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CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE.

FROM WORCESTER'S HISTORY. In the following table, the most important epochs are given, together with a system of Artificial Memory, to facilitate the recollecting of dates. This system is derived chiefly from Dr. Grey's Memoria Technica.

In order to facilitate remembering dates, a word is formed of the name recorded, or of the first syllables of it, together with one or more syllables added to it, and made up of numeral lctters. For this purpose a yowel and a consonant are assigned to each digit, and a or b denote 1; e or d 2; i or t 3; o or f 4; and so on, in the following series :

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These letters may be easily remembered by considering that the first five vowels represent 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; that the diphthong au, which is composed of a 1 and u 5, denotes 6; that vi, for the same reason, denotes 7, 00 8, and ou 9. The diphthong ai is put for the cipher 0, but without any similar reason.

The first consonant, b, denotes 1; d, the first letter of duo, the latin for tro, denotes 2; t, the initial of the word three, is put for 3 ; f, for the same reason, for 4; v (V being the Roman numeral for five) denotes 5; s, the initial of six, is put for 6; P, from septem, the Latin for seven, denotes 7; k, from the Greek okto, eight, is put for 8; n, the initial of the word nine, denotes 9; and z, the final letter, is put for 0.

Having perfectly learned the foregoing series, the student may proceed to exercise himself in the formation and resolution of dates, in the following manner :

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The system may be extended at pleasure; and, by the formation of words in the manner described, it will be easy to fix in the mind the time of the death of illustrious men, the commencement of the reigns of kings, and other events, of which it is desirable to remember the date. It will be easy to remember whether the event took place before or after Christ. Besides the series of letters already explained, g may denote a hundred, and th a thousand.

TABLE OF IMPORTANT ERAS IN HISTORY.

4004 Creation of the world..

.Cre-faizo 2348 Deluge.........

.Del-etok 2247 Babel built; mankind dispersed...

,Babel-edop 2188 The kingdom of Egypt commences...

.Egypt-ebook 1921 Calling of Abraham..

Abrah-aneb 1556 Athens founded by Cecrops...

Ath-avus 1493 Codmus brings letters into Greece and builds Thebes.... .Cadmus-boni 1491 Israelites brought out of Egypt by Moses.......

Israel-bona 1263 Argonautic expedition.

.Argonaut-best 1184 Troy taken and burnt by the Greeks.

.. Troy-bako 1075 Saul king of Israel........

... Saul-azpu 1012 The Temple of Solomon founded.....

.Templ-azad 884 Lycurgus reforms the laws of Lacedæmon...

.Lycurg-ooko 776 The first Olympiad begins.......

Olym-pois 753 Rome founded by Romulus......

.Rom-put 536 Cyrus founds the Persian empire.

Cyru-vis 509 Tarquin expelled from Rome...

. Tarquin-vain 490 Battle of Marathon.........

..Marath-onz 400 Socrates put to death...

.Socrat-ozai 324 Alexander the Great dies at Babylon...........

Alexand-ido 312 The era of the Seleucidæ.....

.Seleucid-ibe 146 Greece reduced to a Roman province....

Greece-bos 31 Battle of Actium; end of Roman commonwealth.......... Actium-ta

Birth of Christ; 4 years before the vulgar era. 70 Jerusalem taken and destroyed .........

.Jerusal-oiz 98 Trajan emperor of Rome.......

. Trajan-noo 306 Constantine emperor of Rome......

Constan-tais 476 End of the Western Roman empire............

..Rom-fois 622 Era of the Hegira, or flight of Mahomet................ .Hegira-sed 800 Charlemagne emperor of the West...

Charlemag-oozai 827 The kingdom of England begins under Egbert....... .England-kep 1066 William the Conqueror king of England

Will-baisau 096 First Crusade to the Holy Land .......

Crusad-azous 1227 Genghis-khan's conquests in Asia........

.Genghis-bedoi 1258 End of the Caliphate or Saracen empire....... .... Caliphat-aduk 1.340 Gunpowder invented at Cologne, by Schwartz... .Gunpowder-atoz 1370 Wickliffe propagates his doctrines in England........ .Wickliff-atoiz 1398 Timur Bek or Tamerlane's conquests .....

