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natives of the soil, and possessed of the peace. Their internal complaints were largest property, were kept in a state of silenced, and Creoles, Spaniards, and comparative degradation. The policy of Indians, forgetting every former animo the court of Spain had prevented the in, sity, vied only with each other in the tercourse of all foreigners with their colon strongest demonstrations of hatred to pies, a prohibition which, having been France, and the firmest resoluuons to adopted by the other European nations, support the cause of the monarch *boni was not a subject of complaint, till the Buonaparre had insulted and deposed. independence of British America excited When the revolution broke out in Spain, the eayer desire for privileges similar to and that kingdom was ruled by Provi those which their netyhbours enjoyed : cial Juntas, none of these bodies claimed this desire was increased by the situa. the right of legislating for America, 090 con in which they were placed by the of thein affected to exercise sovereignty long-protracted war with England, during over that country, or deemed themselves the continuance of whichi, the difficulty more entitled to such power than to of maintaining an intercourse with the authority over their brethren in the ade mother country was so great, as to sepa- joining provinces. They were bodies rate them froin all but casual connec- formed by the will of the people of

Spain, the emergency of whose affairs : The same policy which forbade inter. justified such a choice; but in no legiti. Course with foreigners, was extended to mate sense were they, or did they atject their agriculture and their mines. To to be, the sovereigns of Spain and of the sastain the vineyards and olive gardens Indies. When the necessities of the of Spain, the inhabitants of America to country led to the formation of the Cene the eastward of the Andes, were prohi- tral Junta, that body, composed of and bited from making wine or oil, and to delegated by these provincial assemblies, promote the manufactures of the parent was certainly entitled to no power be state, the mines of iron and lead with yond that which its constituents them. which the country abounds, were for selves possessed, and therefore had no bidden to be explored ; and so far were right to consider the Americans in any these restrictions carried, that in some other light than as fellow citizens, acd instances they were forbidden to navigate not subjects. When the Central Junta their finest rivers.

assumed the name, and affected to ex. - The numerous tribes of Indians com- ercise the rights, of ihe caprive Ferdinand, plained birterly of the capitation tax, not the language used towards America was so much froni its ainount, as from the flattering and soothing; promises were great power it gare to the individuals who made, that their complaints should be collected it, and who ruled each district, atiended to, their grievances redressed, to remove thein froin their native towns and their privileges extended; that the to distant places, as well as to practise Cortes should be assembled, in whict various other oppressions.

America, no longer as a colony, but as The embers of insurrection, which had an integral part of Spain, should be rebeen siñothered in Santa Fee de Bogota presenled by deputies chosen from itself, and in Caraccas, were not extinguished, These promises, though perhaps made and an unshapen mass of discontent was with sincere intentions, were not realised: gradually, but silently, increasing in every and, when the imbecile body which marie part of Spanish America, at the period then was dispersed, America was left when Buona parte, by his attempt to sc. without one etfort haring been made in cure the throne of Spain to luis family, its favour, or any attention having beCR created the revolution, and excited feel paid to its situation." ings in the breast of every man who spoke The patriotism of America nerer res the language of Spain, which have hi- laxed; the difficulties of Spain, instead therto frus: rated his expectations. The of damping the ardour of that country, flame of Irberty which had spread through only stiinulated it to still further efforts the peninsula, nas quickly extended to and millions of dollars from Mexico and America, where the whole continent, as Peru were poured into the treasury of il aniniated by a common soul, reitera- the parent state.. ied sriws of attachment to Spain, de- . During the course of the past year, in nounced threats of vengeance to the every change of circumstances in Europe, agents of France; and opened an inter- the Junta has constantly directed its course with the colonies of. Evgland, views to the retention of the dependence without waiting for the formalities of and of the monopoly of America; there


