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3006 this immutable law of Nature, through years, as per fraction, 10.0000

an.. every intermediate link of the chain, to

its arrival at the extremity of old age, I And the probability that a woman, aged

find the probability that a person, whose 40, shall attain to the age of 50, or live age is 20, shall attain to the age of 95,

9.2425 10 years, I find equal to 10.0000 years,

or live 75 years, is, according to the oba servations of M, De Parcieux, as given in

40.2199 instead of years, as per frac- Mr. Baily's third Table, equal to

bie, equal to 75.0000 tion, 1924 But the probability that

years. The probability that a person,

whose age is 30, shall attain to the age both those persons shall live 10 years, I of 95, or live 65 years, is, &ccording to 9.0959

34.0586 find equal to me years, instead of the same observations, equal to 10 de " 10.0000

65.0000 6.6003

years. And the probability that a peryears, as per fractions, son, whose age is 40, shall attain to the 10.0000 3096 X 1027 12467592

age of 95, or live 55 years, is, according

to the same observations, equal to 3992 X 4733 - 18889403

27.4802 In the third example he states: “ The

years; but the probability chat probability that each of three lives, aged 20, 30, and 40, shall live 15 years,

all those persons shall continue in being

to the end of a term of 55 years, I find, is, according to the observations made at Northampton, as given in Table 25, equal

by the same observations, equal to 4010 3248 2448


years, instead of the nonentity 5132' 4585' and 3635 respectively. 55.0000

denoted by 0.0000, as necessarily result. But the probability that all those lives

ing from the doctrine subscribed by the shall continue so long, is equal to the

mathematical faithful, enrolled in their product of the three fractions into each

court of chancery. I will here make other: whence such probability will be

free and ask, whether the expression, 51883927040 ,

“continue in being to the end of any

given term," means any thing, or means Now the probability that each of nothing? Should it so happen as to three lives, aged 20, 30,-and 40, shall mean something, the plain question is, live 15 years, (according to the Nore what is that something that it does mean? thampton observations,) I find equal to

Can the probable continuation of the 13.3644 13.0701 | 12.5836

existence of an assigned life be equal to 15.0000 15.0000' a 15.0000 years, itself, and unequal io itself, at ove and


the same time? The rule given ia respectively, instead of


page 355, and the result in page 531,

imply that it can, To carry this a 11.1196, and 10.1018 pears 5000

little farther: let it be supposed possible 15.0000

years respec. 15.0000

to make the expression, continue in

4010 S248 tively, as per fractions, 5180' 4335

being to the end of any given term,” 10 signify some real entity in nature, and

that it may be attempted to form in the and **, respectively; but the pro- mind a clear and distinct conception of bability that all those lives shall continue

such entity; and that the immediate ob13.0505

ject so conceived be a specific period of so long, I find equal to an years, time; then will the probability that a

person, whose age is 15, shall continue in instead of 5 8466

being to the end of a term of ten years, 15.0000 years, as per frac

as deduced by the law of nature from the 4010 X 3248 X 2418 register of life and death (as given in tions, 5132 x 4385 X 3635

page 550, table the third) be equal to a $1883927040

period of nine years, and the fraction

.5837; the probability that the same 8180 1985700

person shall continue in being, to the By following up the inflexibility of end of a term of 20 years, will be equal

denoted by 51801385700



to a period of 18 years, and the fraction To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. .2994. The probability that the same, SIR person shall continue in being to the end of a term of thirty years, will be

DEING always an admirer of paint. equal to a period of 25 years, and the

D ings, and for many years slightly fraction .9894. The probability that acquainted with the late Adelphi Barry, the same person shall continue in being from whose writings I have received more to tbe end of a term of forty years, will solid inforination on the subject of the be equal to a period of 32 years, and the art he professed, than from any other fraction .8101. The probability that modern author, not excepting Reynolds: the same person shall continue in being was eager, after perusing a late account

rm of fifty years, will be of his life and writings, to hear a hat equal to a period of 38 years, and the

were the sentiments on those valuable fraction .2624. The probability that

niemoirs of the Edinburgh Review, so well the same person shall continue in being versed in the art of bestowing profitable to the end of a term of sixty years, will praise, or plausible condemnation. be equal to a period of 41 years, and the But, after wading through thirty-four fraction .8909. The probability that pages of the vainest nonsense that ever the same person shall continue in being

hall continue in being was uttered on the subject of the art, to to the end of a term of sixty-five years, pro

prove that Barry possessed, wbich we all will be equal to a period of 42 years, and

know, a great deal of inspiring vanity; the fraction .8573. The probability that we come to charges, without proofs, of the same person shall continue in being

hall continue in beine his misanthropy, uttered in the language to the end of a term of seventy years,

