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Such a society wonld be productive of moved toward the northern meridiana, infinite benefit, and would be supported About five or six minutes after its first by the good wishes and gratitude of the appearance to me, the eastern extremity whole public.

AMICUS. of it passed under the polar star.
Il'estminster, May 6, 1811.

At the lowest height which can be as

signed to it, its velocity must have been For the Monthly Magazine. very great. And its gaining altitude as RESULTS of the weil er at NOTTING- it passed northward, seems to indicale HAM, in 1810, by DR. CLARKE. that it was far above our atmosphere. Thermometer, Wind.

I remember a similar white arch, May IlIGHEST observation, Sept. 2 820 E.

27, 1781; but I do not recollect that is Lowest observation, Feb. 20 14° N.E.

had such a remarkable, or indeed any, Greatest variation in 24 hours,

apparent motion. Feb. 19-20 160

Its light diminished as it receded vorth. Annual mean - - 460

ward, but was great enougheren then to be

seen with my night glass.

April 22.

Ilighest obscrvation, Dec. 31 30,50 N.E.
Lowest observation, Feb. 19 28,73 S.W.

For the Monthly Magazine. Greatest variation in 24 hours,



HENRY V. - Act. I. Scene 2. Annual mean • • 29,83 " Yet that is but a crush'd necessityWeather.

While that the armed hand doth fight abroad, l'air


The advised head defends itself at home." Wet . ... 96

THUS the od folio editions: the

1 quarto reads " curs'd necessity:" 365

Sir Thoinas Hanmer, with more than cri

tical license, “not o'course a necessity." Winds.


Dr. Johnson recommends “ crude neN. and N. E. . .

cessity;" and Dr. Warburton says posi

143 E, and S, E, .

tively, “ we should read 'scused neces

79 S. and S. W. .

sity." I imagine every reader would

157 W. and N.W. .


wish to be 'scused the necessity of adopt.

ing any one of these various emendations, 467

May we not venture, till something better is proposed, to read coward neccssity, i. e.

a necessity which fear only creates; a Rain.

Inches. sense perfectly corresponding with the Greatest quantity in July - 3,85 scope and spirit of the context, which Smallest ditto in September - 0,62 deprecates the idea of being deterred Total quantity for the year - 23,15 from the invasion of France from the ap

The barometer is firmly fixed to a prehended necessity of guarding against standard wall, on an elevation of 130 the petty incursions of the Scots at home. fcet; and the thermometer is placed in a Peace to this meeting wherefore we are garden 140 feet from the level of the sea, met, &c.

The 5th act of tbis play was apparently.

intended to open with this scene; but To the Edilor of the Monthly Magasine.

jo vain do we look for the genius of 5Ꮧ Ꭱ , T THINK it right to mention a

Shakespeare in any part of it. The preI rare and beautiful phænomenon.

ceding dialogue between Pistol and Flu. About half past eight this fiue evening, mainder of this play, and nearly the

n. ellin, is certainly genuine; but the reI was struck with the appearance of whole of the ni

of whole of the next, seem unquestionably a luminous arch, extending from south

borrowed from that feeble series of his west to westward, about 30° in altitude

toric dramas which the stage had been at its rertex, and nearly semicircular.' It had an uniformly dense white light

in possession of long before the time of of about half a degree; very much re

Shakespeare, and many of which he was sembling that of the inoon, but not so

employed to reconstruct; not scrupling,

however, to make great occasional use vivid.

of the old materials. It proceeded to pass north of the west, with a very eren and apparently gentle

