Sidor som bilder
[blocks in formation]


Alabama ... 426,515 2,250 428,765 342.894 634,501

162,071 587 162,658 46,982 190,848

200,000 Connecticut. 363,189 7,415 370,604

370.604 Delaware 71,282 17,957 89,239 2.289

90,612 Florida... 47,120

48,046 39,341 71,650 Georgia

513,083 2.586 515,669 362,966 733,448 Indiana 983,634 5,100 988,734

988,734 Illinois

5,239 858,298

191.830 292 192,122

192,122 Kentucky

770,061 9,667 779,728 221.768 912.788 Louisiana.

251,271 15,685 269,956 230,807 409,440 Maive. 581,920 1,312 583,232

583,232 Massachusetts 985,498 8,773 994,271

994,271 Maryland.

418,763 73,943 492,706 89,800 546,586 Mississippi. 291,536 898 292.431 300,419 472.685 Michigan 393,156 2,547 395,703

392,70:3 Missouri.

592,176 2,667 594,843 89,289 648,416 New Hampshire. 317.354 477 317,831

317,831 New York 3,042,574 47,418 3,090,022

3,090,022 New Jersey.:

466,283 22,269 488,552 119 488,623 North Carolinat 552.477 27,271 580,458 288,412 753.505 Ohio..... 1,951,101 25,930 1.977,031

1,977,031 Pennsylvania... 2,258,480 53,201 2,311,681

2,311,681 Rhode Island... 144,012 3,543 147,555

147,555 South Carolina.. 274,775 8,769 283,544 384,925 314,499 Tennessee 767,319 6,280 773,599

249,519 923,310 Texas ..

133, 131 926 134,057 53,346 166,064 Vermont 312,756 710 313,466

313,466 Virginia

894,149 53,906 948,055 473,026 1,231,870 Wisconsin 303,600 626 304,226

304,226 19,517,885 409,200 19,927,085 3,175,902 TERRITORIES. Dist. of Columbia

38,027 9,973 48,000 3,687 Minnesota 6,192

6,192 New Mexico 61,632

61,632 Oregon 20,000


19,668,736 | 419,173 20,087,909 3,179,589 21,832,621

7 *72,289 2 3.444 2 12.596 4 *89,498 1 1 8 *77,531 11 *51.714 9 20.950 2

4,718 10 *75,470 4 33,632

6 21,020 11 $57.251 6 *78,076 5 4,175 4 20,895 7 *86,204

3 36,725 33 *91,558 5

20,113 8

3,889 21

9,289 25 *62.833 2 *53.853 5 45.989 10 *89,992 2

*72,362 3 32,360 13

13,744 3

23,120 233

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

† Including 710 Indians.


Total free population.


Representative population.

Free States..


119 13,533,399 Slaveholding States...

6,393,757 3,175,783 8,299,226 District and Territories



20,087,909 3,179,589 21,832,625 Total free population.

20,087,909 Total slaves


23,267,498 Ratio of Representation.

93,702 [*The aggregate Representative population gives, as the nearest approximate ratio for 233 members, (the number fixed by law,) a ratio of 93,702; but this ratio gives only 220 members-leaving the remaining 13 to be assigned to the States having the largest residuary fractions. The States which thus gain a member are designated in the above table by a *.]

[ocr errors]

Sosephine la modern ensing, Northern Liberties, }.

Washington, August 27, 1851. W. P. MANGUM, JR., Esq.—Dear Sir: Below please find the information desired by your correspondent in Philadelphia, so far as it can be had at this time. The enclosed table shows the population of the States.


Free coloured.


6,003 Females....



Total population......

City proper

121,377 Spring Garden, &c.

252,855 Total........

374,332 BALTIMORE. Whites.....

141,171 Free coloured..

24,937 Slaves

2,946 Total..

166,108 NEW ORLEANS. White..

99,359 Free coloured..


White and free coloured...







Slaves ......




2,113 Total

40,001 Regretting my inability to furnish all the information solicited, I am truly and respectfully yours,

J. R. Roche.


POPULATION OF THE WORLD.-Europe, 238,473,957; Asia, 390,000,000; Africa, 65,000,000; Oceanica, 20,000,000; North America, 35,000,000; South America, 15,240,000. Total, 764,000,000.

Hasel estimates the population of the world at 938,421,000, divided, as tu religion, as follows: Pagans

561,820,300 Mohammedans ........ 120,105,000 Christians


3,930,000 The Christians he divides into

Roman Catholics...... 134,732,000 Monophysites...... 386,500 Greek Church, about 56,000,000 Nestorians.....

367,000 Protestants....


POST-OFFICE STATISTICS. In the year 1790, there were only seventy-five post-offices in the United States, or one to every 52,531 inhabitants. In 1800, there were nine hundred and three, being one to each 5,986 inhabitants.

In 1840, there were thirteen thousand four hundred and fiftyeight post-offices. In 1850, eighteen thousand four hundred and seventeen, being one to every 1,276 inhabitants. The length of the post-office routes in the United States is 178,672 miles. Cost of the service, 2,724,426 dollars. There are in North-Carolina, about eight hundred post-offices, 7,931 miles of mail-route, and the cost of the system, for the State, is about $154,311.


