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sesses' require considerable disburse- Another kind called Guinda, is' merely ments before any' profits can be derived the common sweet wine of the moun. from the crops. In a country, therefore, tains, with a mixture of the juice of where capital is 'so limited as in Spain, cherries, and is not much valued here, there can be but little progress made in but highly esteemed in other countries the increase of this branch of agriculcare; and the Lagrima de Malaga, a sweet and hence, the plantations are in exact wine, resembling Constantia, though proportion to that surplus of capital highly valued by Spaniards, is not agreewhich the merchants of Malaga can spare, able to an English palate. These wines for this purpose, from their other con- are rather cultivated by the curious than cerns.

made an object of cominerce, and the The ancient and more extensive sys- quantity produced of each is very small. tem of agriculture is in a state equally Next to wine, the most important ar. languishing, from the same cause. The ticle is oil, for the making of which there growers of wine, raisins, and figs, are are more than seven hundred mills in mostly small proprietors of lands, or petty the district through which I have lately tenants, paying their rents monthly passed. In general, the vil partakes of when in money, and, when in produce, the bad qualities I noticed at Seville, at the season of harvest, and who, being but in Velez more attention is paid to unable to subsist and pay their labourers, cleanliness than any where else, and the are under the necessity of being supplied oil is by far the best I have tasted in hy the merchants to whom they mortgage Spain. their expected produce, long before it is The quantity of raisins exported hence fit for market; the consequence is, that is very great, indeed this is the principal the cultivators are kept in a state of po

market for that article. Besides what verty and depression, from which there is sent over the mountains to Granada, is' no prospect of their emerging, and other places farther north, there is

On the hills that surround Malaga, annually exported fifty thousand quintals there are upwards of seven thousand hy small vessels, which anchor near vineyards, which produce annually eighty Torre del Mar, or by ships froin the port thousand arobas of wine, of which more of Malaga. than one half is exported. The first The quantity of figs dried in this harvest of grapes commences in the month neighbourhood is very considerable, but of June, which is solely for those dried is of less importance, as an object of by the sun, the heat of which, by extract- foreign trade, than the raisins;, they are ing the saccharine juice, preserves them mostly sent into the mountains, or to the without any other process; and this spe- city of Granada, whence wheat and bar. cies is known through Europe under the ley are brought in exchange ; for, though denomination of Malaga raisins. In the some of the playas are capable of produ. month of September the second crop is cing these grains in the greatest abungathered, which is made into a dry wine, dance, the quantity raised is not sufficient resembling sherry, and called by that for the consumption of the inhabitants. name, but, to my taste, much inferior. Oranges, lemons, citrons, and almonds, Of late years the cultivation of the grape are much cultivated, and the more rare for this kind of wine has much increased, fruits, such as the pine apple and chiriand the merchants are not without hope, moya of Peru, are produced without that in a few years they shall rival the difficulty; the banana and plantain, vineyards of Xeres, both in quantity though not plentiful, are yet sufficiently and quality. The last vintage of the year grown to shew that every vegetable prois in October and November, and pro. duction of the West Indies may be cul. duces those wines called in Spain and tivated here with success. other colonies Malaga, and in England PALACES OF TIIE MOORISH KINCS. Mountain; the natives of Spaid prefer I have several times visited the Al'these to the dry wines of Xeres, or even hambra, the ancient fortress and palace of Madeira.

of the Moorish kings: it is situated on There are several species of wine made the top of a hill overlooking the city, and in this district of great celebrity, one in is surrounded with a wall of great height particular, called Pedro Ximenes, is very and thickness. The road to it is by to rich, and is said to be made from the winding path through a wood of lofty Rhenish grape transplanted to these elms, mixed with poplars and oleanders; mountains, where it has lost its tártness, and some orange and lemon trees. Bý and acquired a rich and delicious favour. the side of the road, or triber patl (for MONTHLY Mac, No. 215.

