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other similar contrivances, moderately skin, so as to relieve it in some degree pressed on its surface; this disposed from the weight of the drag, and as the either in a position parallel with, or in- rake recedes by the eccentric motion, clined to, the axis of the large roller, draws away the fur cut off; the drag is placed edgeways, or inclined to it, now presses on the fur, while a second may be composed of iron, of the other stroke is made, and another portion of simple metals, of a composition of fur cut, while the rake is raised by its thein, or of wood, and is either simple machinery, sufficiently ligh in its backa or compounded of different pieces, as stroke to be clear of the fur, and fall : the digjensions or other circumstances the next stroke in contact with the of the work may be found to require; drag as before, and is again ready to and to this I add an apparaius which I draw away the fur about to be cot. call a rake, and by this I propose to · The patentee next explains all the remove the fur from off the pelt, after drawings attached to the specification, it is separated by the action of the and shews the manner in which ibey knife; and the drag, constructed so as act; and he adds: “I declare, that the to accommodate itself to, and produce description of the apparatus, and their an uniforin pressure or holding on the parts, is the result of careful and pracfur, notwithstanding its inequalities of tical experiment, and are what I prefer thickness; and to produce this, I prefer and adopt in practice ; but further I de- , and adopt an edge-bar, pressing with clare, to prevent the infringement of jts edge on the fur, and composed of adopting my principles, or any parts three distinct parts, thus: Two outer thereof, under the disguise of a change pieces form a case somewhat similar of materials, dimensions, or proporto that of a pocket-comb, and a middle tions, I claim the privilege of using piece is placed between them, and pron any or all of the metals, or their comjecting edgeways below them; this I binations; of altering my materials, die make of about one inch deep, and mensions, or proportions, according to about one-eighth thick, and its projec- the intended scale of operation. And tions below the case about ths of an further, I do not confine myself to any inch. It is secured to it by two or more particular mode of connecting my said rivets, one or two inches from each improvements with the engine, or of end, it is filed smooth on the edge communicating motion to them, but which lies in contact with the fur, and adopting ail or any of those modes with thus should be a little rounded; by this which mechanics are well acquainted ; means the middle piece will, with a and claiming as my exclusive right all moderate degree of pressure, spring on such copies, or approximations to my jrs edge, and so accommodate itself to principles of arrangement apd conthose skins which are thicker at the struction herein set forih, as shall clash middle than the edges, and when of an or interfere with them in any or either uniform substance, will remain parallelof those particulars." The materials I find best for this pur. pose, are steel and iron welded together, MR. BUNDY's, (CAMDEN TOWN,) for a the steel part in contact with the fur. new Method of Heading Pins. To remove the fur from the drag, I use In describing this invention, dir. Bunthe drag before-mentioned, and formed dy says, the frame or stock is made of either on the principle of the drag, or metal, in which are fitted a pair of steel in other cases, a piece of steel, or steel dies, in manner of those generally used and iron placed edgeways and brought for making screws, held together by cyto a knife-edge, which is afterwards a linders; the dimensions may be various, little taken down by a file or five grind. as the quality of the work requires; stone." In applying this apparatus, the dies generally used are about two the machinery to work the drag and inches long and one inch square. In rake may be made of any of the well. the prominent parts, and that side of known eccentric inotions, or cranks, each the two dies which come in con, wheels, &c.; and connected by any of tact when in use, are made correspond. the well-known methods of communie ing grooves, which, when pressed toge. cating motion to different shafts. The ther, form holes, each to be the diameter effects of this apparatus are: that at of the shaft intended to have the head each stroke of the engine the edge of fixed on; these holes may be made tao' the rake comes into contact with the pering upward, or contracted at that edge of the drag, and pressed on the part close under the bead, wbere half

