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natives of the soil, and possessed of the peace. Their internal enmplaints were fargest property, were kept in a state of silenced, and Creoles, Spaniards, and comparative degradation.' The policy of Indians, forgetting every former animo the court of Spain liad prevented the in- sity, vied only with each other in the rercourse of all foreigners with their colo- strongest demonstrations of hatred to nies, a prohibition which, having been France, and the firmest resolouons to adopted by the other European patinns, support the cause of the monarch #hon was not a subject of complaint, till the Buonaparte had insulted and deposed. independence of British America excited When the revolution broke out in Spain, the eager desire for privileges similar to and that kingdom was ruled by Provi those which their neighbours enjoyed: cial Juntas, none of those bodies claimed this desire was increased by the situa: the right of legislating for America; none don in which they were placed by the of thein affected to exercise sovereignty long-protracted war with England, during over that country, or deemed themselves the continuance of whichi, ihe difficulty niore entitled to such power than to of maintaining an intercourse with the authority over their brethren in the ado mother country was so great, as to sepa- joining provinces. They were bodies rate them froin all but casual connec. formed by the will of the people of tion.
Spain, the emergency of whose affairs The same policy wbich forbade inter. justified such a choice; but in no legiticourse with foreigners, was extended to mate sense were they, or did they affect their agriculture and ibeir mines. To to be, the sovereigns of Spain and of the sastain the vineyards and olive-gardens Indies. When the necessities of the of Spain, the inhabitants of America to country led to the formation of the Cene the eastward of the Andes, were prohi- tral Junta, that body, composed of and bited from niaking wine or oil, and to delegated by these provincial assemblies, promote the manufactures of the parent was certainly entitled to no power be state, the mines of iron and lead with yond that which its constituents them. which the country abounds, were for selves possessed, and therefore had no bidden to be explored ; and so far were right to consider the Americans in any these restrictions carried, that in some other light than as fellow citizens, and instances they were forbidden to navigate not subjects. When the Central Junta their finest rivers.
assumed the name, and affected to exi The numerous tribes of Indians com- ercise the rights, of the captive Ferdinand, plained bitterly of the capitation tax, not the language used towards America was so much froni its announr, as from the flattering and soothing; promises were great power it gare to the individuals wlin made, that their complaints should be collecied it, and who ruled each district, atiended to, their grievances redressed, to remove thein from their native townis and their privileges extended; that the to distant places, as well as to practise Cortes should be assembled, in which various other oppressions.
America, no longer as a colony, hut as The embers of insurrection, which had an integral part of Spain, should be res been smothered in Santa Fee de Bogota presented by deputies chosen from itself, and in Caraccas, were not extinguished, These promises, though perhaps made
and an unshapen mass of discontent was with sincere intentions, were not realised; • gradually, but silently, increasing in every and, when the imbecile bɔdy which mare
part of Spanish America, at the period them was dispersed, America was left when Buonaparte, by his atteinpt to sc. without one effort haring been made in cure the throne of Spain to his family, its favour, or any attention having been created the revolution, and excited feel paid to its situation. ings in the breast of every man who spoke The patriotism of America never rethe language of Spain, which have his faxed; the difficulties of Spain, instead therto frus, rated his expectations. The of damping the ardour of that country, frame of liberty whichi bad spread through only stiinulated it to still further efforts, the peninsula, was quickly extended to and millions of dollars from Mexico and America, where the whole continent, as Peru were poured into the treasury-of il animated by a common soul, reitera- the parent siate. ud urins of attachment to Spain, de- During the course of the past year, in nounced threats of vengeance to the every change of circumstances in Europe, agents of France; and opened an inter- the Junta hins constantly directed it course with the colonies of England, views to the retention of the dependence without waiting for the formalities of and of the monopoly of America; tbeut