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it is not designed for wheel carriages), country are extremely fine. The inscrip are , beautiful marble fountains, froin tious, which are in Arabic, are worked which transparent strenins are constantly in porcelain, with exquisite skill, so as rushing down. The entrance is through to unite with the stucco ornaipents, an archway, over which is carved a key, which every where abound; they gene ihe symbol of the Mahomedan inonarchis. raily consist of those expressions of piety Tiis gate, called the Gare of Judyment, customary with the Mahoinedans. "The according to Eastern 'torms, was the cieling is very beautifully inlaid with place where the kings administered juso wood of various colours, and is adorned vice. The horse-shoe arches are sup with a puinber of gold and silver ornaported by marble pillars, ornamented, in nients, in the form of circles, crowns, and the Arabjan style, with bandeaus and in- stars. scriptions, one of which, in the ancient The court of the lions is the most stribe Cutic character, has been translated by ing part of this edifice; for nothing can some of the literati, " Praise be to God. excel the effect produced by the corridor There is no God bui one, and Maho. which surrounds it: one bundred and med is his prophet; and there is no twenty-eight marble pillars are arranged power but from God."

for the support of the arches on which After leaving the Gate of Judgment, the upper aparıments of the palace rest, we passed through another, which is now in a inanner at once pleasing and magni. converted into a chapel, and with much ficent. In the centre of the court a large fatigue arrived at the Plaza de los Al marble fountain is placed, which is supe gibes, or the square of the cisterns, un- ported by twelve lions, by no means der which water is brought from another corresponding to the splendour of the are hill at the distance of a league: these chitecture. Upon many parts of the reservoirs are so large, and contain so building there are numerous inscriptions, much of that necessary article, that they partly in Cufic and partly in Arabic chaprovided an ample supply for all the nu. raeters; and, in addition to the usual merous inhabitants who formerly dwelt pious sentences, others are mingled in in the Alhambra. From this prospect of praise of the founder of the edifice. On the surrounding country was very line, the fountain one was pointed out, the and the nsajestic Sierra Nevada seemed translation of which is, “ Blessed be he impending over us.

who gave to the prince Mahomed a haThe Mours certainly paid less attention bitation, which by its beauty may serve to the outside of their buildings, and in. as a model for all

dwellings." finitely more to internal beauty, than their On one side of the court is the hall of Christian successors. The most striking the two sisters, the ornaments of which ohject which presents itself upon entering are similar to that of the ambassador's. the firsi court is a marble Fountain, in It is remarkable only for two marble the middle, with apartinents at each end, slabs, which form part of the floor, and which are supported by pillars of the measure fourteen feet in length, and se siline substance, in a very peculiar style 'ven in breadth, surrounded with Cufic of architecture. From these I passed, and Arabic inscriptions. The ball of with much delight and wonder, through the Abencerrases, which is on the opvarious apartments of exquisite beauty. posite side, is so called from a vulgar The most remarkable parts of the build. tradition, that thirty-two members of ing are the ball of ambassadors, the court that distinguished family were murdered of lions, the hall of the two sisters, that by the King Abu Abdallah in this apartof the Abencerraves, the royal baths, ment; a tradition so firmly believed by and the queen's dressing-rooin, all of our guide, that he shewed us the marks which are parent with marble, and have of their blood in the marble fountain, and pillars of the same substance, supporting assured us, most sulemnly, that no endeaarches of the pure Arabic form, adorned pour had ever been able to remove the with stucco, and a species of porcelain, stains. The hall of the Abencerrasts the colouring and gilding of which, after partakes of the same species of beauty a period of five hundred years, have a mlich is so conspicuous iu the other apartfreskuess and brilliancy equal to the best English or French China.