Timur-bink 1440 The art of Printing invented...

.Print-afoz 1453 Eastern Empire ends ; Turks take Constantinople........ Turks-afut 1492 America discovered by Columbus........

. America-bone 1517 The Reformation in Germany begun by Luther....... .Reform-avap 1603 Union of England and Scotland under James 1....... ..Jam-asait 1620 Plymouth, Massachusetts, settled by the Puritans.... .Plymouth-bauez 1688 Revolution in England .....

.Revolut-asook 1776 Independence of the United States declared..................

..Independen-apois 1789 First French Revolution .......

.Revolut-apoon 1804 Bonaparte crowned emperor of France................. .Bonapart-boozo 1815 Battle of Waterloo.......

Waterl-akbu 1848 France declared a republic..........

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CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF INVENTIONS.

991 The Figures of Arithmetic brought into Europe by the Saracens.
996 Clocks with toothed wheels invented in France by Gerbert.
1000 Paper made of cotton rags in use.

Surnames begin to be used by the nobility. 1137 The Pandects of Roman Law discovered at Amalfi. 1157 The first regular Bank at Venice. 1253 Linen first made in England. 1260 Glass Mirrors and Magnifying-glasses invented by R. Bacon. 1280 to 1311. Spectacles invented by Bacon, Salvinus, Armatus, and Spina. 1290 Tallow candies begin to be used. 1300 Chimneys and Glass Windows begin to be used in private houses. 1302 The Mariner's Comprise improved by Flavio Gioia. 1320 to 40. GUNPOWDER invented at Cologne by Schwartz. 1342 Cannon used at the siege of Algeziras : Jluskets in use in 1370. 1350 Clocks in use: first made in England in 1568. 1390 Playing-cards invented: first Paper-mill in Germany. 1410 Painting in oil-colours invented at Bruges by Van Eyck. 1440 Art of PRINTING invented by Coster, Guttenberg, &c. 1464 Post-offices established in France: in England in 1581. 1471 Printing introduced into England by William Caxton. 1477 Watches made at Nuremberg: in use in England in 1597. 1489 Maps and Charts brought into England by Bartholomew Columbus. 1530 The Spinning-wheel invented at Brunswick by Jurgen. 1532 The true SOLAR SYSTEM revived by Copernicus. 1545 Needles first made in England. 1582 First treatise on Decimal Arithmetic published at Bruges. 1586 Potatoes introduced into England from America. 1590 to 1620. The Telescope, by Porta, Jansen, Drebell, and Galileo. 1610 The Thermometer invented by Sanctorius, Drebell, and Galileo. 1614 Logarithms invented in Scotland by Napier. 1619 The Circulation of the Blood discovered by Ilarvey. 1630 The first Gazette or Newspaper at Venice: in England in 1665. 1641 Coff'ee first brought into England: Tea in 1666. 1643 The Barometer invented by Torricelli and Pascal. 1654 The Air-pump invented at Magdeburg by Guericke. 1655 The Steam-engine invented : improved by Watt in 1768. 1659 Saturn's Ring discovered by Huyghens. 1687 The Neictonian Philosophy published in England. 1721 Inoculation introduced into England from Turkey. 1725 Stereotype Printing invented by Ged; introduced by Didot, 1799. 1752 The identity of Lightning and Electricity ascertained by Franklin. 1769 The Spinning-jenny invented by Arkwright. 1781 The planet Uranus or Herschel discovered by Herschel. 1794 The Cotton-gin invented by Whitney. 1798 VACCINATION discovered and introduced by Dr. Jenner.

Galvanism discovered by Galvani.

Lithography invented at Munich by Sennefelder. 1807 The first STEAMBOAT on the Hudson. 1816 The Safety-lamp invented by Sir Humphrey Davy. 1830 The Liverpool and Manchester Railroad opened; the first on which

locomotive steam-carriages were used. 1838 The Great Western, Steamship, makes her first voyage, crossing the

Atlantic, from Bristol, England, to New York. 1842 The use of the ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH introduced. 1846 The use of Eruer in surgical operations introduced.

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DIVISION OF TIME.

