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nearly all Europe. The word lias been found to have given name to the whole said to imply horsemen, warriors, men of that kingdom. In like manner, the of the woods, men with long hair and Headiand of France gave denomination with tails, but whether these tails were to a great part of that kingdom. But of long hair, or such as Lord Monboddo Headlands and Hills were very often dedescribes belonging to his men in one scribed by the same words; and hence of the Nicobar islands, I dare not de- the hills on the borders of kingdoms, may cide. They have been derived also from also appropriately give names to their Celtus, a son of Hercules and Polyphe Border Lands. mia, and from many other inapplicable These principles being understood, etymons. From these, and others which I will now explain the name of a country I shall quoie, you will, Mr. Editor, referred to by all writers, ancient and mo. scarcely know the Celts; but I will en- dern. They say, that from Gomer came deavour to point out the import of their the Galata. I will not deny this proname satisfactorily to your readers. buble conjecture; but from the principle
In doing this, you must not expect me here laid down, I am to shew that Gato begin with Gumer, ivor to trace them latiu took its name from the features of from Noah to Wales; you will allow me the country only. It is easy to conceive to survey a small part of the globe only, that the increase of inankind must have to view its features and its provinces. produced nations, and national names, as . An antiquary or historian describes above described: Galutia is such an one. the remains of a people, a country, or Monsieur Brigande says, “that it is place; but the import of the name by the universal opinion of all authors who which this people, country, or place, is have written on the origin of nations, known, having rested in Cimmerian that the Celtes were the children of Godarkness from the earliest tines, is al mer, the eldest son of Japhet. This ways mistaken or omitted. I will there. nation, from which so many others have fore attempt to lay down a few more sprung, have preserved the name of their rules to dissipate this darkness. If, in progenitor from the most early age after doing this, I can arrest a mania with the deluge, down to the present days.". which Fancy has infected wise, learned, I will not follow this author, but refer to and really good men, of all ages, in him: he acknowledges that it is easier to tracing their descents, my labour will be find an etymology for the name Celts, fully compensated.
than to prove it to be a true one; but he Settlements, districts, provitices, and renders it from the Hebrew word Ga. kingdom's, were in the earliest ages of letha, thrust out at a distance, pushed the world, first named from their prin- forwards. The Greek and Latin lan. cipal features. The Hill Border, the guages, he says, offer no resource for this Head Border, or the Water Border, in etymology. Monsieur Perron, on the description, often reach to a great extent Celtes, mistaking the root of Cal or Cale. within ot beyond this Hill, Head; or & head or bill, in finding the name Water. The Dobuni of our own coun. Celtæ, supposes it to mean an harbour try were the Stream-Borderers, from or port, which signifies, he says, the same Dob, a Stream, and En, or An, varied to with the Celtæ. He here indeed exUn, a term for Border Land.' These actly hits the spelling, but mistakes the were also called the Huiccii, from Ic,' root from whence it came, and conse. Uic, or Wick, Border Land; and some of quently the true meaning. He elsewhere these people lived far from the Stream however comtradicis himself in this, as which gave them naine. The Canti in.' well as in a variety of other cases, and habited lands far from their Head which supposes “ the word Celta, as well as gave themi name. The Belge, derived' Gaul, to imply powerful, valiant, or va. from Bel Border, and Ge Land, bad inha- lorous.” The Greeks, he says, also bitants far from their Border; and their gave the name Galatæ to the Gauls.' name was translated Ham, or Border, by But the Celtæ, at least a part of them, the Saxons, who never dreamt of their this author states, were cailco Cimbrians, being any more the descendants of the and Cimmerians. The word Cimbri, Belgæ of the continent,' than were the he inapplicably derives from the Latin Cånti, the Regni, or other nations of Cimber, and this from Kimber or kin. this island. Land' on the coast, often per, which, in the Celtic, (he says) is a gave name to a great extent of land in warrior. As for Cimmerian, it is what the interior. Thus the Head of Lands in the ancient Grecians (he says) softened Spain 'which runs into the ocean, will be out of Cimbri, or Einbrian; and here he