The baths are most beautifully Enished, The hall of Ambassadors is a square are lighted from the top, and pones of forty feet, eighty feet in height, with every convenience and luxury which chanine windows, opening upon balconies, ractérises the peculiar taste of the Arała. from which the views of the safrounding These batlas, on account of the frequent

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ahlutions required by the Mabomedan burbs. , Ju is placed on a rock, with cliffs, religion, constituted the most important either perpendicular and abrupt towards part of the royal palace, and no pains the river, or with broken crnges, whose have been spared to render them mag. jutring prominences, having a linle soil, unificent. The queen's dressing room is have been planted with orange antig decorated like the other apartinents, but trees. . A fissure in wis rock, of great as much inoie profusely ornamented with depth, surrounds the city on three sides, gilding and porcelain. In one part of and at the bottom of the fissure the river the floor a perforated marble slab is in. rushes along with impetuous rapidity: serted, through which it is said perfumes Two bridges are constructed over the were conveyed. But Aigote, an author fissure; the first is a single arch, resting who has paid great attention to Arabian on the rocks on the two sides, the heiglit antiquities, thinks that this chamber was of which from the water is one bundred 'an oratory, and not a dressing room, and twenty teet. The river descends

The number of apartments in this from this to the second bridge, whilst palace of enchantment is very consider the rocks on each side as rapidly increase able, and I should be fearful of fatiguing in height; so that from this second you if I atteinpted to describe thein. bridge to the water, there is the astna The character of the whole is so remote nishing heiglic of two hundred and eighty from all the objects to which we are ac- feet. The highest tower in Spain, the customed, that the impressions of wonder Giralda in Seville, or the Monument near and delight which it has excited, will London Bridge, if they were placed on afford me the most pleasing recollections the water, iwight stand under this stue during the remainder of niy life. This pendous arch, without their tops reaching noble palace, however, is hastening to

to it. decay, and, without repairs, to which The mode of constructing this bridge the finances of Spain are ina:dequate, it is no less surprising than the situation in will in a few years be a pile of ruins ; which it is placed, and its extraordinary its voluptuous apartments, iis stately co- elevation; it is a single arch of one huna lumns, and its lofty walls, will be mingled dred and ten feet in diameter; it is supa together, and no memorial be left in ported by solid pillars of

masonry, built Spain of a people who once governed the fron the bottom of the river, about fifa Peninsula.

teen feet in thickness, which are fixed
The Alhambra was the general resi- into the solid rock on both sides, and on
dence of the Moorish kings; but during which the ends of the arch rest ; other
the infense bent of summer they usually pillars are built to support these principal
removed to another palace in a bigher ones, which are.connected with them bý
situation, on an opposite hill called the other small arches.
*tieneraliffe, which I have visited. The It is impossible to convey an adequata
doors of the rooms are of marble, and idea of it: froin below it appenrs sus-
have streams of the clearest water rushing pended in the air; and when

through them. A garden adjoining is bridge, the river beneath appears na
enriched with orange, lenion, and cyprus, longer a mighty torrent, but resembles a
grees, and ahoonds in crystal fountains, rippling brook. When standing on the
transparent pools, and shady groves. Of bridge, the optical delusion is very sin,
late years it has been inhabited by a no- gular: the torrent of water appears to
kteman, who has added some inodern rup up a bill towards the bridge, and the
comforts to the ancient luxuries; and same phenomenon takes place when
though he no longer resides there, it is viewed in either direction,
much frequented by the inhabitants of

SPAXISH PEASANTRY,
the city, who repair to it with their pro- Having observed much of the manners
visions, and hold their convivial meetings and character of the Spanish peasantry,
sin halls which rival in coolness and beauty more especially within the last fourreca
* the most voluptuous palaces of Asia. days, I feel I should not be doing them

justice were I to abstain from speaking Among the various things which have have given some account of their figures Attracted my attention in Spain, none and countenances, and though both are s have excited so much adıniration as the good, I do not think thern equal to their singular situation of abis city, the river dispositions. There is a civility io strangers, Gaadiarn which encircles ii, and the and an easy style of behaviour, famillar pridges which connect, it with its su. to this class of Spanish society, which

upon the

THE BRIDGE OF KONDA.