system has been shewn in the appoint and desolation be produced, at the pros, ment of such men to the different offices pect of which humanity shudders. of authority, both civil and military, as To viewing, bowever, the present sie were most servilely devoleil.co their in. tuation of atkurs in Spanish America, it Cerest. Venegas, who first ingratiated is some consolation to know, that, amunte himself with this corporation, by sub. none of the parties which agitate that mitting to their authority whilst it was country, is there any tendency to cong yet in embryo, has been rewarded by ciliation with France; that the detesta, the highest appointinent to which a sub- tion of her politics, and the animosity to jeci, in any country, ever was promoted, her vare, pervades ail ranks and classes The viceroy of Mexico is almost an abso. of society; and if any of the officers, who lute sovereign over five millions of people, have been placed in authority by the and enjoys a revenue commensurate to Junta, should hereafter, in the event of his power; and this has been the rich Cadiz being captured, wish to retain a reward of his subserviency to the views connection with that city, wlen under of the Junia of Cadiz. Alava has been French dominion, the universal yoice of appointed to command in Cuba; and the people would frustrate their views, the officers of the navy, for the different and probably visit thein with all the sea stations in America, have been selected verity of popular vengeance. fiom among those who have entered most The part which Great Britain should cordially into the feelings of Cadiz.. act in this critical situation is, of all
Attempts to enforce authority, by others, the most difficult to point out. those who are destitute of power, always The Creoles are the avowed friends terminate in their own disgrace; and the British intercourse, and, louk to this futile endeavours to obstruct all intere country for support and projection : the onurse with Caraccas and with Buenos Europeans, without any hostile feelings, Ayres, bave only served to render the are probably more solicitous to preserve European government more contempti. their superior privileges than to cultivate ble in the eyes of the Americans, and to an intercourse with us, and, perhaps, unite those people more firmly together, the anxiety discovered by the Creoles
Nothing can be more absurd, or more for Britisti connection, may make their unjust, than the expectation, that the opponents more averse tu it. If we live, extensive territories, peopled by Spa. tertere prematurely, we may produce piards, in the western bemisphere, should incalculable mischief to the cause of ide subinit to the Corles; who, whilst they Peninsula; and if we delay too long, we are asseintled within the defences of shall be the means of increasing and pro Cadiz, can never be supposed to act but longing the sufferings of America.' It in consequences of impulses given to requires the utmost consideration, and them by the Junta of ihat city. The the coolest judgment, to give a right iinpeople of America are not represented in pulse to the affairs of Spanish America; the Cortes, for the suppleans, purporting and I trust those whose duty it is to direct to be representatives of that country, the inpuise, will act in such a manoer were not chosen by then; nor have as to lead to the tranquillity of that coun. they in general any conmon feelings with try, to healing its divisions, and to a thein; and if they could, by any strained lasting and beneficial connection will conception, be considered as their repre. Great Britain. sentatives, it is scarcely to be expected that, whilst the whole assenbly is noto
DESCRIPTIVE TRAVELS riously under the influence of Cadiz, the
IN THE SOUTHERNAND EASTERN PARTS OP Americans will obey the orders which
SPAIN, may emanate froin such a source.