of the boldest malice, and a denial that will be equal to a period of 43 years,

he had enemies, produced in the most and the fraction .3278. And the pro

inimical terms; and then we begin to bability that the same person shall con- see that Barry was not so far out in his tinue in being to the end of a term of suspicions, as this reviewer would have eighty years, will be equal to a period us believe; for no hyena of the desert, of 43 years, and the fraction .5094. on the scent after a corpse long fallen in But the probabilities that a person, whose the sand, can be imagined to more closely age is 15, shall continue in being to the track liis prey, than this prowling assassin end of the said terms of ten, twenty,

of departed genius has endeavoured to thirty, forty, fifty, sixty, sixty-five, se. come up with, and mangle, the honest venty, and eighty, years, respectively, as fame of a long-neglected, and late-rededuced by the rule of faith, from the warded, artist. same register of life and death, will be In his rage to delay the award of merit, equal to the respective periods of 9.1973, which he now sees must, ere long, be 16.3679, 22.0047, 24.8113, 23.2901, allotted to the manes of this generous. 14.9292, 9.0418, 3.9622, ani 0.0000. minded and high-spirited artist, lie falls years. Can the probability, therefore, upon the whole tribe of inen of geof the continuance in being of such á nius, who have followed the profession Jife, to the extremity of old age, be, ac.

time out of mind; and, not content with cording to the result, in page 581, equal advising parents and friends to be cauto something, and at the same time equal trou

edual tious how they indulge its whisperings in to nothing, according to the necessary young minds, he would allow no encourageconsequence of Mr. Baily's rule, in page

ment to be given to juvenile artists, but 355? Thus it is, that error always con

• such as would enable them to live " comtradicts itself.

fortably by severe toil and study;" for Trusting that I have made the abore

the reviewer thinks that the stimulus of statement sufficiently plain to be tho- want, is no less necessary than the allureroughly understood, and thereby having ments of ambition, to procure success in succeeded in representing the fallacy of a this elegant accomplishment. doctrine so confidentially authorised, so How he reconciles the living comfortmathematically tolerated, and so impli. ably amid “the stimulant of want," I citly acquiesced in, during the last hune leave to his cold heart to explain, who dred years; it is only lett ine now to perhaps thought they had in this way enquire, on which side of the question made Burns a good poet, by creating him conviction preponderates ?

an exciseman, as bird-fanciers put out NATHANIEL HAWÉS. the eyes of nightingales to make thein sing.


Yet in the mouths of these miserable the talent for composition ; for, while Reycompass-men, and frigid calculators, (not nolds only produced, by long studying, a man of whom is ever destined to taste, one forced progeny worthy to be called much lest produce a work of genius,) we an historical picture, (I mean his Ugofind terms of art, and all the jargon of en- lino) Barry's prolific pencil turned out cyclopædial knowledge, so pat, so much of dozens, the slightest of which might rival the gist of the critical gah, that many that expressive composition. To be sure, half-informed people even take their Sir Joshua was deprived of the reviewer's notions of art from them; they

advantageous stimulus, want ; and thence, " Talk of their Raphaels, Corregios, and perhaps, it came to pass, that, while one stuff,

was obliged to avail himself of the talents as Goldsmith has it, so cleverly, that if of the best engraver of mezzotinto this you should never hear of their names, country, or any other, has ever seen, in you might be induced to think thein real order to give the public the most favoure artists; that is, provided you knew able impression of the work, (not being nothing whatever of the art yourself.

able himself to execute such a plate any The great object of this calumnious Re- more than a copper-plate printer;) the view, becomes however very clear, to other not only made the design of his clear-sighted people, about the tenth Job and Palemon, pictures that might page, where we find, that next to the have made a Poussin jealous, much more reviewer's hatred of Barry, is his anger a Sir Josliua, but actually engraved them that Sir Joshua Reynolds should be sup' in su painter-like a manner, and with so posed to have at one time been jealous much effect, without affectation, nay, of his rising fame, whom he calls, in italics, coloured effect, that, if he had never done the great painter of the age, and the any thing besides, posterity would have grent painter of the country." And, as it been from them forced to confess, that unravels the malignant web of his sophis, he was a truly great artist; and, if he was try rather more than any other passage not the “ first dignitary” in his art, from of this hoarded venoin, allow me to the pictures now before the public, at quote it at length.

the Society's rooms, let those who can This unfortunate reviewer, so great an sbew a better series, from any English enemy to irascibility in Barry, and who, artist, cast the first stone. The gentle for ten vages of sly strokes of plausible Reynolds had his virtues, his talents, bis

abuse of all the lovers of the grand, taste, duly appreciated; his colouring · chaste, and severe, style, has

could not be over-rated; but it cannot be « Nursed his wrath to keep it warm,"

concealed that his drawing was so defec. is at length tempted to a short quotation

tive, that no prudent friend would wish

to bring the subject into discussion. from his biographer, (whom he calls also

" But the indignant Barry never found a his panegyrist, to lessen the force of his :

• friend capable of being a patron, who just praise,) wherein it is asserted, that viena “ perhaps there was a mutual jealousy

was a sufficient judge of art to know the

extent of his abilities: and, if Reynolds between Barry and Sir Joshua ;" and here the cloven foot appears, when he

really possessed that judgment which the says, with ridiculous gravity, “ that the

world allows him, (and which inany

doubted from the cime he presented the first part of the statement is true, even”.