is again mistaken. He then states that so evidently meant by it in the names , a very ancient colony, no one ever knew of so many head-lands, and land's-ends, when, or how, I believe, “ of the Celtæ, throughout the globe ; and its derivation, gave name to the Cimbric Chersonesus;" from Col or Cul, a head, is so direct, but here po proof is adduced, except certain, and plain, that I much wonder, that the Celies had been accounted some one had not betore discovered and, Cimmerians. His whole treatise is built proved its applicability. But authors, on the unfounded supposition, that men have never looked to the world, and its gave names to nations : his labour there- names, for the language of Nature; and fore to trace and fix Celtic colonies in taking for granted what wanted proot, Europe and Asia, is great ; but his proofs contented themselves with supposing, . of colonization are attended with so mankind gave names to places, instead many absurdities, and so many old words of places having given them these very. are used without being analysed, and nanies. Let us now trace this name to, without being given applicable imports, Iberia, Celt Iberia, Lusitania, Espana, that you can rely on no premises which Spain, Portugal. Spain, authors say, was he assumes; and yet he says so many early called Iberia, from a colony of things which are worthy of notice, that Iberians from Mount Caucasus; or he has been recommended by good au. from the river Iberus: yet the ancients, thors. “ From the word Cal, a barbour, they say, considered Iberia only that or Calis, the Romans, he thinks, formed part fruin the Pyrennees to Calpe. Note Portus Ictius;" but he knew not the im- withstanding, they assert, that the true; port of Calis, nor Iccius. Of the first Iberia was that part called Celt Iberia, of these, the ending in Is, means little, or from a body of Celts settling in it, low; and Ic is otten a diminutive in bounded by the Iberus: and tbey derive names; hence Calis may imply the little Iberia from the Hebrew Heber, or the Port; and Portus Iccius, the same: but Chaldee, Syriac, or Phanician, Ebra oc Calis has a low projecting point of land; Ibra, which, in the singular, implies a and Cal, in this name, may mean Head, passage ; and in the plural, bounds or and Is imply low, which would exactly limits. It appears also, they state, that, describe this territory, or head. What he the Phoenicians called Spain Spanija, or, says of Portus.Cale, or Portugal, is more Sphanija, from Shapan or Span, a rabbit, reasonable than most of his derivations: as it abounded with rabbits. but of the import of Lusitania, he is to- of the derivations, "passage," or tally in the dark; as he is also of Lyshon, « bounds," and “limits," nothing can be or Lisbon. But to return to Galutia.- said; because the great features of Nature This comes from Col, or Cal, an head, do not refer to such denominations. (which is also written Gal) as in the folo
A. B. lowing examples : in Calcedon, in Ga. licia, in Galata, a mountain of Phocis; For the Monthly Magazine. in Caledonia, in Galway, in Galloway, THE LETTERS OF A WANDERER. in Colophon, in Calpe, in Calabria, in
LETTER V. Callipolis, now Gallipolis; and in an JN my last I told you it was our intenhundred other names of places begin. I tion to proceed across the mountains ning with these syllables, situated on the to llaws. water; and I am now seated globe, at heads or ends of lands. At, in to give you some account of our excursion Galatia, is the same as in Galata, an over one of the wildest-tracks in Nature; headland and suburb of Constantinople; where however, there was still much to inand, as in a great variety of other places, terest us from its novelty, and being alit is derived from Ad, water. Ia, is ter- most wholly different froin any thing we ritory; and Galatia, whose head lies on had seen before, afforded us considerathe Euxine sea, will imply the Water ble amusement. When we quitted Kene Head, or Border Territory. The ety. dal, the morning was hazy, and heavy mons “tbrust out at a distance," and vapours occasionally floating over the “ pushed forward," given by Monsieur distant mountains, obscured them from B. are as near the truth perhaps as sight, and rendered us apprehensive we any terins taken from the common words should have an uncomfortable day. As it of language, which had no direct res advanced towards noon, the sun emer. ference to the features of nature, could ged from hebind its sable shroud, and its have been produced; but the word vivifying beams soon cleared the air, and head, or end, here, and more particu. left us nothing more to wish for on the larly in the instances which follow, are score of weather. At the distance of four or five miles from Kendal, we quite expectation we had formed. An air of moted the usual road to Peorith over Shapmantic wildness reigned chroughout the Fells, and pursuell the way along a nar. whole, considerably encreased by a small rox valley, enclosed by rocky heights, piece of water, on whose unfruittal banks which opened as we advanced, and ad- lay rocky fragments, and immense-sized mitted of a wider space betwist : where single stones, of various shapes and hues: a lew