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is very remote from the churlish and every man they meet with - politenes, awkward manners of the English and they expect an equal return of civility; Gerinan peasantry. Their sobriety and and to pass them without the usual ex. enduracce of fatigue are very remarkable; pression, "Vaja usted con Dios," or sa and there is a constant cheerfulness in luling them without , bestowing on them their demeanour, which strongly prepos- the title of Cabaleros, would be risking sesses a stranger in their favour, This an insult from people who, though civil cheerfulness is displayed in singing either and even polite, are not a liule jealous antient ballads, or songs which they com- of their claims to reciprocal attentions. pose as they sing, with all the facility of I have been informed, that most of the the Italian improvisatori. One of their domestio virtues are strongly felt, and songs varying in words, according to the practised, by the peasantry; and that skill of the singer, has a termination to degree of parental, filial, and fraternal, certain verses, which says, that, as affection is observed among them, wbich Ferdinand bas no wife, he shall marry is exceeded in no other country- I hare the King of England's daughter." Some already said sufficient of their religion; of these songs relate to war or chivalry, it is a subject on which they feel the and many to gallantry and love: the greatest pride. To suspect them of he. latter not always expressed in the most resy, ,or of being descended from a Mnge decorous language, according to our or a Jew, would be the most unpardonideas.

able of all offences; but their laxity with The agility of the Spaniards in leaping, respetto matrimonial fidelity, it must climbing, and walking, has been a con- he acknowledged, is a stain upon their stant subject of admiration to our party, character; wbich, though common, ap. We have frequently known a man on pears wholly irreconcileable with the gem foot start from a town with us, who were neral morality of the Spanish character. well mounted, and continue his journey They are usually fair and honourable ja with such rapidity as to reach the end of their dealings, and a foreigner is leas the stage before us, and announce our subject to imposition in Spain than in any arrival with officious civility. A servant other country. I have visited. likewise, whom we hired at Malaga, has

GENERAL CASTANOS. kept pace with us on foot ever since ; and though not more than seventeen The celebrity of this officer entitles years of age, he seems incapable of being him to more than a casual notice, and fatigued by walking. I have heard the the conduct of the Junta towards him agility of the Spanish peasants, and their would stamp indelible disgrace on that power of enduring fatigue, attributed to body, even if their other follies, and I a custom, which, though it may proba. fear, in some instances, their treachers, bly have nothing to do with the cause, could be forgotten. Castanos was coms deserves noticing from its singularity. mander of the Spanish army before Gib. A young peasant never sleeps on a bed raltar during the last war. His police. till be is married; before that event he ness, his respect for the English nation, rests on the floor in his cloaths, which he and his friendship for many individuals never takes off but for purposes of clean within this garrison, created a degree of liness: and during the greater part of the civility between the two hostile armies, year it is a matter of indifference whether which, though formerly common, gare he sleep untler a roof or in the open air. such umbrage to the French ambassador,

I have remarked that though the Spa, who at that time ruled the cabinet of niards rise very early, they generally keep Madrid, that repeated oniers were sent fale hours, and seem most lively and to Castanos, to suffer oo kind of imler alert at midnight: this may be attributed course between the garrisp) and the couto the heat of the weather during the day, tinent. These orders Castanos trented and to the custom of sleeping after their with as much attention as was necessary weal at noon, which is so general, that to screen him from disgrace, but still the towns and villages appear quite de. adhered to that line of conduct which serted from one till four o'clock. The had been customary between civilized labours of the artificer, and the attention nations, as far as his power, and the fexof the shopkeeper, are suspended during lous feelings of those who ruled bis gow those hours; and the doors and windows vernment, would allow. of the latter are as closely shut as ac