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system has been shewn in the appointe and desolation be produced, at the pros,
ment of such men to the different offices pect of which humanity shudders...
of authority, both civil and military, as .In viewing, bowever, the present sis
were most servilely devoted to their in- tuation of atturs in Spanish America, it
Cerest. Venegas, who first ingratialed is some consolation tu know, that, ainune
himself with this corporation, by subs. none of the parties which agitate that
mitting to their authority whilst it was country, is there any tendency to cong
yet in embryo, has been rewarded by ciliation with France; that the detesta.
the highest appoinunent to which a sub- tion of her politics, and the animosity so
jeci, in any country, ever was promoted. her warue, pervades all rank, and class e3

The viceroy of Mexico is almost an abso. of society; and if any of the officers, who
lute sovereign over five millions of people, have been placed in authority by the
and enjoys a revenue commensurate to Junta, should hereafter, in the event of
his power; and this has been the rich Cadiz being captured, wish to retain a
reward of his subserviency to the views covnection with that city, wlen under
of the Junią of Cadiz, Alava has been French dominion, the universal voice of
appointed to coinmand in Cuba; and the people would frustrate their views,
the officers of the navy, for the different and probably visit thein with all the sea
stations in America, have been selected verity of popular vengeance.
firm among those who have entered most The part which Great Britain should
cordially into the feelings of Cadiz. act in this critical situation is, of ail

, Alempts to enforce authority, by others, the most difficult to point out..
those who are destitute of power, always The Creoles are the avowed friends of
terminate in their own disgrace; and the British intercourse, and, look to this
furile endeavours to obstruct all inter, couniry for support and projection: the
nurse with Caraccas and with Buenos Europeans, without any hostile feelings,
Ayres, have only served to render the are prubably more solicitous to preserve
European government more contempti. their superior privileges than to cultivate
ble in the eyes of the Americans, and to an intercourse with us, and, perhaps,
unite those people more firmly together, the ansiery discovered by the Creoles

Nothing can be more absurd, or more for British connection, may make their unjust, than the expectation, that the opponents more averse to it. If we'lisextensive territories, peopled by Spa, terfere prematurely, we may produce niards, in the western hemisphere, should incalculable mischief to the cause otide subinit to the Cortes; who, whilst they Peninsula; and if we delay too long, we are asseintled within the defences of shall be the means of increasing and proCadiz, can never be supposed to act but longing the sufferings of America. It in consequences of impulses given to requires the utmost eonsideration, and them by the Junta of ihat city. The the coulest judgment, to give a right inpeople of America are not represented in pulse to the affairs of Spanish America: the Cortes, for the suppleans, purporting and I trust those whose duty it is to direct to be representatives of that country, the inpuise, will act in such a manner were not chosen by thein; nor have as to lead to the tranquillity of that com. they in general any common feelings with try, to healing its divisions, and on thein; and if they could, by any strained lasting rud beneficial conneclion with conception, be considered as their repre, Great Britain, sentatives, it is scarcely to be expected that, whilst the whole assenbly is noto , DESCRIPTIVE TRAVELS riously under the influence of Cadiz, the IN THE SOUTIERN AND EASTERN PARTS OF Americans will obey the orders which

. SPAIN, . . may emanate froin such a source. It is impossible to look across the At.

And the Baleuric Islands, lantic without feeling the keenest anxiety,

In 1809, and entertaining the inost paintul appre. BY SIR JOIN CARR, K,C. lensions, that a civil war, of no ordinary degree of ferocity, may spread itself over , SIR JOIN CARR's merits as a wri:er that interesting country, and long con- of travels are already known and valued tinue to desolate its tairest provinces; by those who are susceptible of gratifi. that, in the contest between the Euro. cation in the pursuiis of literature. Since peaus and the Creoles, the wild bands of the similar productions of Dr. Moore, wa Indians may be called in as auxiliaries by have had 10 works 19 vie with these of the weaker party, and scenes of horror Sir John Carr; and every man who is not