It is impossible to look across the At- And the Baleuric Islands, lanțic without feeling the keenest anxiety,
In 1809, and entertaining the inost paintul appre. BY SIR JOIN CARR, K.C. hensions, that a civil war, of no ordinary degree of ferocity, may spread itself over SIR. JOHN Carr's merits as a writer that interesting country, and long con- of travels are already known and valued Linue to desolate its tairest provinces; by those a ho are susceptible of gratifi. that, in the contest between the Euro- cation in the pursuits of literature. Since peaus and the Creoles, the wild bands of the similar productions of Dr. Moore, we Indians may be called in as auxiliaries by have had no works to vie with these of the weaker party, and scenes of horror Sir John Carr; and every man who is not 3
the victim of envy and misanthropy, cone of their walk, in which the Spanish ladies fesses bis obligation to this gentleman for take great pride, never fail to excite the a series of important information and rati- admiration of every foreigner: byt, strange anal ainusement. His tour in Spain exhie to tell, whenever they dress after the bits a lively portrait of the characters, man. English fashion, or as they call it ex sers, and public feelings, of the Spaniards etterpo, of which they are very fond, s at a tiine when every thing that regards vulgar waddle supersedes the bewitching them is so interesting to brumanity. Of movernents they display in their native the merits of his work oar readers may' attire." Nor' ought the skill with which form some estimate, by the interesting they use the fan, a' much larger instru. extracts given beneath; in justice how ment than that carried by our ladies, to ever to thie author, we feel it proper to be passed over. It is scarcely ever out state, that we have not made our selec of their hands; they manage it with the rons as speciiltene of his skill, in de most fascinating dexterity. To the fat seription and narration, but as passages' tlius used by some of the Andalusian which contain information likely, in a ladies, a beautiful couplet of the face wore particular manner, to interest our Rev. Mr. Homer, miglit be applied: readers. We hope the author will, ere' Go fan miscallid! go seek a better name, long, publish an account of the con. Thou can'st not cool, thou only can'st in tínuance of his voyage to Sardinia, Sicily, fi.ime. and Malta; places which have a strong kold on that curiosity, which his pen and Little girls, scarcely twice the height of pencil are so well able to gratify. a fan, are also completely at home in the THE SPANISH LADIES.
management of one. At first, the uniIn the evening we walked upon the versal blackness of the female dress proAlameda, so called from alamo, a poplar. duces rather a melancholy effect; but a This is the name of a promenade, with stranger soon becomes accustomed to it, which every town of any consideration and finds it productive of a thousand in Spain, is embellished. It is certainly agreeable sensations. A beautiful Spanisla a very agreeable walk, commanding on lady is never seen to so inueh advantage one side a fine view of the sea. "Theas in this dress, which however is imme seals with which it is furnished are of diately laid aside' wlien she enters bet stone, and handsome; but the trees in. house. The Spanish women in general Rended for its ornament, show by their dress for the street, and upon their retura wretched appearance, how unpropitious home, take off their good clothes, siis to their growth is their marine situation. stockings, and white shoes, and display Here I bad an opportunity of seeing the an appearance for which even the effects Andalusian ladies to the greatest ad- of a sultry climate can scarcely offer any vintage, in that portion of their ancient apology. They also seem to think that costume which they never fail to assume there is no charm in clean teeth, wbich whenever they go abroad. This dress is they corrode and render offensive at an composed of the inantilla, or veil, which early age, by immoderately eating sweet. amongst the higher orders is usually of meats and confectionary, and by the less black gauze, and sometimes of lace, and feminine indulgence of occasional smoke descends from the head, to which it is ing. A tooth brush they never think of fastened, over the back and arms, is just using; and I knew a British captain who crossed in front, and then falls very
was considered as a great coxcomb by gracefully a little below the knee, the several ladies at Cadiz, because that monilio or jacket, and petticoat, called instrument was found in his dressing in Andalusia, the saya; and in other case. When & lady walks out, she provinces, the basquina; both black and always followed by a female servant, generally of silk, under which usually attired in the dress I have before do appear two pretty feet, dressed in white scribed, but of coarser materials, care silk stockings and sloes. To these lat. rying an enormous green fan' in het ter articles of dress, the Spanish ladies band. This attendant is in general old pay much attention. The gala dress of and ugly, especially if her mistress be the ladies' was formerly very fine and young and handsome. I at first regarded preposterous, and 'frequently descended the servant as a duenna, but soon learnt from generation to generation; at mar. that a guardian 60 offensive, and who ringes this dress ivas often let out to the often' acted as the insidious tool of jea huinkle clasics. The grace and majesty lousy, had long been withdrawa; and that these female attendants are now the The governinent has of course not failed mere appendages of a littie excusable to render tobacco a very lucrative source pride.