Neptune of Bernini to the Academy,) to a much greater degree than is stated. We have no doubt but the concluding

he ought, as president, to have publicly insinuation is so grossly calumnious, that

afforded that testimony, and promoted

that excellence, in his cotemporary. scorn at its absurdity only restrains our

On this tender subject, if I am not proindignation at its malignity:-"Reynolds jealous of Barry! it were as reasonable voked by this half-bred man of taste. to suppose him jealous of the wearer of

I shall say no more; and the reviewer his canvas, or the grinder of his colours."

may console himself in the certainty, Yet, if it kills this enraged reviewer,

that if he does not injure his deceased he must be told, that, if Sir Joshua had

í friend's reputation by idle comparisons, been of a jealous temper, he might have

I shall be the last to withdraw a veil

from the sacred urn of those departed been pardoned for indulging it in this case; as he must have felt Barry's great

virtues. superiority in the grand feature of his art,

I remember Barry, and regret his

weaknesses; but I cannot but also re* Sce Barry's excellent ridicule of these member his almost intuitive talents, his terms,

scrupulous probity, his strict sincerity, Mostaly Mag. No. 211,

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his manly, though rough, freedom; his just rational prose, she would have hesitated indignation at meanness and vice; and I to apply the harsh terms of fiends achereby call upon the author of the Re- curse to rational beings, endowed by view I am exposing, in the name of a nature with equal rights of judgment, man, whom, if he were living, he would and even with the equal, although undenot dare to look in the face without trem- sirable, privilege, of making the retort bling, after this unjust assault, to come courteous of damned phanatiques.' forth from his concealment, and produce We may go still farther in apologizing for that “tale of his ganly perhidy," which, a lady and a poetess, who may have been he says, he has heard from authority that misled by authority as well as imagia ppears to him unguestionable. “But nation, and who inay have relied with the man, (he adds) is gone to his audit! implicit confidence on the unanimous and we have no desire to load his me. decisions of those doctors who teach, if mory with any other accusations, than not openly, that no faith is to be kept those of which his biographer has here with infidels, at least, that no quarter supplied the inaterials.” Thus closing is to be allowed them. Does not that his attacks on the virtuous dead with rational and liberal christian, Dr. Rees, dark insinuations, and that affectation of assure us in his sermons, that the chief candour which bespeaks a Turtuffe of the motive of every sceptic is vanity, and his first water, instead of a fit critic for a intention evil; and who would venture thinking nation.

to controvert the opinion of a learned Let this tale therefore be manfully separatist from the church, whose very brought forward, with the names of its vocation implies everything which is authors; and, if they fail in proof, of liberal, philosophical, and condescending: which I doubt not they will, we shall in short, every christian virtue? then have the pleasure to clear these February 11, 1811. aspersions from the character of an honest man; and instead of one libeller, For the Monthly Magazine. expose two, Abe contempt of an in- CRITICAL REMARKS ON SHAKESPEARE, sulted public

Come A FRIEND TO Merit. A

Act I. Scene 3.

"OT HE composition that your valour To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. I and fear make in you, is a virtue of a SIR,

good wing, and I like the wear well." "The TN the important duty of correcting true readin

Los correcting true reading," says Dr. Warburton, “ is I that which I apprehend to be a dan. doubtless a good ining, a word common to gerous, as well as too common, illiberality, the writers of this age" but this common I regret to find myself in the most un- word ming, Dr. Johnson tells us, he was pleasant predicament of having a lady never able to find. Mr. Sleevens, bowe for iny antagonist. But mere politeness ever, has given us several examples of its ought, in reason, to give place to a more being in current use as a verb; but, as a serious duty; a sentiment in which I am

substantive, even his indefatigable indus, sure of being joined by the lady herself, try could find none. Thus, Thomas whose genius and acquirements are so Drant, in his translation of one of the respectable. I allude to certain objec- Epistles of Horace : tionable sentiments in Miss Starke's truly poetic ode, On the Goodness of Provi

" He bears the bell in all respects, who good

with sweet doch ming." dence. (Monthly Magazine for December, 1810.) The words in which they And Sir A. Gorges, in his translation of are conveyed are indicated by italics, Lucan, 1614: in the following quotation:

“Which never mings with other stream." But man, too fond of earth, ne'er looks on But the passage in question wants no

alteration; the metaphor is taken, like To read the mystic wonders of the sky;

many others in the works of this poet, Or, if he read, no steady credence gives, from falconry; and it seems to denote Becaus: be hears, and ofi, alas! believes . .

firmness of contexture. “Certainly," says Tbose fiends accurst, who fain wilb sceptic leav'n Would paisen all his confidence in Heaven. .

