Sidor som bilder

ditto, 1001. ditto.Albion Insurance Ofice, 551. per share.Globe ditto, 1201. ditto.-Im. perial dicto, 941. dicto.

The average prices of Navigable Canal Property, Dock Stock, Fire-office Shares, &c. in June, 181, (to the 251) at the Office of Mr. Scott, 28, New Bridze-street, London, Trent and Mersey, or Grand Trunk Canal, 12001. the last half-yearly dividend at the rate of 451. per share clear, per annum.-Birmingham, 11001. ex dividend 211. clear, ball year.

Staffordshire and Worcestershire, dividing 21!, per share clear, half yearly, 790.- Warwick and Birmingham, 2831. dividing 111.-Montúouth, 1201.-Grand Junction, 2271, 10 2241. CX-dividend of 31. half year. Shrewsbury, 1451. dividing 81.-Kennet and avon, 401.. Wilcs ang Berks, Sol-Rochdale, 521. to 541. ex dividend of 11.-Ellesmere, 831, to 801. Grand Western, 101 discount. -Peak Forest, 811. to 801.-Grand Union, 121. 10s. discount.

Worcester and Birminghain Old Shares, 381.–New ditto, 10s. premium. Dudley, 571. with 11. dividend.-West India Dock Stock, 1651.-London Dock, 1281, 1271. to 1271. 103. -Ditto Scrip, 251. per cent. premium. -Commercial Dock old shares, 1591. with new share attached.--Globe, 1201.-Röck, 18s. premium.-East London Water. Works, 1581. -Grand Junction dicto, 131, premism. Strand Bridge, 141, discount. - London Flour Company, 101, 10s.-Dover-street-road, 91. discount.

MONTHLY BOTANICAL REPORT. THE physiology of vegetables has been but little prosecuted in this country of late gears, - considering its great importance, though Dr. Grew in the 17th century laid a valuablo foundation for this srudy. The French botanists have pursued the subject with more ardour. It has not been however by any means totally neglected here. Mr. Knight in particular has applied himself with great assiduiiy to this subject, and, in various papers published in the Philosoplrical Transactions, has, we think, tlırown more light upon the theory of vegetation: than any of his predecessors, at home or abroad. Nor should the labours of Mrs. Ibbetson in this line be passed unnoticed. This ingenious lady has made a number of very interesting 'observations and experiments, which certainly throw light upon the subject, but the very high magnifying power she uses, aided by the warmth of her imagination, seems often to have led her into the regions of fancy; and the little knowledge she has of what has been already edo e, and even of the terms used by preceding writers, throws an obscurity over her writings : which makes it very difficult to understand theni.

Mr. Knight's opinions and observations, though highly luminous and satisfactory with re. gard to the immediate subject of his inquiry, yet being written at different times, and with a particular view to the illustration sometimes of one point and sometim:s another, are not easily connected together, so as to form in the mind a clear idea of his theory. We suppose that this difficulty has been felt by inany, as weli as ourselves; and some of his friends have urged him to give a connecred view of his theory of vegetation, which he has done in a very satisfactory manner in a paper upon the culture of the Melon, in the Transactions of the Horticultural Society, published at page 217 of their first volume, Of this theory, is there delivered, we shall attempt to give a concise view, nearly in the words of the author.

la the organs of the seed, but principally in the coryledons, as much of the concrete sap of che parent plant is lodged as is sufficient to feed its offspring, till that has attached itself to the soil, and become capabie of absorbing and assimilating new matter. The organizable matter probably exists in the cotyledons of the seeds, in the same state as it exists in the albur. num of trees; and, like that, it apparently undergoes considerable changes before it becomes the true circulating fluid of the plant. in some it becomes saccharine, in others acrid and bica ter doring gerinimation. In this process the vital fluid is drawn by the caudex of the piumule, or bud, through vessels which correspond with those of the bark of the luture tree; and are indeed cortical vessels.

From the point of the caudex (erroneously called the radicle. *) springs the first ront, which is, at this period, without alburnum ; and, if uninterrupted by obstacles in its way, constantly descends in a straight line towards the centre of the earth, in whatever situation the seed pay happen to be placed.