HENRY VI.- Part I. motion; seeming to gain in altitude as it

That the first part of Henry VI. was


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not written by Shakespeare, is an opinion I t is worthy of remark that the herefounded on the strongest presuinptive ditary title of York to the crown is in evidence. It bears no resemblance to this scene stated very clearly, and in 2 his genuine productions in its versifica manner conforınable to historical truth, tion, style, or diction; and possesses no But in the first part of llenry VI, the portion of his spirit. The 2d and 3d claim of the House of March, fiom whom parts of this history originally published, the right of York was derived, is enveA. D. 1600, under the title of “ The loped in strange and inextricable confus Contention of York and Lancaster," sion; an additional proof that the former were undoubtedly, as Dr. Johnson has part was not the production of Shakes. remarked, designed to continue the series peare. of transactions of which it pre-supposes Act III. Scene 1.--The scenes which the first part already known;" che pass in the Abbey of Bury, displaying former portion terminating with the court. the machinations of the queen, the car. ship, and the latter commencing with dinal, Suffolk, and York, against the Duke the marriage of Margaret of Anjou with of Glocester, are not of the genuine cast the king. The epilogue to Henry V. and colour of Shakespeare, whose magic speaks of the history of llenry VI. “in pen nevertheless again appears in the infant bands” crowned King of France description given by Warwick, of the and England as having oft been sheron on murder of the duke; and suill inore con. the stage: but this by no means proves spicuously in the celebrated death bed that Shakespeare was the author of the scene of Cardinal Beaufort; the beauties first part. If he wrote the second and of which, as Dr. Johnson emphatically third parts either wholly or in great meae observes, “ rise out of nature and of sure, he would naturally take up the truth. The superficial reader cannot story where the former dramatist laid it miss them, the profound can image noe down). That the second and third thing beyond thein." The greater part parts of this drama contain many scenes of the two last acts seems of very dubi. which could proceed only from the pen ous authority. of this mighty poet, is undeniable: 'but

HENRY VI. Part 3. they are blended with others of a totally Act I. Socne 3. The interesting in. different stamp and complexion; and cidents of this scene, seem to have completely assimilating with the first awakened the genius of Shakespeare, Dart, which exhibits no trace of the ge- which had long lain dormant, or if at all nius of Shakespeare, and of which it is apparent, glimmering with faint and feeble probable that not a single line was writ. Justre. The fury of Clifford, the malice cen by himn. The authority of the player of the queen, and the anguish of York, editors, who have ascribed to him such are painted in glowing colours, and in the Performances as Locrine, the Life and style of a master. Death of Lord Cromwell, and Tirus An. HENRY VI. Part 3.-Act II. Scene 5. dronicus, cannot be regarded as of the

This battle fares like to the morning's war, slightest estimation.

Whca dying clouds contend with growing

• light, &c. HENRY VI. Part II Act. I. Scene 8.

This speech of the king may rank among

the most beautiful effusions of Shake. Ask what thou wilt-hat I had said and done! Have done for more I hardly can endure.

ne! speare's Muse in her mournful moods;

and presents amidst the tumult and bor. In Gray's Descent of Odin the spirit ror of the battle, as our English Longis of the prophetess delivers her predictions nus has observed, “a delightful glimpre with the same constraint and reluctance; of rural innocence and pastoral tranquila and expresses a similar resentment and lity." I am strongly disposed to think indignation at the forcible and presuinp- that the short speech in the quarto, of tuous violation of her deep and iron which this is so noble an enlargement, sumber. The “hallowed verge” is an was written not by Shakespeare, but by idea which does not occur in the tragedy his theatrical pre-cursor. It is 100 flat, of Macbeth, though very poetical and too feeble, and too prosaic, to come congruous to sulgar opinion. And other from the pen of the great poet, whose al. sparks we may discern of the “ Muse of chymy, and whose alone, could produce fire" which was destined to produce that gold of the purest lustre from the vilest prodigy of dramatic art and genius. Jross. War. Sweet York begin; and if thy claim

For Warwick is a subtle orator, be good,

And Louis a prince soon won with moving The Nevils are thy subjects to command.

Act III, Scene 1. Work. Thea thus - Act II, Score 2. Whethes from ignorance or inadvertency, Shakespeare has very erroneously Grim-visaged War hath smooth'd his wrinkled characteriseri Louis XI. of France, as "a ! front; prince Soon won with moving words." And now, instead of mounting barbed steeds, Sorue traces of his true character. hole To fright the souls of fearful adversaries, ever, appear in the following scenes,



He capers nimbly in a lady's cbamber, where he is represented as acting both a

To the lascivious pleasing of a lute. treacherous and an interested pait.