Almanacs.—The term Almanac is derived from the Arabic language, al manach, signifying to count or reckon. The Solar Cycle is a period of 28 years; and at the end of that time the days of the week will fall in the same places again. The Lunar Cycle is a period of 19 years, after which time the days on which the new and full moon happen will be the same. Almanacs are registers of time, with reference to its various divisions, changes, &c. &c. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII. ordered that after the 4th of October ten days should be omitted, so that the 5th became the 15th day of the month. This was to rectify a former error in the calculation of time; and this new system was called New Style. This New Style is now used in all Christian countries. In reading old books we often find the mention of dates as Old Style and New Style, both being given : this explains it.

The 25th day of December is the anniversary of the birth of Christ; and it is called Christmas, from the Latin words, Christi missa, or mass of Christ, which means a service or ceremony in remembrance of our Lord. From the birth of Christ, our years are reckoned ; and A. D. 1851 means Anno Domini, that is, in the year of the Lord 1851, or in the one thousand eight hundred and fifty-first year since his birth.

Names of months are of Roman origin. The names of the days are taken from our Saxon forefathers. Sunday was called Sundaeg, from being dedicated to the sun : Monday, Monan-daeg, or moon's day, and dedicated to the moon. Tuesday was Tuisdaeg, named in honour of Tuisco, said to have been the father of the Germans from whom the Saxons sprang. Wednesday was Woden'sdaeg, and Woden was looked on as the father of their false deities and the god of war. Thursday was Thor's-daeg, the day of Thor, the eldest son of Woden. He was the Saxon god of the air, lightning, and thunder. Friday was dedicated to Friga or Frea, and called Friga's-daeg. She was the wife of Woden, and mother of gods. Saturday was the day of Seator or Seator's-daeg. He was also a Saxon deity.

Beginning of the Day.—The ancient Jews and Greeks looked on sunset as the beginning of the day; the Egyptian day began at noon, and ours begins at midnight. Noon is that precise time when the sun attains its highest point in the heavens, and shadows begin to turn. Meridian is a word of Latin origin, and means the middle of the day. A. M. stands for ante meridicm, two Latin words, meaning before noon ; and P. M. stands for post meridiem, two Latin words, meaning after noon.

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TIME TABLE.

To January Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec.

From Jan. 365 31 59 90/120 151/181 212 243 273 304 334 Feb. 334 365 28 59 89 120 150 181 212 242 273 303 March 306 337 365 31 61 92 122 153 184 214 245 275 April 275 306 334 365 30 61 91 122 153 183 214 244 May 245 276 304 335 365 31 61 92 123 153 184214 June 214 245 273 304 334 365 30 61 92 122 153 183 July 184 215 243 274 304 335 365 31 62 92 123 153 Aug. 153 184212 243 273 304 334 365 31 61 921122 Sep. 122 153 181 212 242 273 303 334 365 30 61 91 Oct. 92 123 151182 212 243 273 304 335 365 31 61

Nov.

61 92 120 151 181 212 242 273 304 334 365 30 31 62 90/121 151 182212 243 274 304 335 365

Dec.

This table will be found very convenient for ascertaining the number of days between any two dates not more than a year distant; also for ascertaining with accuracy and despatch the time when notes, drafts, &c. fall due.

Each of the numbers in the table shows the length of time (in days) from any day of the month standing opposite to it on the left, to the corresponding day of that month which is over it.

EXAMPLES.

What is the number of days from March 15th to November 15th ? Opposite March, and under November, we find 245, the number required. What is the length of time from May 4th to August 16th ?

Opposite May, and under August, is the number 92, showing the days from May 4th to August 4th. To August 16th it is 12 days more, which, added to 92, give 104, the answer.

How many days from December 25th to June 12th ?

Opposite December, and under June, is 182, the number of days from December 25th to June 25th ; but to June 12th is 13 days less, which, deducted from 182, gives 169, the answer.

If a note be drawn July 14th, at 90 days, when will it fall due, grace included ?

In the line of figures opposite July, seek that number which is nearest in amount to the number of days for which the note is drawn. This is found to be 92, which stands under October, showing that 92 days, from July 14th, bring the time to October 14th, to which add one day, (the excess of 93 over 92,) and you have October 15th, answer.

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