When the conduct of Buonaparte night. or on a holiday:

coused the Spanish nation to oppose this Though the Spanish peasantry treat mandates, Castangs was among the first

to

to foster the rising spirit of the people. more than fifty' miles in length, and to
Unauthorised by any superior power, resist the army of France, increased by
aud animated solely by the patriotism of newly arrived reinforcements to 120,000
his own feelings, he opened a negociation men, with one hundred and seventy
with Sir Hew Dalrymple, then governor pieces of cannon, led by the most expe-
of Gibraltar, secured a supply of troops rienced geverals, and commapded by
and stores, and obtained from Lord Colo Buonaparte in person. The calamities
hingwood permission to dispatch officers which followed were such as might narua
by the Adriatic sea, to convey jotelli- rally have been expected, and were una
gence of the passing events to the Ause the fault of the general, but of those who
trian goverument. These arrangements equipped so insutticient an arıny, and
were settled previously to the first move weakly conceived that they had prepared
ments of insurrection in Seville; and a force equal to the defence of the kinge
when the revolution was completed, and dom.
the newly invested government in that

SPANSK COLONIES.
city sent their secretary to ascertain if The American dominions of Spain
supplies could be furnished from Gibral. contain a population of twelve miilius
tar, they learnt with surprise and plea- souls; of these, two thirds are the aban
sure, that the patriotic general bsad anti- rigines of the continent, whose ancestors
cipated their wishes, and had arranged after the conquest of the country, became
with the British commander every pre subjects of Spain, converts to its religion,
paration and assistance which their situa- and obedient to its laws; and the present
tion demanded. This proof of patriotism race is so familiarized to the manners and
was too unequivocal to leave a doubt on language of the conquerors, as only to be
any mind; and Castanos, by the voice distinguished by their complexion, and
of the country, was invested with the features; there are indeed some pacis
command of an army to oppose the where die Indian race is more insulated,
troops of France, which, under Dupont and in others totally unmixed with Spide
and Vedel, were hastening by forced niards; these, however, are only excepe
marches to occupy Seville, and reduce ţions to the general description. Time
Cadiz.

negro slaves are a small body, in many Castanos collected the few regular parts not one tenth, in others, as in the troops in the district, organized the citi- kingdom of New Granada and in Chuli, gens, who, at the sacred call of their not a twentieth part of the inhabitants, country, crowded to his standard, and, but in the islands, and in Venezuela, the with a rapidity and vigour which has not proportion is much greater. The sexual since been displayed, fought and cap- intercourse betwixt the Spaniards and cared the first invading army of this for the Indian and Negro race, has been midable eneiny. So long as heroism and always more considerable than in the.com patriotisen shall continue to attract the lonies founded by Eng and; and hence praises of mankind, so long as history has arisen a much greater proportion of shall transmit co futurity the brightest those mixed races denominated Mustees triumphs of liberty, so long will the field and Mulattoes, who, after mixing wich of Baylen and the fame of Castanos be the descendants of Europeans. for three admired by posterity. This is the generations, acquire the name, and he brightest spot in the records of Spanish come entitled to the privileges of Spas contests, and may be dwelt upon with niards. Hence, though in the tables of pleasure, amid the dreary scenes that Spanish American population, the Spam surround it. O si sic omnia! But the niards aR estimated as one sixth of the success, though not the merit, of Casta- whole people, in the estimation are inHus, bad here iis'termination.

cluded ibose of the inixed race who enjoy The Central Junta, induced by his the rights of Europeans. popularity, conferred on the hero of The Spaniards are divided into the Baylen' the command of the army of the Creoles and the natives of Europe; and centre, hut basely deceived him with the latter are understaod to amount to assurances of placing 75,000 men under one, twentieth of the former, or one hun. his command; when he reached the dred and twentieth part of the whole poarmay be found scárcely 26,000 collected, pulation. Yet to this small body was and those were without stores or provió entrusted the sole power of the govern sions, and badly clothed. With this in- ment. The inust lucrative offices in the sofficient-force, be had to defend a line state, and the best benefices in the church, extendising froin Tudela to Logrono, of were filled by them, whiist the Creoles,

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