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the victim of envy and misanthropy, con. of their walk, in which the Spanish ladies fesses lois obligation to this gentleman for take great pride, riever fail to excite the a series of important information and rati- admiration of every foreigner: byt, strange anal'anusement. His tour in Spain exhis to tell, whenever they dress after the bils a lively portrait of the characters, mano English fashion, or as they call it ex pers, and public feelings, of the Spaniards cuerpo, of which they are very fond, « at a tiine when every thing that regards vulgar waddie supersedes the bewitching them is so interesting to lrumanity. Of moveinents they display in their native che merits of his work our readers may' attire.' Nor ought the skill with wbicha form some estimate, by the interesting they use the fan, a much larger instraextracts given beneath; in justice how. ment than that carried by our ladies, to ever to the author, we feel it proper to be passed over. It is scarcely ever out state, that we have not made our selec. of their hands; they manage it with the Rons as specimens of his skill, in de most fascinating dexterity. To the fan scription and narration, but'as passages' thus used by some of the Andalusian which contain information likely, in a ladies, a beautiful couplet of the lace pore particular manner, to interest our Rev. Mr. Homer, might be applied: readers. We hope the author will, ere" Go fan miscalld! go seek a better name, long, publish an account of the con. Thou can'st not cool, thou only can'st in. únuance of his voyage to Sardinia, Sicily, flime. and Malta; places which bave a strong hold on that curiosity, which his pen and Little girls, scarcely twice the height of pencil are so well able to gratify.

a fan, are also completely at home in the THE SPANISH LADIES.

managéinent of one. At first, the uniIn the evening we walked upon the versal blackness of the female dress proAlameda, so called from alamo, a poplar. duces rather a melancholy effect; but & This is the name of a promenade, with stranger soon becomes accustomed to it, which every town of any consideration and finds it productive of a thousand in Spain, is erbellished. It is certainly agretable sensations. A beautiful Spanish a very agreeable walk, commanding on lady is never seen to so inuch advantage one side a fine' view of the sea. The as in this dress, which however is immeseats with which it is furnished are of diately laid aside when she enters ber stone, and handsome; but llie trees in. house. The Spanish women in general tended for its ornament, show by their dress for the street, and upon their return wretched appearance, how unpropitious home, take off their good clothes, silk I to their growth is their marine situation. Stockings, and white shoes, and display

Here I bad an opportunity of seeing the an appearance for which even the effects Andalusiani ladies to the greatest act: of a sultry climate can scarcely offer any vantage, in that portion of their ancient apology. They also seem to think that costume which they never fail to assume there is no charm in clean teeth, wbicb whienever they go abroad. This dress is they corrode and render offensive at an composed of the mantilla, or veil, which early age, by immoderately eating sweet. amongst the higher orders is usually of meats and confectionary, and by the less black gauze, and sometimes of lace, and feminine indulgence of occasional smok descends from the head, to which it is ing. A tooth-brush they never think of fastened, over the back and arnas, is just using; and I knew a British captain who crossed in front, and then falls very was considered as a great coxcomb by gracefully a little below the knee, the several ladies at Cadiz, because that monilio or jacket, and petticoat, called instrument was found in his dressing in Andalusia, the saya; and in other case. When & lady walks out, she is provinces, the basquina; both black and always followed by a female servant, generally of silk, under which usually attired in the dress I have before de appear two prelty feet, dressed in white scribed, but of coarser materials, car, silk stockings and slioes. To these late rying an enormous' green fan in her ter articles of dress, the Spanish ladies band. This attendant is in general old pay mucb atteiition. The gala dress of and ugly, especially if her mistress be the ladies' was formerly very fine and young and handsome. I at first regarded preposterous, and frequently descended the servant as a'duenna, but soon learnt from generation to generation; at' mar. that a guardian so offensive, and who ringes clits dress was often let out to the often'acted as the insidious tool of ice. huwble classes. The grace and majesty lousy, had long beea withdrawa; and

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that these female attendants are now the The governinent bas of course not failed mere appendages of a little excusable to render tobacco a very lucrative source pride. .