Soon after the first root has been emitted, the caudex elongates, and takes a direction din rectly opposite to that of the root; and, in many plants, raises the cotyledons out of the ground, which then become the seed.leaves of the plant. During this period the young plans derives its nutriment almost always from the cotyleduns or seed-leaves; and if those are destroyed, it perishes.

The bark of the root now begins to deposit albuminous or woody matter; and, as soon as it is formed, the sap, which had hitherto only descended through the cortical vessels, be

It was this term of radicle which misled Mrs. Ibbetson, who understood by it the root; and is surprised chat botanists should speak of a part, as existing in the embryo of the seed, which she declares never can exist prior to geturination. MONTHLY MAG, No. 214

4 H


gins to ascend through the alburnum, Tho plumule in consequence elengates, its leares eso large and unfold; and a set of vessels, which did not exist in the root, are now brought ints action. These, which I have called the central vessels, surround the medulla, and, between it and the bark form a circle upon which the, alburnum is deposited by the bark, in the form of wednes, or like the stones of an arch. Through these vessels, which diverge into the leafstalks, the sap ascends, and is dispersed through the vessels and parenchymatous substance of the leae. And in this organ, the fluid, recently absorbed from the soil, becomes converted

Into the true sap or blood of the plant. And, as this fuid, during germination, descended ► from the cotyledons and seed-leaves of the plant, so it now descends from its proper leasen,

and adds, in its descent, to the bulk of the stem and che growth of the root. Alburnun 12 also deposited in the stem of the plant below the proper leaves, as it was previously deposited below the seed-leaves. “And from this spring other central vessels, which give existeace ta, and feed, other leaves and buds." • A portion of the true sap appears, in its descent down the bark, to secrete into the albare mum, througlı passages correspondent to the anastomosing vessels of the animal economy, Hence the ascending fluid becomes mixed with a portion of the descending sap in the alturnium.

The full-grown leaves prepare the fluid which generates other young leares, the beach and growth of which are as much dependant upon the full-grown leaves, as chose, when ürst formed, were upon the l'otyledons.

The power of each proper leaf to generate sap, in any given species and variety of plant, appears to be in a compound ratio of its width, its thickness, and the exposure of its oppet surface to the light in a proper temperature. The mature leaves increase rapidly in proportion to the young leaves, and the creation of sap consequently exceeds the expenditure. le Is therefore accumulated during a succession of weeks, or months, or years, according to the natural habits and duration of the plant; and varying considerably according to the soul and climate. The san, thus generated, is deposited in the bulb of the tulip, in the taber of the potatoe, in the fibrous roots of grasses, and in the alburnum of trees, during winteri

ind is dispersed through their foliage and bark during the spring and summer. *. When the plant has attained puberty, a portion of its sap is expended on its blossoms and fruit, which are fed by, vessels apparently similar to those of the succulent, annual shoot and Jeaf stalk, and which probably convey a similar Auid; for a bunch of grapes grew and sipened, when grafted on a leaf-stalk.

The fruit or seed-vessel appears to be generated always by the prepared sap of the plant, and its chief office to be to adapt the fluids to the proper nourishment of the seed.

Mr. Knight has illustrated the above theory by an application of it to the culture of the Melon; a fruit which is so often found to be so defective in richness and flavour, as to be hardly' worth cultivating. This detect Mr. Knight found by experiment to be owing to the want of a sufficient number of leaves, exposing their upper surfaces to the light. For the Stenis and footstalks of the melon under the hot-bed frame are so weak, that when the league are displaced from their proper position, they are not able to regain it. This observation les him to direct that more care should be taken to preserve the leaves in their natural position, with the upper sortaces exposed to the light, which was effected by the aid of little woodca hooks, with which the trailing stems, and even the footstalks of the leaves were secured in their proper places; and by avoiding pouring the water in the usual way upon the leaves of the plant; using instead of a common watering-pot, one with a spout adapted for pouring the water upon the tiles which cover the bed, without touching the leaves. By this managem ment Mr. Knight found that his nelons were no longer detective in richness and flavour.

la may be of use to mention here, that the variety of melon which Mr. Knight exclusively cultivatos, on account of irs superior flavour, and which we believe is little known to cultio varors in general, is the one that was imported by Mr. J. Hawkins from Salonica. The form of this variety is nearly spherical, without any depressions upon its sorface. It is of a goldes colour, and its flesh perfectly white. This kind Mr. Knight says continues to improve in favour and richness till it becomes externally soft, and betray's some symptoms of decay The consistence of its flesh is then nearly that of a water-melon; and its taste so sweet, tha few will think it improved by the addition of sugar. The weight of a good melon of ba variety is about seven pounds.