of revenue, and has reserved to itself the AN ICE-HOUSE.
right of disposing of it. To government, From the Alameda, we were invited to in a thoroughly prepared state, it costs onice-laouse, called a neveria, the largest' about two reals, or five-pence, per pound, and most fasbionable in the city, and and by them it is resold to the public at frequented by ladies of the highest rank. fifty reals, or ten shillings, per pound, and In the rooms, which were brilliantly illu- often at a still more exorbitant price. mivated by patent lamps, supplied with Some English writers have asserted, that vegetable oil, which produces no smoke, the Spanish ladies smoke; and, though I we saw much of the national character. saw nio instances of it, I was well assured They were very crouded. Some were that the custom partially obtains amongst drinking agras, a delightful beverage them. Smoking forms the chief, pero made of the juice expressed from the un- baps the only, excess of the Spaniard. ripe grape and the tendrils, iced. I am It is a very rare sight to see bim intox. surprized that this has not been manu- icated. His own wines are very light, faciured in England, where the out-door and he frequently cannot afford to indulge grapes are scarcely fit for any other pure even in them. pose: some were drinking iced punch, THE HEROINE OF SARAGOSSA. liqueurs, &c. but all the male visitors It was with infinitely more gratification were, or had been, smoking. Upon the that I was introduced by Brigadiertables which were of marble, small pans general Doyle, an Irish' officer in the of charcoal fire were placed, at which the Spanish service, to the celebrated Ausmokers kindled their cigars. In Spain, gustina Zaragoza, who, it will be remem every male smokes. The general, the bered by all who have perused Mr. soldier, the judge, the criminal, and even Vaughan's very interesting narrative of the lover, breathes out all the tenderness the siege of Saragoza (Saragossa), hy her of his soul in puffs of genuine Havannah: valour, elevated herself to the highest in short, it is as natural to expect smoke rank of heroines, during the first siege from the mouth of a Spaniard, as froin of that illustrious, but unfortunate, city, the top of a tavern chimney. The la. in the month of June, 1808." vannah cigar is the most aromatic and In the second siege, some particulars sometimes costs as much as sixpence. of which I shall hereafter relate, she surThe lower orders enjoy a cheaper sort, passed her former achievements. Auby cutting the tobacco leaf fine, and rolle gustiva appeared to be of the age which ing it in a small piece of paper; this is Mr. Vaughan has assigned to her, about frequently passed from mouth to mouth, twenty.three when I saw her. with more cordial sociality than attention neatly dressed in the black mantilla. to cleanliness. I have seen beggars Her complexion was a light olive, her crawl under the tables to pick the rem- countenance soft and pleasing, and her nants of burning cigars, which had been manners, which were perfectly feminine, consuined so low, that the fingers of the were easy and engaging. Upon the smoker could hold them no longer. Every sleeve of one of her arms she wore three Spaniard is provided with a flint and embroidered badges of distinction, come steel; and, for tinder, he uses a fibrous mernorative of three distinguished acts vegetable from South America, called by of her intrepidity. Brigadier-general the French, amadon. Gentlemen carry Doyle told me, that she never çalked of these instruments so necessary for their her own brilliant exploits, but always felicity in small cases, resembling bank. spoke with animation of the many she nute pocket-books. In the streets, little saw displayed by others in those meno boys lery small contributions by carrying rable sieges. These insignia of military á burning rope-match to light the cigars merit had been conferred upon her by of passengers ; and I saw suspended frojn her illustrious commander, General the doors of several shops, a thick piece Josep!i Palafox. The day before I was of lighted rope, for the purpose of a si introduced to this extraordinary female, milar accommodation. A present of she had been entertained at a dinner Havannah cigarros is, to a Spaniard, a given by Admiral Púrvis on board of his very high compliment indeed, and se fag-ship. The particulars, I received cures his affections aš fully 'as a good from an officer whồ was present; as she dinner does those of an Englishman. received a pension from government, MONTULY Maq. No. 215.
and also the pay of an artilleryman, the after, the surrender, which he afterwards admiral considered her as a military cha- translated to me, and of which the fol racter, and, much to his credit, received lowing are translated copies: her with the honours of that profession.