Lord Bacon, in his Natural History, ex

periment 886, “many birds of a good Out of respect however to the lady, I wing, as kites and the like, would bear up will suppose that she availed herself of a good weight as they fly." King James I. one species of the poetica licentia, by in his progress froin Edinburgh to Loirclothing ardent images in words of cor don, was splendidly entertained at Hin. responding ardour, and that, in sober and chinbrook-house, the seat of Sir Oliver



Cromwell; and at parting, as we are forcibly' deduced from the premises. told, Sir Oliver presented his royal guest, Since this note was written, I have the who was much attached to the sports of satisfaction to find, that the author of the the field, with “ six hawks of an excellent Revisal has offered a similar interpretation wing."

of the passage. No more of that,

Actv. "Scene 3.--Dr. Johnson ob. I prithee, do not strive against my vows,

serves, “ that. Parolles has many of the I was compelled to her. As IV. Scene 3. . lineaments of Falstaff, a fellow that had

more wit than virtue; and though justice Dr. Johnson endeavours to obviate the

required that he should be detected and difficulty of this passage, by exchanging

exposed, yet his vices sit so fit in him, that the word strive, for drive or shrive; nei

he is not at last suffered to starve." I ther of which alterations can claim any

confess, however, that I see but little repreference to the present reading. “Do

semblance between these tão characters. not strive against my vows," &c. appa

It is true, they are equally destitute of rently means, Do not let my vows be the

virtụe; but, as to the wit of Parolles, I am obstacle against which your virtue strives

yet to learn where it is to be found. Heor contends; for, being compelled to her,

Jena scruples not to say that she “ thinks they were involuntary and consequently

him a great way fool;" and the vicės igralid.

which sit so fit in him, are totally differBertr. How have I sworn?

ent from those which enter into the comDian. 'Tis not the many oaths that make position of Falstaff. He recommends the truth,

himself to Bertram, who is himself re-: But the plain single vow that is vowd

presented as a man of no great penetra. true;

tion, by his servile complaisance and paWhat is not holy that we swear not by, But take the Highest to witness-then pray

rasitical obsequiousness; and imposes tell me

upon him, by a superficial parade of If I should swear by Jove's great attributes knowledge and ostentation of valour. I lov'd you dearly, would you believe my These are vices with which Falstaff is not oaths

- chargeable; for the braggardism of FalWhen I did love you ill? This has no hold. staff, which is mere flighty,rhodomontade. ing :

not calculated or intended for serious be. To swear by him whom I protest to love, lief, is noť at all akin to the grave and That'l will work against him: therefore, your poinpous lies of Parolles. Nor is there a Are words and poor conditions but unsealed. single trait in the character of this pol.

troon, which bears any analogy to the hur . . Ibid. Ib.

mour, the hilarity, the sagacity, of the fat The scope of Diana's reasonings in this knight, to his vigour and force of mind, speech have been entirely mistaken; and

or the irresistible attraction of his com : the alterations proposed by the learned

pany and conversation : and we may cercommentators, Warburton and Johnson,

tainly add also, to his natural fortitude howcver specious, are beyond all ques

and courage : thongh the unlucky and lution inadmissible. Bertram, to obviate

dicrous circumstances in which he is in: the charge of inconstancy, says, “how volved, render this part of his character have I sworn?" to which Diana replies, liable to strong apparent imputations, “'Tis not the many vows that make the A most able analysis of this extraordinary truth,” &c. that is, 'Tis not the multipli. dramatic personage, is to be found in city nor the solemnity of your protesta. the admirable Essay on the Character tions that can evince your fidelity, for, of Sir John Falstaff, written by the late : to make such appeals to Heaven, is easy Mr. Moryan. and common. "But would you yourself, whose oaths are offered as demonstrati.

MACBETI. ons, give me credit, if I should swear by The observations of Dr. Johnson, all that is sacred my love to you was sin which precede the first and fourth acts cere, when my conduct contradicted my of this tragedy, upon the now almost profession's? Oaths such as your's are, in obsolete subject of witchcraft, are very their own nature, void of all title to con- masterly; and exhibit a curious compen. fidence, which swear bý him whom you dium of the once popular system of en. profess to reverence, that you will be true chantment, upon which the play is to engagements contracted in opposition founded... to his will. Therefore your oaths, &c.

There I go to meet Macbeth. The conclusion is bere very justly and .. .,'

Die I. Stane 1.'

**. This


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