It has heen asked, Who capers? War or

York? I answer, War: bui with an evi. Upon the whole it appears to me that the third division of this historic

e dent allusion to the dissolute inancers of

tbe king, who had exchanged the gal. drama, exlibiis inore numerous and more striking manifestations of the genius of

lautry of the camp for that of the court;

to which Glocester proceeds to contrast Shakespeare, vian the second part. Dr. Warburton bas, with his characteristic

his own ungenial habits and personal

defects. dogmatism, pronounced all the parts of

But I, that am not shaped for sportive tricks, Henry VI. to be certainly not Shakes. No

Nor made to court an amorous, peare's. Dr. Johnson, on the other


Ibid, Scene . hand, strongly contends that they are his

.Q. Marg. Live each of you the subject to genuine productions. Both these opi.

his hate, mions are given without modification or And be to you, and all of you to God's. qualification : but the truth secms to be,

Ibid, Scene 3. that Shakespeare has adopted the well- 6 It is evident,” says Mr. Walpole, “from known performances of former play- the conduct of Shakespeare, that the wrights, as the ground-work of his own House of Tudor retained all their Lanproductions, introducing much new inat. castrian prejudices, even in the reign of ter and many entire scenes.

Elizabeth. In this play of Richard III, In the very curious pamphlet, entitled he seems to deduce the woes of the Greene's Groats-worth of Witte, quoted Ilouse of York from the curses which by Mr. Tyrwhitt, it is said “ There is an' Queen Margaret had vented against upstari cron, beautified with our feathers, them; and he could not give that weight that, with his tyger's head wrapt in a to her curses without supposing a right plaver's hide,' supposes he is as well able in her to ulter them.". This remark, to bombast out a blank verse as the best however specious, is certainly destitute of you; and, being an absolute Johannes of foundation, If Queen Elizabeth re. Factotum, is in his own conceit the only tained all the Lancastrian prejudices, Shoko-scene in a country."

. Shakespeare made his court to her very That the appellation Shake-scene al- jll, by representing Henry Il'. on his Judes to Shakespeare, no one will doubt; death bed, as struck with remorse, on a and it is evident that "his tyger's beau review of his past conduct. “How I wrapt in a player's bide,” is a parody caine by the crown, O God forgive !" It upon ihe following line of York's speech is observable, that the Bishop of Car. to Margaret,

lisle, a prelate of inflexible bonour and “O tyger's heart wrapt in a woman's hide !" integrity, expresses in the strongest

Henry VI. Part III. Act 1 Scene 4. ternis his detestation of the detbroneAnd this passage, upon the whole, seems ment of Richard II. ; and his predictions plainly to imply that Shakespeare had respecting the fatal consequences of what made very free with the productions of

with the productions of he styles" that heinous black and obscene preceding writers, provoking, as it seems, deed," are as literally fulfilled as the prothie lash of criticism by this unusual phetical imprecations of Queen Margaret,

"" The blood of England shall manure the license.


And future ages groan for this foul act;
RICHARD III.- Act. I. Seene 1.

Peace shall go sleep with Turks and Infidels, Now is the winter of our discontent

And in this seat of peace, tumultunus wars Made glorious summer by this sun of York;

Shall kin with kin and kind with kind conAnd all the clouds that lower'd upon our

found." house,

Nay, Shakespeare makes King Henry VI. In the deep bosom of the ocean buried. . Now are our brows bound with victorious

ous the feeble and the pious, expressly acwreaths,

knowledge, in a personal conference with Our biuised arms hung up for monuments, the Duke of York, the illegality of his Our stern aiarums chang'i to merry meetings, own title. These circumstances, bow. Our oreadiul marches to delightful mca. ever, afford no proof of Shakespeare's atsures; tachment to the House of York. They