, a hemisphere

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a hemisphere, whose diameter being explained the process by the drawings, that of the size of the head required, Mr. B. adds, that placing the whole in is to be worked out; viewing the dies a tly-press, one stroke therewith on the thus worked, and in the frame, which is top piece will be found sufficient to the position in which they are placed complete the whole number of heads while introducing the pointed shafis, in the dies. Hitherto it has been the each having a head loosely put on, the practice to strike the head several upper die being at liberty in the frame, times, and that on its sides, expecting the pressure of its weight will be found to fix it on the shaft while held in a sufficient to hold the number of shafts, horizontal position. “But my method," with their beads in the respective places, says the patentee, “ of effectually and while they are pushed forwards with a securely fastening the heads on the straight motion, until the quantity of shafts, and leaving the heads of a supeheads prevents the shafts from going rior form, is, by placing the shafts in a any further. Is this state it is neces- perpendicular direction, and striking sary to turn a lever, to which is fixed the heads and shafts on their tops, a screw for the purpose of forcing the which I call “superior beads," and dies together, which will hold the shafts which I claim as my invention. The firm enough to receive a stroke from a head wire may be made flat, either by press on the top piece, to secure and drawing or rolling to a size, so that

form complete the whole number of when spun one or more rounds, will be · heads in the dies. The hemispheres sufficient for a head; head-wire of a · may be finished according to fancy, as smaller than ordinary size, without flat

respects the ornament or figure of ting, is recommended, so that when moulding intended for the top of the spun and cut three rounds, it shall conhead, by sinking them accordingly. I tain the quantity of metal required for leave a point in the centre of these the size head intended. When the cavities in the top piece, which serves heads have been fixed on the shafts by when forced into the top of the shaft the fly-press, the screw is then to be · to widen it there, and form a rivet, and turned back by the lever, and taking

thereby secure the head firm from bold of the milled head, which is on - coming off the top of the shaft; and the head of the small shaft, and which the dies being hard scrowed together goes through the screw, and is fixed with the lever, there will be a collar to the top dies by being screwed hard formed by that pressure on the shaft in the die, it may be drawn back to under the head sufficient to prevent separate the dies suficiently wide for the liability of the head being by any the superior-headed pins, which they ordinary means forced down the shaft. contain, to fall through into some placa Having described the working parts and prepared to receive them.

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ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. Whatever difference exists between the
M R . KNIGHT, whose interesting functions of animal and vegetable life,

I papers have frequen:ly engaged there is a very obvious analogy between
our attention, again claims the public some of the organs of plants and those
notice. In a former paper, he stated the of animals; and it does not appear very
result of many experiments on grafted iinprobable, that the correspondent or.
trees, from which he inferred, that each gan in each may first fail to execute its
variety can be propagated with success office. Naturalists have considered the
during a limited period only; and that structure of plants as an inversion of
the graft, or other detached part of an that of animals, and have compared the
old tree, or old variety, can never form roots to the intestines, and the leaves to
that which can with propriety be called the lungs of animals; and the analogy
a young tree. Since this, he bad en, between the vegetable sap and animal
deavoured to ascertain which, among the blond, is close and obvious; and there is
various organs that compose a tree, first scarcely a doubt that the sap of trees
fails to execute its office, and thus tends circulates as far as is necessary to, or
to bring on the debility of old age. consistent with, their state of existence