The tenth volume of the Transactions of the Linnæan Society is published :

Dr. Smith has given us a translation of Linnæus's Tour in Lapland, ouw first published from the man eseript journal. It is in two volumes octavo, and is illustrated by wooden cuts, being fac-similes of the pen and ink sketches in the original.'

A journal of a (botanical) Tour in Iceland, by Mr. William Jackson Hooker, is printed, but not published,

The first volume of the Transactions of the Wernerian Society, Edinburgh, is only ines resting to the botanist, on account of a paper on the natural order of Contaia of Linnæus, y Mr. Brown, of which we hope at a future time to give some account to our readers...




Leafing month.
Hail! bounteous May, that dost inspire
Mirth and youth and warm desire ;
Woocs and groves are of thy dressing,

Hill and dale doth boast thy blessing.
ON the 1st of the month the wind was south-west; from tho %d to the 4th westerly

from the 5th to the 11th south-west ; on the 19th and 13th to the south-cast; on the 14th south and south-west ; on the 15th and 16th south-east; on the 17th and 18th easterly; From the 19th to the 23d easterly; on the 23d and 94th south-west ; from the 25th to the 37ch southerly; on the 28th and 29th west ; on the 30th souch ; and on the 31st south-east.

We had a heavy gale of wind, accompanied with showers, on the 5th, and strong gales ca The 2d, 6h, 14th, 19th, 28th, and 99ch. .

The only thunder storm we had in the course of the month was in the morning of the 12th, and it was of short duration

We had rain on the 1st, 3d, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 104b, 11th, 15th, 16th, 24th; 28th, and 31st. The weather has not been so hot as it frequently is in tbe month of May. : May 2d. Toads begin to croak in the evenings.

The swists are now seen in considerable numbers, and fly screaming after each other in the same manner as they do in the middle of summer,

May 41h. The nightingale is arrived.

Sweet-scented vernal grass (antboxanthum odoratum) is in Aower. It is chis grass, chiefly, that gives to hay its peculiar sceng.

May 6!h. The black-cap sings..
The cuckoo is arrived. Mushrooms are gathered.

May 7th. Chaffers (scarabæ:: melolontha) begin to fly about in the evenings. It is really wonderful to observe with what exactness of time the first leafling of the trees, and the emerging of these insects from the ground, take place. Whether the season be early or late, the chaffers invariably make their first appearance as soon as a sufficiency of food is provided for them by the vernal foliage.

May 8th. The seven-spotted lady-bug (coccinella septempunctata) Alics about. The bloom of the hawthorn begins to expand.

Damson-crees are in blcom. Yellow wagtails (motacilla flava) appear. May 12th. This was a close, dainp, and yet sultry, day. The ponds and manure keapa along the sides of the road were extremely offensive.

The caterpillars of the barred tree, lackey-moth (bombyx neustrius of Haworth) begin to merge from the ova which the parent insects deposiced in the autumn rourd slender ewigs of apple-trces. These caterpillars are in some seasons so numerous as to devour a great part of the foliage. • There has been of late so much rain in the country to the westward, that the rivers have overflowed their banks. * May 13th. The sowing of barley, which was much retarded by the wet weather, is now going on; and, if the weather continues fine for a few days longer, will be finished.

May 15th. Bird's-foot trefoil (orxilbopus perpusillus), heart medick (medicago polymorpha), common vetch (vicia sativa), and common bird's-foot trefoil (lotus corniculatus), are in flower, The tiawthorn also is now in full bloom.

May 20ch. The chaffers are not at all numerous; but, if we may judge by the devastations which have of late been committed by che chaffer-grub (or rook-worm as it is usually called) it seems probable that in the next spring these insects will be unusually abundant.