are counter-balancel by other passages of the crimes charged upon Richard rest as favourable to the House of Lancaster, upon imperfect and presumptive evi. Nor is it possible to deterinine whether dence, he who could condeinn Rivers, he inclined most to the Red or to the Vaughan, and Grey, and above all White Rose. The truih is, that private Hastings, the great and zealous friend of individuals had long ceased to take any the House of York, to death, without personal inierest in the quarrel. Near any pretence of justice or form of trial, a century had elapsed since the contendo must be capable of any wickedness. ing titles were united in Henry VIII.; After all the ingerivity that has been exand Shakespeare manifestly aimed at ercised upon the subject, I see no reason nothing more than to make the different to doubt that the infant princes were characters of his historic drainas speak murdered in the Tower by his command, and act in a manner conformable to his or contrivance. To bclicve that one toric and dramatic probability,

was slain, and the other allowed to es. The envious food

cape, is to abandon an easy and probable Kept in my soul, and would not let it forth hypothesis, and to embrace in its stead To find the empty Vast, and wandering air. . an arbitrary and extravagant supposition.

Ibid, Scene 4. Dr. Johnson observes, that the allusions Vast is here a substantive. So, in the to the plays of Henry VI. which occur Winter's Tale, “ Sbook bands as over a in Richard III, are no weak proofs of vast." And, in Hamlet, “In the dead those disputed pieces. This is true, but vast and middle of the night." And in it is material to remark that there are no Milton we read “ Michael bid sound th' allusions whatever to be found in this archangel trumpet,-Through the vast play to the first part of those duubtful of Hearen it sounded, &c." Vasty is and disputed dramas. the adjective cominonly used by Shakes

HENRY VIII.--Act III. Scene 2. peare as "the vasty deep; vasty Tartar;

In the interesting dialoglie between Arabia's vasty wilds; War's vasty jaws;"

Wolsev and Cromwell, the chagrin and &c.

anguish of the Cardinal are strongly deRichmond. God and your arms be praised,

pictured, notwithstanding the efforts of victorious friends,

the fallen statesman to conceal, not from

Cromwell only, but from himself, the real The day is ours, &c.

state of his mind. He labours to persuade Although this performance exhibits all himself that he feels his heart new opened; the characteristic faults of the great au

and that the pomp and glory of the world thor, they are redeemed by a wonderful a

are become liateful to hiin; and he afdisplay of his bighest excellencies. And fects the most perfect calmness, resignaI can discern in this draina no mixture

tion, and fortitude. He even ventures, of spurious and insipid trash, no alloy

Qy in reply to the affectionate enquiries of of adventitious dullness. Notwith

his faithful servant, to affirm that he was

hi standing the great ability with which the

he never so truly happy:courtship scene between Richard and the Lady Anne is written), the mind re

I know myself now, and I feel within me volts at its incredibility; yet, who can

A peace above all earthly dignitics, wish it oblicerated? That in the fourth

A still and quiet conscience. act between Richard and the queen dow. But, when the intelligence of the king's ager is of great though not equal merit marriage withi Anne Boleyn is commu. in point of composition; and, likewise, 'nicated to him, he breaks out into ex(were the repetition pardonable) much

ardonable) much clamations which plainly discover huw too far removed froin the liniits of pro. 'bitterly the recollection of his former. bability. Both scenes bear the aspect prosperity affected him. of a too severe satire on the sex— re- O Cromwell! All my glories lenting, shallow, changing, woman!" In that one woman I have lost for ever: The character of Richard is exceeded by No sun shall ever usher forth mine honours, no effort of dranjaric skill in the whole Or gild again the noble troops that waited compass of the poet's rich and boundless upon my smiles, &c. invention. The vein of humour which At the conclusion of this conversation pervades almost every scene in which he Cromwell thinks it expcdient to exhort appears, is a sensible and almost vecessary 'bim to have patience. The cardinal rerelief to the deep and tragic villainy of plies, “ So I have,---Farewell the hopes his atrocious acts. It may be transiently of court, my hopes in Heaven do dwell" remarked that, although the greater part thus making his hopes of Heaven the

mere reluctant substitute of his hopes at perhaps has this great critic pronounced eourt. But such are the paintings of so erroneous a judginent. That the gethis great artist and imitator of nature, nius of Shakespeare, in this admirable to whom it was given to develope the drama, comes in and goes out with Ca. peaknesses of humanity in their most therine is indeed a strange assertion, gecret recesses; and at the same tiine to And not less extraordinary is the suc. compel us to pity and syinpathise with ceeding dogma, that “ every other part these frailties, instead of indulging a proud may be easily conceived and easily end unfeeling misanthropy.

