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thermometer seldom exceeding 70; and which occasions a further augmentation the walk in the evening by the sea side in the price. Most of the wine merchants mont retishing and cool. The mude of in Xeres have distilleries, to make brands, living is also labourable to health and en- to add u their wine, but do not expert joynent, fruits and vegetables form the any. A large quantity of it is likewise principal food even at the best tables; consumed in the mountainous part of and, though a species of cookery ap. Andalusia, where it is mixed with anos. proaching to French is introduced at seed, and very much used by the lower Cadiz, it is so combined with that which class of people during the winter. Tbcre is purely Spanish, that the difference is are no staves nor iron hoops made in Unis scarcely to be listinguished Very title part of Spain, so that supplies are obliged wine is drunk during dinrer, and imme. to be obtained from foreign countries, diately afiernards ihe gentlemen retire for the packages in which they even er. to cutice will the ladies. The habits of port their most important production, the Spaniards are very temperate and The United States of America furniso the frugal, so far as regards the table and the staves, and the iron hoops are sent trona furniture of their hou.es; but they kiep England. a much greater number of domestic ser. Besides the wine sent to England, un. vants than families of the same, descrip- der the denomination of Sherry, there are tion in England. In their dress and per. some sweet wines made in this neighie sona ornaments both the men and women bourhood, which are much valued by are very extravagant, especially the the natives, and among others the tent laiker; aid I am told that the money wine, as it is called in England. Very expended on a lady's silk stockings and litle care is employed in the origioal siines alone (105 They never walk out making of their wines ; the growers are twice in the same) is enormous.
generally poor, and indebted to the mere
chants of this city, who, by advancing CADIZ MARKET.
let them money before the vintage, are ena. Yesterday, though Sunday, the market
the bled to take advantage of their embarhas excessively crowded, especially the fish and vegetable markets; the latter was rassed circumstances, to purchase at supplied with a surprising profusion of rales, which keep those growers in a pei.
This want every thing in season). Garlic in this place is petual state of dependance. a most important article, and is sold in of capital is felt in a still grealer degree strings three or four yards long, which by the owners of the olive trees, the ta. are piled in stacks. The market al.o
riable produce of which frequently leares abounded with onions, grapes, melons,
them too deeply in debi, in unfruitful pumpkins, turnips, carrots, and celery of years, to enable them to clear themselves a prodigious thickness. The consumpe
in those which are more productive. To tion of meat in this city is very small,
in this deficiency of agricultural capital may and the little consumed is of a very infe. probably be attributed the languishing rior quality. The poorer and middle state of the cultivation in Spain. class of people live principally on fruits
THE GORDONS. and vegetables, with fish which is sold The Gordon family has been long es,
tablished at Xeres: it came originale fiied in oil, at shops in different parts of
from Scotland, and setiled here in coins the town.
sequence of its attachment to the unforWINE MANUFACTORY OF XERES. tunate House of Stuart, and its adhe.
The principal commerce of this place rence to the Catholic religion. Mr. James consists of wine, especially of that spe- Gordon, though married to a Spanish cies so generally known by the name of lady, sent his daughters to England for Sherry. The quantity annually made in their education, who, atier some years rethis place is about 40,000 pipes, of this sidence in the convent at York, returned 25,000 are consumed in this city, in Ca. to this city. One of them is inarried to diz, and the vicinity; 15 000 are ex. a colonel in the Spanish army, who is ported, of which about 7000 are sent to now with his regiment in La Mancha. England; and the remia nder to the Mr. Gordon, besides being a wine mer. United States, or to the different Spanish chant and a distiller, is a very large dominions in South America. The value farmer; he has purchased 2400 acres ür of the wine, when new, is from eight to good land, which is mostly in tillage, and ten pounds per pipe; it increases in va- js principally cultivated by the Gernan lue by age, and that which is sent to soldiers who were captured at the sure England is always mixed with brandy, render of Dupont's army at Baylen; he has
also some young men from the Lothuans deliverance from the government of a
a 1 o . in the vil 27,, ivicious The day after my anival I waited on finess, :, , anchet's in illisin our aiubassador, iné Marquis Wellesley, nean, he is € 95 cm nylbic, 20 l, ins who received me with disuried, but not cabinet is in the apartinet adjonning to distant, politeness: his conversation dis that in which Senra Gany holds her coveret an accurate knowledge, and evening parties, persons, who come to comprehensive view, withe state of Spain, hin on public business in the evening, while his liberal conduct, and upiturin are amused by conversing with ure indies attention to his countrymen, must en. till their turn for admission to the minise sure bin their respect and estean. The ter arrive. At Senora Garay's evening arrival of this celebrated nobleinan in party, called tiie Teriulli, ilere is geSeville, produced an extraordinary sen- nerally some good company, with a consation, a sensation certainly neither pre. siderable mixture of vulgar-looking men, pared nor fostered by the body to whom dresserl in boots and shabby military unia he was sent, whose narrow souls were forms, and smoaking segars. The ladies jealous of his character, and