and growth. The roots of trees, par. individuals longest retain their health ticularly those in coppices, which are and strength, and best bear excessive felled at stated periods, continue so loug labour and josufficient food, in which the to produce and feed a succession of chest is most deep and capacious, probranches, that no experiments were re- portionately to the length of current the quired to prove, that it is not any defec- circulating fluid has to run; and the same tive action of the root which occasions remark he susperts will be found genethe debility and diseases of old varieties rally applicable to the human species. of the apple and pear-tree. Mr. Knight Mr. Macariney has comraunícated to next details a variety of experiments this learned body some very interesting which he has made to ascertain the fact observations upou Juininous animals: he be is anxious to establish; and having examines the grounds on which the proformerly adduced arguments which are perty of shewing light has been ascribed uncontradicted, to shew that the sap of io certain animals, that either do not plants circulates through their leaves as possess it, or in which its existence is the blood of animals circulates through questionable. He then gives an account their lungs; and having also shewn that of some luminous species, either inac. grafted trees, of old and debilitated va. curately described, or quite unknown : he fieties of fruit, became most diseased in next explains, either froin his own obrich soils, and when grafted on stocks of servations, or from the information com. the most vigorous growth, which led bin municated to him by others, many of the to suspect that in such cases more food circumstances attending the luminous is collected and carried up into the appearances of the sea: and he then deplant than its leaves can prepare and scribes the organs employed for the proassimilate; and that the inalter thus cole duction of light in certain species; and lected, which would have promoted the lastly, he reviews the opinions which health and growth in a vigorous variety, have been entertained respecting the accumulates and generates disease in the nature and origin of animal light. extreinities of the branches and annual Mr. Macartney controverts the notions shoots, while the lower part of the of many authors, who pretend to have trunk and roots remain generally free witnessed the phenomena of light as be. from any apparent disease. Hence he longing to animals, to wbich they cere attributes the diseases and debility of tainly, he thinks, capnot belong. Flau. old age in trees to an inability to pro- gergues pretended to have seen earch. duce leaves which can efficiently ex- worms luminous in three instances; the ecute their natural office, and to some body shone in every part, but most britconsequent imperfection in the circu- liantly at the genital organs. Now Mr. lating Auid. It is said, that the leaves Macartney thinks it next to impossible, are annually reproduced, and are there- that animals so frequently before our fore annually new; but there seems to be eyes as the common earth-worm, should an essential difference between the new be endowed with so remarkable a proleaves of an old and of a young variety; perty, without every person having obo and it is certain, that the external cha. served it. If they only enjoyed it during racter of the leaf of the same variety at the moment of copulation, still it could bwo, and at twenty years old, is very dis- not have escaped notice, as these creasimilar; and therefore' to Mr. Knight it tures are usually found joined together appears not improbable, that further in the most frequented paths in the gar changes will have taken place at the end den-walks. In the same way he treats of two centuries. "If (says he) these many others; and then mentions some opinions be well-founded, and the leaves luminous aniinals discovered by Sir Jo. of trees be analogous to the lungs of seph Banks, Captain Horsburg, and himanimals, is it improbable that the natural self: and he says, the zoophyte is the debility of old age of trees and of anio inost splendid of the luminous iphamals, may originate from a similar bitants of the ocean. The flashes of light source: This question Mr. Knight is emitted during its contractions are so not prepared to decide; but he believes vivid as to affect the sight of the specit will be generally admitted, that the tatox. The luminous state of the sea human subject is best formed for long between the tropics is generally accomlife, when the chest is best formed to panied with the appearance of a great permit the lungs to move with the most number of marine animals, of various freedom. And he has long observed kinds, upon the surface of the water. In among domesticated animals, that those the Arabian Sea bave been seen several