written." Does the fate of “ the noble

ruined Buckingham" excire no sympaLove thyself last; cherish those hearts that

fian those hearts that thy? Do the dignified distresses of the hate thee;

fallen cardinal create less powerful emoCorruption wins not more than honesty.

Ibid. Ib.

tions, or a sainter interest in the breast,

than the virtuous sorrows of the queen? « Though this be good divinity," says Are there no nice touches and discrimiDr. Warburton, “ and an adınirable nations of character in the portraits of precept for our conduct in private life, the king of Cranıner? Croniwell? Gar. it was never calculated or designed for diner? Surry? &c. Even the subordi. the magistrate, or public minister. Nor nate personages in this play are sketched could this be the direction of a man ex- with a pencil so bold and inasterly, that perienced in affairs to his pupil. It they may well be compared to the une would make a good Christian, but a very finished drawings of Reinbrandt. If the ill statesman. The poet wrote “cherish

pomp of scenery affords attraction suf. those hearts that wait thee, i. e. thy de ficient to ensure lasting success on the pendents.” For a churchman and a

stage, why does the first part of Henry bishop to insinaate that the duties of the VI. "That drum and trumpet thing," lic statesman and the Cliristian are income unmolested on the shelf Throughout patible, is somewhat extraordinary, the entire play of Henry VIII. I perceive Shakespeare, it seeins, thought differ.

no traces of a different and inferior pen. ently; at least Wolsey, when he found

CORIOLANUS.-Act II. Scene 1, “ his heart new opened,"inculcates sen

Our veiled dames tinenis far more just and generous. For commit the war of white and damask in his advice to Cronwell is “ Love thyself Their nicely zawded cheeks to th' wanton last," j.e. make your personal aggrans

spoil disement your last object. “ Cherish Of Phæbus' burning kisses. those hearts that hate thee,i. e.

« We should read," says Dr. War instead of returning evil for evil, embrare every lavourable opportunity of obliging

burton, the care of white and dama-k,

, and benefiting even your adversaries; "Turn what they will to verse, their toil is

= i. e, the commodity, the inerchandize.'" " For corruption wins not more than

vain ; honesty," i. e. a conduct so generous Critics like me shall make it prose again.", and honourable will contribute ho less to extend your influence than corrupt

If any authority were necessary to supand sinister practices.” This is true po

port the original reading, we might refer Jitical wisdom; but the Right Reverend

to a parallel passage : commentator seems to have preferred

Such war of white and red within her cheeks! the Machiavelian policy of a Mazarine lo

Taming of tbe Shrew, Act IV. the virtues of a D'Amboise or a Sully.

He rewards Act V. Scene ult.Di. Johnson obs His deeds with doing them, and is content serves « That the play of Henry VII. To spend his time to and it,

Ibid. Scene 2. still keeps possession of the stage by the splendour of its pageantry. Yet pomp Coriolanus is content to spend his time is not the only merit of this play. The to end it, i. e. he is willing to employ meek sorrows and virtuous distress of his whole life in seeking occasions to sa. Catherine have furnished some scenes crifice it for his country. We might which may justly be numbered amongst read, if alteration were requisite or al. the greatest efforts of tragedy: but the lowable,“ So spending time, to spend genius of Shakespeare comes in and goes it.' out with Catherine, Every other part W e have power in ourselves to do it, but it may be easily conceived and easily is a power which we have nu poner to do. written." How frigid and inadequate is

Act II. Scene 3. cbis tribute of applause! In no instance Dr. Warburton thinks and with great pro


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