apprehen- as well as Garay are fugitives from Masive lest his powerful talents should des drid, who, following their husbands, and tect, and expose their contracied policy fathers, have assembled at Seville. and futile projects. All the respectable Though among this party evident marks inhabitants of the city, among whom were of departed grandeur are visible, no rem many of those men whose information, pining is heard; they bear their situation patriotism, and energetic minds, had with resignation, and only vent their feel. planned and effected the first revolution, ings in execrating the French. The became the leaders omahis occasion also, apartments occupied by Garay, are in and conducted the triumphal entry of the the Alcazar, or antient palace, and are British minister. Seville was emptied literally destitute of all furniture except of its population, and the expecting a great number of common chairs, with crowds patiently endured, without the rush bottoms, and one small table oil city, the heat of the sun, the privation which the lights are placed. The walls of their meals, and of their siesta, and have some few arabesque ornaments and tranquilly waited from morning till dusk, inscriptions. The foors are of brick; to welcome the approach of a man whose and the only part that looks respectable high rank and distinguished capacity is a door covered with criinson damark, were considered as pledges of the genes which was put up when the late King sous and disinterested intentions of the Charles the Fourth occupied these apart monarch he represented.
ments. The shouts of the people, and the ac. The MARQUIS DE VILLEL, another clainations of the multitude, were genu. member of the Junta, whom I have free ine and unequivocal denionstrations of quently visited, was, for a short time,go.
the strong feelings of the nation; but the vernor of Cadiz, but rendered himself so · conduct of their rulers discovered merely obnoxious that he was forced to abscond;
that routine of compliments which the he interfered with too inany of the volun.
ever, an active member of the first Junta his country; he has learnt, by soffering of eville, and is supposed by his influ- a long and unmerited imprisonment, to ence with the mobi, to have caused the raise himself above misfortune, and to murder of the amiable Count Aguilar, prefer the good of his fellow.creatures to one of the vicinis of popular feeling in those gratifications and indulgences which this ciiy. When it was determined to his subsequent elevation might have in. create the Coveral Junia, for the super- sured. lle laboured diligently, during intendance of the general affairs of the his exile in Majorca, to point out the kingdon, by electing two members from evils which oppressed the agriculture of each provincial Junta, Tilli, though one Spain, and prepared himself for legis. or the most worthless, was chosen by the lation, by contemplating the sufferings Junca as the representative for Seville, which the old laws of entail, and more merely, as it should seem, for the pur- main, had inflicted on the nation. At pose of yetung rid of him. Padre Gill, the first assembling of the Juuta, it is an ecclesiastic of worılı, of patriotism, said that Count Florida Blanca, who had and of eloquence, had been one of the been minister of Spain under the antient most energeuc opposers of the French; regimen, gave more importance to the he saw through the selfish views and rank of the grande es, and even to the bloody scheres of 'Tilli, loathed his asso. vicious part of the antient forms and inciation, and conceiving that, afier the stitutions, than was compatible with the formation of the Central Junta, that of more correct, practical, and simple Seville would still retain its influence and views of Jovellanos; that these two men its power,and ilat its proceedings would be formed the central points round which more respectable without the presence of the other members rallied, and that the Tilii, and knowing that the influence which majority, not being men of enlarged his healih gave lim over the populace of minds, coincided with the opinions of Seville, would make his removal difficult, Florida Blanca more, than with those of if not impossible, in any other way, he Jovellanos. This adherence to the opie promoted bis nominatio 2415 a deputy to nions of the former occasioned the apo The Central Junta; and thus, while Se pointment of Count Altamira to the pro ville was rid of hiun, he thought but little sidency of the Junta, and the retenii of the mischief le miglit do when made of a cumbrous load of forms and ceremoa part of a higher body, which, whatever nies, only tending to cramp the exertions may have been the design of those who which Spain is now called upon to make. elected it, was sure to become the depo. In private, Jovellanos is frugal and sim. sitary of all the power, both legislative ple in his manners, beloved by his friends, and executive
and esteemed by all who know him; he The other deputy from Seville, Don is even now a diligent student, and has VINCENTE Hore, was chosen for reasons acquired a knowledge of the best writers similar to those which procured the elec- in ihe Greek language superior to that tion of Tilli: he had been formerly pro- of any man in Spain. tové of the Prince of Peace, and had SAAVEDRA, the minister of finance, filled the office of parider to the lusts of and a native of this city, though of an ad. that minister. When the revolution vanced age, discharges the duties of his broke out, he was warned by the faie office with integrity; but it is supposed of the unfortunate Count Aguilar, and that his faculties have been much injured became a furious patriot. . Padre Gill, by an attempt to destroy him by poison, and the other patriots, blushed at such administered at the instigation of the an a sociale, and, to remove the dis- Prince of Peace. It has injured his health, grace from their body, sent him as a vocal and his memory, but he still retains his to the Central Junta. .