The froth-wurm, or cuckoo spit, appears on the blades of grass and other herbage. .

The leaves of the mulberry-tree are not yet fully expanded. Those of the walnut-tree have been much injured by the chaffers.

May 26th. Wall butterfly (papilio magera), red admira! (Papilio asalanta), and fern charter
(scarabeus borticola), appear.
May 27th.' Young wood-pigeons are nearly fledged
Rye is in full ear; and the bramble, and dog-rose, are in Rower,
May 30th, Green pease, and ripe strawberries gathered.

May 31st. The crops of grass ire heavier in this neighbourhood than they have been for several years past. The rye also promises to afford an abundant crop; and the wheat and barley are, on the whole, looking very well. The yellow iris, and Tox-glove, are in flowers



MONTIILY AGRICULTURAL REPORT." ** THE grass is generally down in the vicinity of London, and the hay harvest proceeding in

all ihe forward parts of the country. Although a considerable and profitable bulk, the imeadow hay does not quite equal the general expectation as to quantity ; but pasture lands and the artiticiai grasses, were scarcely ever more remarkable for weight of swathe. The grass is also very forward on all mowed and cleared grounds.

Wbeats are now in high bloom, and although the late cold and changeable weather and high winds have in some degree affected their colour, no damage is yet apprehended, and in ten days or a fortnigbe more the blooming will generally be over in the southern counties. In some of the cold and wet lands wheat looks rather sickly, and recovery will depend entirely on the state of the weather during the next two or three weeks. They talk of cop great a bulk of straw upon inferior lands, for the crop to be very productive on such, but the warm and good lands are of the highest promise. . The growth of spring wheat is full as considerable as last year.

The spring crops promise a general abundance, with the exception of some barleys and oats, which have been blighted, probably as well by the lightning as the chills and variable xes: ther. Pease and beans will be a full crop potatoes an extraordinary one. It is said the potatoe. crop in Lancashire has been for several years overdune, much undrained and improper land being applied to that purpose, to the great deterioration of the quality of the Lancashira root. Hops will be an universal crop, and fruit ipost abundant. Some little damage has been done to the rutaboga, by the siug or Ay. English curnips will be rather a late season. The lands work admirably,

Fat beef uncommonly dearo-store cattle somewhat cheaper, the grass going off.

In Ireland and Wales, the seasons have been wet, cold, and backward, probably pear i month behind the southern parts of England. In France, and generally upon the Continent, the present, it is said, will be the most productive year of the last ten.

Smithfield : Beer, 5s. 4d. to 68. 4d. ;-Murtun, 5s, 4d. to 6s. Od. ;-Veal, 63. to 7s. 60.; Lamb, 68. 8d. to 75. ôd. ;-Pork, 58. 10. to 6s. 8d. ;-Bacon, 7s. Od. to 7s. 4d.-Irish dittor bs. 4d. to 6s. Od. ;--Fat, 35. od. ; -Skins, 20s. to 30s.- Oil cake, 151. 13s. per chousand.

Middlesex, June 23, 18.11.

METEOROLOGICAL REPORT. Cibsortalions on the State of the Heather, from the 24th of May, 1811, to the

21th of June, 1811, inclusive, l'our Miles N.N.W. St. Paul's. . Borometer.

- Thermometer Highest, s0:05. June 17. Wind N. E. Highest, 770 May 26. Wind S. E Lorst, 29 11. min 2. S. W. Lowest, 440 June 24. 'n E.

This small variation This variation,

has occurred thrice which is but tri. Greatest Greatest 34 hun

during the month, and Aing, bas occurred / variation in L. 7o. tariation in drcths of

in other respects the three or four times 24 hours 4 hours an inch

changes from day to in the course of the

day have not been a month.

all remarkable.

In the early part of the month we had showers, attended with a good deal of thunder, and s some days with very vivid lighuning; but the quantity of rain is only equal to about 11 in depth.