traces of tolerable cultivation be- while a small chapel at a short distance, came visible, and some cottayes, scat- overhung by mournful yews, completed tered over the plain, proclaimed it the the scene, and inspired the mind with abode of human beings; a dreary one, feelings of pensive melancholy, not wholly uoquestionably, even at the finest season useless in their consequences, nor, upon of the year, In the depth of winter it occasions, disagreeable is the indulgence. must be truly horrible; and such as, were At length the view of the beautiful lake of some of the gay votaries of Fashion, the Haws.water opened on our sight, and children of luxury and dissipation, to be filled us with rapturous admiration. Nocondemned to pass one season only amidst thing can be more lovely than the prospect its wild recesses, I am of opinion they which is here disclosed to the admiring would be tempted to put a speedy period eye of a traveller, in the charming bosorn La their captivity, and, generally speaking of the lake, with its noble accompaniuseless existence, together, in the stream ments of rocks, woods, towering preciwhich winds along the plain, and intersects pices, and simple rural scenery. Oa the small enclosures that display their the opposite side from us, an immense verdure on the flat, and in some parts ridge of craggy mountains reared their mingle on the mountains' sides with cang- majestic fronts, separated from the water led copses, and grey rocky precipices, only by a narrow stripe of cultivated which rise above each other to the sum- ground, where small enclosures of the mits of the ridges, and present a rather sweetest verdure were divided by rows pleasing variety to the general wildness of of hazel and thorn hedges, and a few the scene. From thence, the dale again straggling cottages peeped from amidst becomes contracted, and the heights en-' groups of low trees, and formed, with crease in grandeur of appearance, Lill some their whitened walls, a charming contrast of them become conspicuously promi- to the shades in which they were envenent and awful; an endless variety of loped, and the rugged precipices of the cascades, like stripes of silver, issuing from alpine heights that rose behind their springs upon the mountain-tops, rushed little cultivated fields. On the southern furiously down the craggy steeps, swelling, side, a huge naked precipice, called Walwe were told, after storms, or heavy rains, low Cray, rose boldly from its base; and to astonishing magnitude, and pouring near its rough unfruitful heights, there is a impetuously from cliff to cliff, seeming to cataract, we were told, of uncommon threaten universal destruction to the nare beauty; but not having explored its hid. row plain below. As the dale grows still den recess, I cannot affirm whether it nore contracted towards its extremity, exceeds or equals many of the number the road begins to ascend a rugged, steep, of beautiful cascades which are to be and winding path, to the summit, of a seen in the neighbourhood of the norconsiderable height, from which we had thern lakes. I an extensive view of the surrounding Continuing our course along the borcountry; and in the distance, perceived it ders of the lake, we found its charms was varied and agreeable : while the encreasing as we advanced. The heights nearer prospect was as bleak, wild, and of Naddle Forest, and Malkside upon desolate, as fancy can picture: and we the eastern shore, arose in solemn were by no means sorry when, having majesty, clothed with wood to the very reached the top of the ascent, that would summits, and reflected in the placid strike terror into the breast of many a bosom of the water; while neat white natireof the rich, flat, cultivated plains of cottages amidst tufted trees and bushes, England, we began to descend by an occasionally met the sight, and seemed, easier and a safer road, into the vale of to use the language of an early and adMardale, where, though there appeared mired tourist, the abodes of peace, rusbut little to call forth admiratio:1, we be- ticity, and happy poverty." These mounlieved the scenery would prove inore tains on the western shore, exbibit a pleasing to the sight, than the cold and charming diversity of heathy knolls, and desolate height we had crossed; nor craggy precipices, with here and there a perc we altogether disappointed in the tree or cluster of trees, starting from ihe
crevices crevices of the rocks, and by their sich Of this number is Ulls-water, of which I and vivid colouring, adding indescrie shall give you an account in my next. At bably to the beauty of a scene replete present, I shall hasten to conduct you to with loveliness, variety, and richness: a Pevrith, which we reached after a plea. scene, that cannot fail to elevate the soul sant ride of about twelve miles, as the to the Creator of the universe, and con- shades of evening bad cast a sombre man. vey the higliest sensations of gratitude tle over the surrounding objects; when, . and delight.