. benevolent dispositions, and his patriotic I am afraid I should only create dis. abhorrence of the French. His house, gust were I to dwell on other characters the domestic arrangements of his family, among the vocals, as they are designated. and the whole economy of his establi:be I shall, therefore, pass over Riqueline, ment, more resemble ihose of a well re. Caro, Calvo, Cornel, and others, to enter gulated family in England, than is geneupon a more grateful subject, and give rally seen in this country. His daugtisowie account of JOVELLANOS. lleis now ters, though not destitute of accomplish. an old man, but his life has been spent ments, have been taught to set an unusce in the exercise of virtue, in the cultiva. ally high value on the cultiration of their tion of his mind, and in devising practical minds, and they are the best informed píulls for ameliorating the condition of women I have met with in Spain.
The Count ALTAMIRA, as president their situation is remote from the resi. of the Junta, ought, from his rank, per. dence of the higher class, they are not haps, to have been first noticed. I have places of much resort, though the munici. only seen him in the public streets. He pality keeps them in excellent repair. has the physiognomy of a baboon, and is Several of the public places are adorned said to possess little more intellect than with fountains, but, as the water they that mimic of man. He is escorted to contain is seldom cool, stalls are erected the Alcazar by a party of the horse guards, in various parts of the city for the sale of in a chariot of a most despicable appears that necessary article, previously filtered ance, drawn by two mules, while the through jars of porous earth. populace sneeringly call him the King of One of the buildings in Seville which Seville.
displays the best architectural taste is The sittings of this assembly are from La Lodja, built originally at the expence ten till three in the morning, and in the of the merchants, and designed for an evening froni eiylic till eleven: every exchange. It forms a square, and each thing is secretly conducted, but it is front is two hundred feet in length, aad, known that, the meeting is divided into being raised on steps, has a inagniticent committees, which attend to the different appearance. The staircase leading to branches of the administration, and re- the upper rooms is superbly built of coport to the whole body the result of their loured marble, about twenty-five feet in separate labours. They meet in a most breadth, with balustrades, sopponied by beautiful saloon within the Alcazar, and pillars of the saine substance: the aparta are always in full dress with swords. The ments consist of three rooms in frunt, election of these men, in most instances, each one hundred and eighty feet long. was the result of accident, and those who and foer others, lighted from the pati chose them never delegated the powers of smaller dimensions; the whole forms they base since assumed, nor seemed to a grand building, and does honour to the suppose that such powers were neces. taste of the age in which it was erecter. sary.
The apartments are furnished with SEVILLE.