of revenue, and has reserved to itself the AN ICE-HOUSE.

right of disposing of it. To government, * From the Alameda, we were invited to in a thoroughly prepared state, it costs onice-louse, called a neveria, the largest' about two reals, or five-pence, per pound, and most fashionable in the city, and and by them it is resold to the public at frequented by ladies of the highest rank. fifty reals, or ten shillings, per pound, and In the rooms, which were brilliantly illu- often at a still more exorbitant price. miyated by patent lamps, supplied with Some English writers have asserted, that vegetable oil, which produces no smoke, the Spanish ladies smoke; and, though I we saw much of the national character. saw no instances of it, I was well assured They were very crouded. Some were that the custom partially obtains amongst drinking agras, a delightful beverage them. Smoking forms the chief, per. made of the juice expressed from the un- haps the only, excess of the Spaniard. ripe grape and the tendrils, iced. I am It is a very rare sight to see bim intox. surprized that this has not been manu. icated. His own wines are very light, factured in England, where the out-door and he frequently cannot afford to indulge grapes are scarcely fit for any other pur- even in them. pose: some were drinking iced punch, THE JEROINE OF SARAGOSSA. Liqueurs, &c. but all the male visitors It was with infinitely more gratification were, or had been, smoking. Upon the that I was introduced by Brigadier. tables which were of marble, small pans general Doyle, an Irish officer in the of charcoal fire were placed, at which the Spanish service, to the celebrated Au. smokers kindled their cigars. In Spain, gustina Zaragoza, who, it will be remem. every male smokes. The general, the bered by all who have perused Mr. soldier, the judge, the criminal, and even Vaughai's very interesting narrative of the lover, breathes out all the tenderness the siege of Saragoza (Saragossa), hy her of his soul in puffs of genuine Ilavannah: valour, elevated herself to the highest in short, it is as natural to expect smoke rank of heroines, during the first siege from the mouth of a Spaniard, as froin of that illustrious, but unfortunate, city, the top of a tavern chimney. The Ha. in' the month of June, 1808.. vannah cigar is the most aromatic and In the second siege, some particulars sometimes costs as much as sixpence, of which I shall hereafter relate, she sure The lower orders enjoy a cheaper sort, passed ber former achievements. Auby cutting the tobacco leaf fine, and roll. glistina appeared to be of the age which ing it in a small piece of paper; this is Mr. Vaughan has assigned to her, about frequently passed from mouth to mouth, twenty-three when I saw her. She was with more cordial sociality than attention neatly dressed in the black mantilla. to cleanliness. I have seen beggars Her complexion was a light olive, her crawl under the tables to pick the rem- countenance soft and pleasing, and her nants of burning cigars, which had been manners, which were perfectly feminine, consuined so low, that the fingers of the were easy and engaging. Upon the smoker could hold them no longer. Every sleeve of one of her arms she wore three Spaniard is provided with a fint and embroidered badges of distinction, come steel; and, for tinder, he uses a fibrous mernorative of three distinguished acts vegetable from South America, called by of her intrepidity. Brigadier-general the French, amadon. Gentlemen carry Doyle told me, that she never (alked of these instruments so necessary for their her own brilliant exploits, but always felicity in small cases, resembling bank: spoke with animation of the many she note pocket-books. In the streets, little saw displayed by others in those memo boys levy small contributions by carrying rable sieges. These insignia of military å burning rope-match to light the cigars merit had been conferred upon her by of passengers; and I saw suspended from her illustrious commander, General the doors of several shops, a thick piece Joseph Palafox. The day before I was of lighted rope, for the purpose of a si. introduced to this extraordinary female. milar accoinmodation, "A present of she had been entertained at & dinner Havannah cigarros is, to a Spaniard, a given by Admiral Purvis on board of his very high compliment indeed, and se- flag-ship. The particulars I received cures his affections as fully as a good from an officer who was present; as she dinner does those of an Englishman. received a pension froin government, MONTULY Mag. No. 213.