luminous luminous spots in the water, and when a distinct organization for the production the animals, supposed to be the cause of of light, are the luminous species of lam. thern, were examined, they were found pyris, elater, fulgora, and pausus. to be insects about the third of an inch The light of the lampyrides proceeds in length, resembling in appearance the from some of the last rings of the abse Wood-louse. The insect, when viewed domen, which, when not illuminated, with the microscope, seemed to be are o! a yellow colour. The number of forined hy sections of a thin crustaceous luminous rinys varies in ditterent species, substance. During the time that any and, as it seems, at different periods in fluid reinained in the animal, it shone the same individual. Besides this lubrilliantly like the fire-tly. Mr. Mac- minous substance there are, in the comartney supposes that this, and another mon glow-worm, on the inner side of ihe inentioned as taken on a sandy beach, last abdominal ring, two bodies, winch to were monoculi. He notices many others the naked eye appear more minute than that have from time to time come under the head of the sinallest pin. They are his inspection; one of these, which he de. lodged in two slight depressions, formed. nominatesthe beroe fulgens, is a very ele- in the shell of the ring, which is at these gant creature, changing its colour be points particularly transparent. These, tween purple, violet, and pale blue: the when examined, were found to be sacs, body is truncated before and pointed and contain a soft yellow substance. behind, but the exact form is difficult to The light that proceeds from these sacs assign, as it is varied by particular con. is less under the controul of the insect tractions, at the animal's pleasure. When than that of the luminous substance this insect swam gently near the surface spread on the rings: it is seldoin enof the water, its whole body became oc- tirely extinguished in the season that casionally illuininated in a slight degree: the glow-worm gives light, even during during its contractions, a stronger light the day; and when all the other rings issued from the ribs, and when a sudden are dark, these sacs often sbine brightly. shock was communicated to the water, In all the dissections made by Mr. Macin which several of these animals were artney, of luminous insects, he did not placed, a vivid fash was thrown out. find that the organs of light were better, If the body were broken, the fragments or differently supplied with either nerves continued luminous for several seconds, or air-tubes, than other parts of the and being rubbed on the hand, lest a body. The power of emnitting light likes light like that of phosphorus; this, how. wise exists in some creatures which want ever, as well as every other inode of nerves; a circumstance that strongly ernitting light, caused after the death of marks the difference between animal the aniinal. Mar. Alacartney having light and animal electricity. In genoticed many other species, says, that his neral, the exhibition of light, in aniinals, own observation, leart him to conclude; diepends upon the presence of a fluid that the medusa scintillans is the most matter, which in some instances is con. frequent source light of the sea round timed to particular parts of the body, and this country, are likewise in other parts in others is ditfused throughout the whole of the world." We are next informed, substance of the animal. that the remarkable property of emitting Mr. Macartney next notices the va. liglit during life, is only met with among rious explanations that have been given animals of th .tou "last classes of modern of the phenomena of animal light, and naturalists, viz. mollusca, i9sects, worms, relaies a number of experiments on the and Zoop! yies. The mollusca and subject; and then gives the following worms contain each but a single species; conclusions, which are the result of the the pholas dactylue in the one, and the observations that he has made on the nereis nocticula in the other. Some subject. species yield ligbt in the eight following The property of emitting light is con: genera of inserts, viz. elater, lampyris, fined to animals of the simplest organic fulgora, pausus, scolopendra, cancer, zation, the greater number of which are lynceus, and limulus. The luminous inhabitants of the sea. The luminous species of the genera lampyris and ful property is not constant, but in general gora, are more pumerous chan is gene. exists only in certain periods in parti. rally supposed. Among the zoophytes, cular states of the animal body. The the genera medusa, beroe, and penda. power of shewing light resides in a para tula, contain species which afford light, iicular substance, or fluid, which is some. The only animals that appear to possess times situated in a particular organ, and A108 TULY MAG. No. 211.

2 K

in others diffused throughout the animal's by long continuance, or frequent repe body. The liglit is differently regulated citinns, nor accumulated by exposure to when the luminous matter exists in the natural light: it is therefore not dem living body, and when it is abstracted pendent upon any foreign source, but in from it. In the first case it is inter heres as a property, in a peculiarly ormitting with periods of darkness, is com, ganized animal substance, or fluid, and monly produced or increased by a mus, is regulated by the same laws' which cular effort, and is sometimes absolutely govern all other funetions of living be dependent upon the will of the animal. ings. The light of the sea is always In i he second case, the luminous appear produced by living aniinals, and most ance is usually perinanent, until it becomes frequently by the presence of the medusa extinct, after which it may be restored scintillans. When great numbers of this directly by friction, concussion, and the species approach the surface, they some application of warmıh, which last causes times coalesce, and cause that snowy operate on the lyorinous matter only in, or milky appearance of the sea, which is directly by exciting the animal, The sg alarming to navigators. These and luminous matter, in all situations, is in- mals, when congregated on the surface combustible, and loses the quality of of the water, can produce a flash of light emitring light by being dried, or much like an electric corruscation. The lubeated. The exhibition of light, how. ninous property does not appear to hare ever long it may be continued, causes no any conneetion with the economy of diminution of the bulk of the luminous the aniinals that possess it, except in matter. It does not require the pre- ying insects, which by that means diso sence of pure air, and is not extinguished cover each other at night, for the pur. by other gases. The luminous appear pose of sexual congress. ance of living animals is not exhausted


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