book-cases, which contain all the cosa "The appearance of Ibis city is very respondence with America, from its first different from any that I have seen; each discovery to the present time, arranged house occupies a large space of ground, and neatly docketed ; and reference inay and all have an open court within them be inade to any paper with great facility. called the Patio ; in the centre of this The originalleiters of Corlez and Pizurio space there is usually a fountain of cool are deposited in these cases, and will some waler, occasionally surroupiled with day probably throw light on the history orange trees, and other evergreens. The of that period. It is certain that the streets are extremely narrow; very few Spanish historians have neglected to co are wide enough to allow two carriages to amine these valuable documents, and the pass, in many there is not sufficient room writers of later date have contentcd then even to admit a single carriage, and the selves with quoting Robertson, whose marks of the wheels are fiequently visible book, with all its deficiencies, contains on the walls of the houses. Several of more accurate views, and more extensive the sireets indeed are so very narrow, knowledge, of the affairs of the Spaniards that I have touched the opposite walls at in America three hundred years ago, the same time. The houses being lofty than the work of any author of their own the sun never penetrates to the bottom nation. of these streets, and they have, on the
MOORISH CURIOSITIES. hottest day, almost the coolness of our The Alcazar, an ancient palace, is an cellars. The pavement in general is bad, object that naturally attracts the attention and there is not, even in the widest of every one who visits Seville. It was streets, any footpath for passengers, originally built by the Moors; but no in. which however is of little consequence formation of the date of its comorencewhere there are very few carts or coaches. ment can be obtained. The greater part There are not many squares, nor open was constructed by Peter the Cruel, be. places, in the city, but the environs have tween the years 1353 and 1364, who ex. some beautiful public walls, one of them, actly copied the Arabian style of the anby the side of ille river Guadalquivir, is cient part of the editice; and the ico usually frequented by the principal inn mainder was erected by Charles the habitants of the city. There are tiesides, Filth. There is one Arabic inscripcion, two uther very delightful walks, but, as with the date of the llegira, corretos
ing to the year 1181 of the Christian era; the joining of the slabs, which in ebis and be name of the architect who built climate produces a mose gratelul etšect. it, and of the king under whom it was As a specimen of an Arabian garden, in etcted, are in the same place. Tie ils origmal state, this is an inieresting later is called Nazar, of whom I could object, and we naturally associate wib learn nothing in any history I have met it recollections gathered from the eastern
min; indeed the Spanish historians, writers, especially from the Song o: SoMariana, Ocampo, Oruz; and others, lomun, in the Scriptures, 11) which the have, in their writius, either omitted descriptions very well agree with this the series of the Moorish kmgs, or passed garden; for, in addition to the other cir. them over very slightly, so that their cumstances, it is completely walied round, works, from ihe year 750 lo about 1250, and is secluded from every one except instead of meriting the title of histories the inhabitants of one part of the pulice. of Spain, ought to be denominaied his. The salold, which was occupied by tories of the Gichs who retired from the the Junta oi Seville when its energy die Aloorish conquerors to the extiemities of rected the public mind of this city, c. n. Spain.
tains a collection of Roman antiquities The outside of the Alcazar is miserable brought from Italica, an ancient civ, in its appearance; but the first court about four miles bence, and cei bra td after entering the gate has a very grand as the birth-place of the Emperor Trajan. effect : the front, looking into that court, I observed some fine statues which, is purely Arabic in its style, and the in- though partly mulilated, show the suscriptions favour the idea of its being periority of the ancients over the moderns built by that people; it is, nevertheless, in the art of sculpture: a colossal figure, ascertained to have been constructed supposed to be Apollo, is remarkably since the conquest, by the Coristians; well executed; and the statue of a vestal, and, indeed, ihe arms of Castile and in good preservation, discovers great Leon are mingled with the Arabic cha. skill in the figure and disposition of the racters. The flight of stairs leading to drapery. The Roman inscriptions col. the royal apartments, now occupied by lected in this place are very numerous, Garay, is of marble; and some galieries, and worthy the attention of those mi, of the saine material, lead to other parts are fond of studying them. I hope niy of the building. The courts are orn- taste will not be too sererely condemned mented with marble fountains, and are if I remark, that the Moorish anuginties well shaded with corridors, supported by ailord me greater pleasure than the Ro marble pillars. The hall, now occupied man; to me they possess more of noveliv, by the Junta, formerly called the Hall have been much less described, and are of Ambassadors, is a beautiful apart. in every respect better adapted to the ment, adorned with elegant designs in climate stucco, and with a floor of the most As I am writing to you on the subject transparent marble, of various colours. of the Nioorish antiquities, I must say The rooms adjoining are occupied by the that I have been more highly gratified different committees, or, as they are by seeing the private house of Don Jinsie called, sections, into which the Junta Maria Perez, a merchant of this city, is divided, and the whole palace, which than by any other remains of that people, is very extensive, is filled by the different This house was built by the Nloors, ind branches of the government, whose clerks was the residence of one of their chiefs. have (stices very well adapted for the The whole is most voluptuously contrived dispatch of business from their proximity for a warm climate, but one of the apart. to each other.
ments exceeds every thing I have seen. The garden of the Alcazar is said to It is in the most perfect preserration, have been laid out by the Moors, and is though certainly not less than five hun. preserved in its original state; it contains dred years old: the form resembles a waiks paved with marble, parterres laid double cube, the one placed above the out with ever-greens, and well shaded other, its height about sixty, and its with orange trees. In many parts of it length and breadth about thirty feet; there are baths, supplied by marble the ornaments begin at about ten feet fountains from the aqueduct I described from the floor, and are continued to the in a former letter, and they have a con- top of the room; they consist of a kind wisance for rendermy ile walks one con- of variegated net-work of stucco, designer thucd fountam, by forcing up small with such reglarity and exquisite bcaury, blicans of water froin minute pipes in that, without the aid of a drassing, I