have fore atteinpt to lay down a few more sprong, have preserved the name of their rules to dissipate this darkness. If, in progenitor from the most early age after doing this, I can arrest a mania with the deluge, down to the present days.", wbich Fancy has infected wise, learned, I will not follow this author, but refer to and really good men, of all ages, in him: he acknowledges that it is easier totracing their descents, my labour will be find an etymology for the name Celis, fully compensated.
than to prove it to be a true one; but he Settlements, districts, provinces, and renders it from the Hebrew word Gala kingdoms, were in the earliest ages of letha, thrust out at a distance, pushed the world, first named from their prin- forwards. "The Greek and Latin lana cipal features. The Hill Border, the guages, he says, offer no resource for this Head Border, or the Water Border, in etymology. Monsieur Perron, on the description, often reach to a great extent Celtes, mistaking the root of Cal or Cale, withm or beyond this Hill, Head, or a head or hill, in finding the name Water. The Dobuni of our own coun. Celtæ, supposes it to mean an harbour fry were the Stream-Borderers, from or port, which signifies, he says, the same Dob, a Stream, and En, or An, varied to with the Celtæ. He here indeed exI'n, a terın for Border Land. These' actly hits the spelling, but mistakes the were also called the Huiccii, from Ic,' root from whence it came, and conse. Uic, or Wick, Border Land; and some of quently the true meaning. He elsewhere these people lived far from the Stream however contradicts himself in this, ag which gave thein name. The Canti ine* well as in a variety of other cases, and habited lands far from their Head which supposes “the word Celta, as well as gave theni n'arne, The Belge, derived' Gaul, to imply powerful, valiant, or vafrom Bel Border, and Ge Land, bad inha. lorous." The Greeks, he says, also bitants far froin their Border; and their gave the name Galatæ to the Gauls, name was translated Ham, or Border, by But the Celtæ, at least a part of them, the Saxons, who never dreamt of their this anthor states, were cailed Cimbrians, being any more the descendants of the aud Cimmerians. The word Cimbri. Belgæ of the continent, than were the he inapplicably derives from the Latin Cauti, the Regni, or other nations of Cimber, and this from Kimber or Kiin. this" island. Land' on the coast, often' per, which, in the Celtic, (he says) is a gáve name to a great extent of land in' warrior. As for Cimmerian, it is what the interior. Thus the Head of Lands in the ancient Grecians (he says) softened Spain' which runs into the ocean, will be out of Cimbri, or einbrian; and here he