being somewhat fatigued with our journey, • About the midle of the lake, a low pro- and long fast, (for we had tasted nothing montory divides the water almost into from the time of leaving Kendal but a equal parts, and there the depth is said to little bread and milk in a cottage near be upwards of fifiy fathoms. Though in- Haws-water,) we enjoyed an excellent ferior in size to several of the lakes in supper at the principal inn in the town, Cumberland and Westmoreland, Haws. and sought repose in beds, which, for water is no less distinguished than its cleanliness and comfort, could not have neighbours, by bold and romantic scenery, been exceeded in a palace. Like a number of anable characters Penrith, I believe, you have visited, or amongst the human race, it is hid from at least know soʻmuch of, that I need not general notice by its retired sequestered atteinpt giving you a long description of situation, consequently known only to a itself, or its inmediate neighbourhood. few of the number, who make what is Suffice it to say, the houses are of a reda called the “Tour of the Lakes," and visited dish-coloured stone, in general wearing but by those who are capable of appre- an air of peculiar neatness and comfort; ciating its beauties, and bestowing on them the streets are clean, and the whole place that praise and admiration they so justly appears thriving, populous, and cheerful
The situation of Penrith is agreeable, bee" In length Haws-water is about three ing in the midst of an extensive fertile miles, and at the widest part does not plaili, watered by the rivers Lowther and exceed half an one. It produces char, Eamont, on the banks of which are se.' perch, trout, eels, bass, and other fish; veral elegant seats and villas, where art and its banks display the most beautiful and nature have united'in rendering them assemblage imaginable of rocks and abodes of comfort, convenienice, and mountains, woods and cultivated grounds: beauty. On the northern side of the plain! in the whole, forming one of the finestland- there is a high extensive ridge, over which scapes which a painter, or an admirer of the road to Scotland by Carlisle passes, Nature's scenery, could desire to behold, and whence there is one of the finest You know my predilection for the simple views in the kingdom. As my coinpanion? beauties of Nature, and my dislike to had never seen this view, we rode to the whatever bears the appearance of art, top of the hill on the morning of the day in a spot where all that could be done we passed at Penrith, and enjoyed the to render it charming has been effected ; sight of the surrounding landscape with you will therefore feel surprised at my much sstisfaction; for the sky being giving the scenery around Haws.water wholly free of cloud or vapour, we easily a decided preference to that which is now discerned the plain around the ancient to be seen upon the borders of some of city of Carlisle, about twenty miles disthe greater and highly-celebrated lakes tant, and found the prospect only bounded in the northern counties, where all native by a chain of far-off Scottish mountains,' simplicity and interesting loveliness is losing all traces of individual grandeur as banished by the band of art; which, as they seemed to mingle with the sky. OF far as what is termed modern improve: Ullswater, on the other side, and its mament could go, has tortured and distor. jestic towering boundaries, we had a bird'sa ted Nature's works'; dressed, shaved, eye peep, and anticipated nuch gratificaa and trimmed, spots, which were, in their lion by a nearer survey of their beauties' original state, beauty without a fault, but on the succeedmg day. In the evening we „which now exhibit only the formality of s had a charining stroll in the environs of citizen's vilia, and evince the absurd and the town; and on the following morning glaring impropriety of erecting palaces at an early hour, pursued our way toand shew-houses where the surrounding wards the justly-celebrated lake of Ullsobjects present the hoidest and most rug- water, passing by some ancient mansions ged features imaginable, or the sweetest on the road to Pooley Bridge (wbiere we simple rural scenery, replete with pastoral purposed breakfasting), the heavy archie beauty, harinony, and natural loveliness, tecture of which presents a striking con
trast to the airy lightness, and unquestion. Heaven his own way, without paying coll ably more elegant, style of building of by any of the privileges of his citizenship, modern times. Adieu ; believe ine, my Infirmity is inseperable from the state
of man and nations; and though philosofriend, most truly, yours, &c.