The average height of the barometer is equal to 29.63, which is lower than might be et pected, considering the small quantiy of rain. The average temperature is 62° 27, nearly for higher than that of the last month. We have had but little very hot weather, and some exceedingly cold days, occasioned by severe easterly winds. The scason, on the whole, must be regarded as highly favourable to the hay-harvest; and the crops are very large.

The wind has come as frequently from the westerly points as from the easterly, so that it nay be said we have had a smaller portion of east winds than usual. The oumber of brilliant days is 17, of the others few have been cloudy or very dull through the whole of the day.

ERRATA. In page 524, col. 1, line 11 from the bottom, read the interests,” instead of " je meds;" and at page 558, in the notice of Dr. Busby's direccions, for “ Dr. Julia Busby". read “ Ms. George Frederic Busky".



VOL. 31. No. 215.)

JULY 30, 1811.


HALF-YEARLY RETROSPECT OF DOMESTIC LITERATURE. TRAVELS IN THE SOUTH OF SPAIN, a forest of masts. The whiteness of the in Letters written in 1800 and 13.10. houses, their size, and apparent clean

liness, the magnificance of the public By WILLIAM Jacob, Esq. M.P. F.R.S. edifices, and the neat and regular forA T a moment when Spain has, in tifications, forin together a most striking

A every respect, become so inte assemblage of objects. The ground opresting to the world, nothing could posite to Cadiz has little appearance of have been more desirable than that it verdure; and, except the vineyards near should have been visited and reported of Santa Maria and Rota, all looked brown by so intelligent a traveller as Mr. Jacob. and barren. I am aware, that in no As a British merchant of the first class, other country must I expect the beautiful as an experienced traveller, as a lover verdure of England, which, in spite of of science and literature, and as an active our bazy atmosphere, enlivens our prose member of the British House of Com. pects and gives them a richness and vamons, he was eminently qualified to per- riety which I have looked for in vain in form the task he undertook; and in its Gerinany, in America, and the West execution every candid reader will arise Indian Islands, froin his work instructed and gratified. We landed between four and five Some obliquities in Mr. Jacob's political o'clock, at the wharf without the Seaopinions, and a passionate misrepre- gate, amidst a crowd of boats which sentation given by him in Parliament, made it difficult to approach the shore. of the views of the enemies of corruption The precautions of our friends, who had in Middiesex, have, we are aware, cre. Provided a house for our residence, and ated prejudices against Mr. J. among the got our baggage passed through the gates friends of public liberty in England; with slight examination, prevented our yet these aberrations incident to the feeling the inconreniences usually expefallibility of man do not, in the main, rienced at first landing in a foreign city. subtract from Mr. Jacob's general pre- Alter I had entered the gates, and be. tensions; and, in the work before us, he come a little reconciled to the nauseous has proved himself a man of sense, and, effluvia of oil and garlic, I was greally as far as regards Spain, a clear-headed struck by the extraordinary scene around politician. Our readers will agree with me; and could have inagined altnost us, after they have heard Mr. Jacob speak that I hari suddenly been dropped from for himself, in the imperfect views given the clouds into the midst of a large mase of his valuable work, in the following querasle: the variety of dresses and cha. extracts.

racters, the swarms of pecple, the height FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF CADIZ. and externally clean appearance of the • The view on ensering the bay of Cadiz houses, with the curtains drawn across presents the finest collection of objects from one side to the other, and the exo ibar can be conceived: on one extremity trome narrowness of the streets, relle of the left point is situated the town of dcred still wore so by the projecting halo Rora, a little father the castle of Santa copies of painted or gilt iron gracings, all Chiahina and the neat city of Santa Ma- produced teclinus I never before expe. rin; at a greater distance, on the lap of rienced, and which no language can de. a lofty hill, sianis Medina; nearer the, scribe. sea the town of Puerto Real and the arsenal of the Caraccas; and on the ex.

NATIONAL CHARACTER. tremity of the right hand point of land The climate of Spain at this season is the city of Cadiz. To add to the splen.' delightful, and certainly tends to improve dour of the scene, this extensive bay was the spirits. The air is dry and clear, filled with the vessels of different nations nolithstanding we are surr.vanded hy displaying their respective coluurs amidst water; the heat is not excessive, the ÀONTHLY Mac. No. 215.


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