4 M


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and also the pay of an artilleryman, the after, the surrender, which he afterwards admiral considered her as a military cha- translated to me, and of which the fol racter, and, much to his credit, received lowing are translated copies: her with the honours of that profession.

« Zaragoza, February 7, 1809. Upon her reaching the deck, the niarines were drawn up and manæuvred before My dearest friend and brother, her: she appeared quite at home, re. “I have just received your letter, but garded thein with a steady eye, and spoke no one comes to niy assistance on any in terms of adıniration of their neatness, side: you, however, know me well; you and soldier-like appearance. Upon ex- know I will sooner die than cover myself arining the guns, she observed of one of with disgrace. But if you do not help them, with the satisfaction with which me, what am I to do? Ah! my friend, other women would speak of a cap: this thought does indeed afflict me: buz “my gun," alluding to the one with I want not courage to die for the preserwhich she effected considerable havock vation of my lionour: if you do not come amongst the French at Zaragoza, “ was quickly, very quickly, receive ibe last not so nice and clean as this." She was embraces of your dearest friend and bro. drinking her coffee when the evening gun ther! Sufficient, that I say to you, my fired: its discharge seemed to electrify tried friend. (These three words are in her with delighe: she sprang out of the English.) The bearer of this will tell cabin upon the deck, and attentively you-Ah! my friend ! my brother!" listened to the reverberation of its sound. It may be proper here to observe, that In the evening, she joined in the dance the line of service in which Brigadies. with the rest of the company, and dis. general Doyle was principally engaged, played a good ear for music, and consie was that of collecting information of the derable natural gracefulness. The sai. movements of the enemy, and furnishing lors, as it may be supposed, were uncon- succours to the patriotic troops of Spain, monly pleased with her. Some were a species of service for which the general, overheard to say with an hearty oath, by his activity, zeal, address, and local " I hope they will do something for lier, knowledge, was eminently qualihell. she ought to have plenty of He made every exertion to send succours she is of the right sort.”

to the brave Arragonese in their re So much envy does merit always ex- nowned city, but without success. A cite, that there were many in Cadiz, and dreadful pestilential fever broke out men too, who coldly called this young amongst them. Owing to excess of heroine, the artillerywoman; and obe fatigue, and the desperate condition of served, that they should soon have nohimself and his heroic comrades, Palaiox thing but battalions of women in the became delirious, and when the French field, instead of attending to their do. entered Zarngoza, was unable to make mestic concerns, if every romantic female any arrangements for his personal safety. was rewarded and commissioned as Au- Augustina caught the pestilence, which gustina had been. Base detractors ! was incumbering the streets with its richappy would it have been for your coun- tims. She had too much distinguished try, if many of your soldiers and most of herself not to attract the notice of the your chiefs, had acted with the undaunted French., She was made prisoner, and intrepidity and unshaken patriotisin of removed to an hospital, where, as she this young lemale! The interest of my was considered to be dying of the leres, interview with her was much increased her guard paid but little atiention to her. by the following circumstance: Brigadier. Ilowever, her good constitution began 10 general Doyle was relating to licr the triumph over this cruel malady, and deplorable stale to which Palafox had tiding she wils but little wa'ched, she been reduced just before and after lie contrived to elude the centinel, and in a fell into the hands of the enemy, in the manner as extraordinary as the rest of second siege: she listened to him with her exploits, escaped the enemy, and the most anxious attention. " Ah! Au- joined several of her friends, who liad gustina," said he, “now attend to the fled to the patriots, in perfect safety. lase letters of your friend, hero, and gemeral; he will speak to you through . This man was a priest, who with great ibein." He then read to her some very address, and at the imminent peril of his life, atfecting, letiers writien to Brigadier contrived to quit Zaragoza, and reach Brigeneral Doyle, a short time before, and gadier-generai Doyle with this letter:

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