I though wise governments may enact the
best possible code of laws, yet cannot For the Monthly Magazine. they prevent and obviate all the evils ABSTRACT of u JOURNAL kept in MARY- arising from the passions and favorite
Land, in the years 1805 und 1806. pursuits of individuals and communities.
1 ties, of Europe, have contributed fluence on the human mind and chaamazingly within the last twenty years racter, cannot be doubted; and that the to the population and commercial pros- nature and variety of worldly pursuits perity of the United States. The popu- have an all-powerful tendency to lation is supposed to have more than strengthen or weaken the principles of a doubled itself, and the imports and ex. virtuous education, and consequently to ports have been centupled. The federal produce either happiness or misery, in phænix has risen from the ashes of the ihe proportion in which viriuous prioci. old continent, for so many years a prey ples are imbibed, and to the number and in the devouring elements of tyranny and nature of templations in our passage discord. She extends her wings over a through life, may be considered a sella vast and fertile region, watered by ma- evident maxim. jestic rivers, and blessed with a variety of The experience of all ages and nations genial climates. There the squalid pea refers to agriculture, as the primæval and sant of Ireland, who starved and rotted in principal source of bealth, virtue, and filth and misery, on 1s. per day in his happiness. In the mutual, real, aud artinative country, now earns with ease bis ficial, wants of individuals, societies, and dollar and quarter, looks hale and ruddy, nations, originated barter and commerce. walks with the port and dignity of inde. In their infancy, they were the hand, pendant manhood, and, by his sparkling maids of agriculture, by taking off her eyes, elevated towards Heaven, seems to superfluity from the fertile regions of the pour forth with an habitual devotion bis globe, and exchanging it for the precious gratitude to Providence, for having metals, ininerals, and drugs, of barren and Brought him to a land flowing with milk inhospitable shores. In process of time, and honey; where the labourer is worthy however, they have become the misof his bire, and wbere he has a certain tresses of their natural mistress; and prospect, with moderate industry, of be- though things must eventually recur to coming in a short time the proprietor of their original state, yet not without vioa farm. There the German farmer may lent convulsions and general calamity, purchase the best land at a cheap rate, we have beheld the ministry of England, and free from fiscal tyranny and grinding for the last twenty years, regulating agritaxation; he may speedily amass a heap culture (or rather deranging it) by its par. of his beloved dollars, which are the ob- liamentary influence in the enacting of: jects of daily labour, and the penale gods laws, by its commercial arrangements, of his nightly devotions. There may che and treaties with foreign powers, and by persecuted philosopher and friend of its orders of Council; and though the liberty, find a peaceful asylum, and pro- holy zealot, and alarmed and selfish friend secute his studies in the laboratory of of bis country's liberty, to the exclusion of Nalure, either in the crowded city, or other parts of the world, from a similar slieltered by Arcadian groves on the enjoyment, may have given the ministry beautiful borders of the meandering and credit for its chivalrous attempt to defend : rapid Susquehannah, unappreliensive of the religion and law of Europe against danger to himself, or ro his apparatus, the infidelity and anarchy of France, yet from the infernal uuto-de-fes of furious the political arithmetician detects the la. bigotry and sanguinary despotism. There tent, but real cause, in its unextinguisha may the mercantile adventurer carve out able hatred of France-the consequence his fortune with a rapidity truly astonish. of her interference in the American war, ing, and live surrounded hy all the cons and in the opportunity which her revolu. veniencies, comforts, and elegancies, of tion seemed to afford England of anni. life. There may the inan of Gipd go to hilating her industry and commerce, and