“ Zaragoza, February 7, 1809. Upon her reaching the deck, the marines
My dearest friend and brother, were drawn up and manæuvred before her: she appeared quite at home, re- “I have just received your letter, but garded thein with a steady eye, and spoke no one comes to niy assistance on any in terms of admiration of their neatness, side: you, however, know me well; you and soldier-like appearance. Upon ex- know I will sooner die than cover myself anining the guns, she observed of one of with disgrace. But if you do not belp them, with the satisfaction with which me, what am I to do? Ah! my friend, other women would speak of a cap: this thought does indeed afilict me: but “my gun," alluding to the one with I want not courage to die for the preser- which she effected considerable havock vation of my lionour: if you do not come amongst the French at Zaragoza, “ was quickly, very quickly, receive the last not so nice and clean as this." She was embraces of your dearest friend and brodrinking her coffee when the evening gun ther! Sufficient that I say to you, my fired: its discharge seemed to electrify tried friend. (These three words are in her with delight: she sprang out of the English.) The bearer of this will tell cabin upon the deck, and attentively you—Ah! my friend ! my brother!" listened to the reverberation of its sound. It may be proper here to observe, that In the evening, she joined in the dance the line of service in which Brigadier. with the rest of the company, and dis. general Doyle was principally engaged, played a good ear for music, and consi. was that of collecting information of the derable natural gracefulness. The saic movements of the enemy, and furnishing lors, as it may be supposed, were uncom- succours to the patriotic troops of Spain, monly pleased with her.
a species of service for which the general, overheard to say with an hearty oath, by his activity, zeal, address, and local " I hope they will do something for her, knowledge, was eminently qualified. she ought to have plenty of prize money: He made every exertion to send succours she is of the right sort.'
to the brave Arragonese in their reSo much envy does merit always ex- nowned city, but without success. A eite, that there were many in Cadiz, and dreadful pestilential sever broke out men too, who coldly called this young amongst them. Owing to excess of heroine, the artillerywoman; and ob- fatigue, and the desperate condition of served, that they should soon have no. himself and his heroic comrades, Palaiox thing but battalions of women in the became delirious, and when the French field, instead of attending to their do. entered Zaragoza, was unable to make mestic concerns, if every romantic female any arrangements for his personal safety. was rewarded and commissioned as Au- Augustiva caught the pestilence, which gustina had been, Base detractors ! was incumbering the streets with its vichappy would it have been for your coun- rims. She had too much distinguished try, if many of your soldiers and most of herself not to attract the notice of the your chiefs, had acted with the undaunted French.. She was made prisoner, and intrepidity and unshaken patriotisin of removed to an hospital, where, as she this young female! The interest of my was considered to be dying of the ferer, interview with her was much increa er her guard paid but little aliention to her, by the following circumstance: Brigadier. llowever, her good constitution began to general Dayle was relating to her the triumph over this cruel malady, and deplorable stale w which Palafox had tinding she was but little watched, she been reluced just belore and after lie contriveti io clude the centinel, and in a fell into the hands of the enemy, in the manner as extraordinary as the rest of second siege: she listened to bim with her exploits, escaped the enemy, and The most anxious attention. “Ah! Au- joned several of her friends, who had gustina," said he, "now attend to the fled to the patriots, in perfect safety. last letters of your friend, hern, and geperal; he will speak to rou through This man was a priest, who with great ibein.”
He then read to her some very address, and at the imminent peril of his life, affecting letters written to Brigadier; contrived to quic Zaragoza, and reach Erigeneral Doyle, a short time before, and gadier-generai Doyle with this letter.