MOUNTAIN REGION OF NORTH-CAROLINA. You state that you have directed some attention to the sheephusbandry of the United States, in the course of which it has occurred to you that the people of the mountain regions of North-Carolina, and some of the other Southern States, have not availed themselves sufficiently of their natural advantages for the production of sheep. Being myself well acquainted with the western section of North Carolina, I may perhaps be able to give you most of the information


desire. As you have directed several of your inquiries to the county of Yancey, (I presume from the fact, well known to you, that it contains the highest mountains in any of the United States,) I will, in the first place, turn my attention to that county. First, as to its elevation. Dr. Mitchell, of our University, ascertained that the bed of Tow River, the largest stream in the county, and at a'ford near its centre, was about twenty-two hundred feet above the level of the ocean. Burnsville, the seat of the court-house, he found to be between two thousand eight hundred and two thousand nine hundred feet above it. The general level of the county is, of course, much above this elevation. In fact, a number of the mountain summits rise above the height of six thousand feet. The climate is delightfully cool during the summer: there being very few places in the county where the thermometer rises above 80° on the hottest day. An intelligent gentleman who passed a summer in the northern part of the county (rather the more elevated portion of it) informed me that the thermometer did not rise on the hottest days above 76o.

You ask, in the next place, if the surface of the ground is so much covered with rocks as to render it unfit for pasture? The reverse is the fact; no portion of the county that I have passed over is too rocky for cultivation, and in many sections of the county one may travel miles without seeing a single stone. It is only about the tops of the highest mountains that rocky precipices are to be found. A large portion of the surface of the county is a sort of elevated table-land, undulating, but seldom too broken for cultivation. Even as one ascends the higher mountains, he will find occasionally on their sides flats of level land containing several hundred acres in a body. The top of the Roan (the highest mountain in the county except the Black) is covered by a prairie for ten miles, which affords a rich pasture during the greater part of the year. The ascent to it is so gradual, that persons ride to the top on horseback from almost any direction. The same may be said of many of the other mountains. The soil of the county generally is uncommonly fertile, producing, with tolerable cultivation, abundant crops. What seems extraordinary to a stranger is the fact that the soil becomes richer as he ascends the mountains. The sides of the Roan, the Black, the Bald, and others, at an elevation of even five or six thousand feet above the sea, are covered with a deep rich vegetable mould, so soft, that a horse in dry weather often sinks to the fetlock. The fact that the soil is frequently more fertile as one ascends, is, I presume, attributable to the circumstance that the higher portions are more commonly covered with clouds, and the vegetable matter being thus kept in a cool, moist state while decaying, is incorporated to a greater degree with the surface of the earth; just as it is usually found that the north side of a hill is richer than the portion most exposed to the action of the sun's rays. The sides of the mountains, the timber being generally large, with little undergrowth and brushwood, are peculiarly fitted for pasture grounds, and the vegetation is in many places as luxuriant as it is in the rich savanna of the low country.

The soil of every part of the county is not only favourable to the production of grain, but is peculiarly fitted for grasses. Timothy is supposed to make the largest yield, two tons of hay being easily produced on an acre, but herds-grass, or red-top, and clover, succeed equally well; blue-grass has not been much tried, but is said to do remarkably well. A friend showed me several spears, which he informed me were produced in the northern part of the county, and which by measurement were found to exceed


seventy inches in length; oats, rye, potatoes, turnips, &c. are produced in the greatest abundance.

The few sheep that exist in the county thrive remarkably well, and are sometimes permitted to run at large during the winter, without being fed, and without suffering. As the number kept by any individual is ņot large enough to justify the employment of a shepherd to take care of them, they are not unfrequently destroyed by vicious dogs, and more rarely by wolves, which have not yet been entirely exterminated.

I have been somewhat prolix in my observations on this county, because some of your inquiries were directed particularly to it, and because most of what I have said of Yancey is true of the other counties west of the Blue Ridge. Haywood has about the same elevation and climate of Yancey. The mountains are rather more steep, and the valleys somewhat broader; the soil generally not quite so deep, but very productive, especially in grasses. In some sections of the county, however, the soil is equal to the best I have seen.

Buncombe and Henderson are rather less elevated-Ashville and Henderson ville, the county towns, being each about 2200 feet above the sea.

The climate is much the same, but a very little warmer.

The more broken portions of these counties resemble much the mountainous parts of Yancey and Haywood, but they contain much more level land. Indeed the greater portion of Henderson is quite level. It contains much swamp land, which when cleared, with very little if any drainage, produces very

of herds-grass. Portions of Macon and Cherokee counties are quite as favourable, both as to climate and soil, as those above described. I would advert particularly to the valleys of the Nantahalah, Fairfield, and Hamburg, in Macon, and of Cheoh, in Cherokee. In either of these places, for a comparatively trifling price, some ten or fifteen miles square could be procured, all of which would be rich, and the major part sufficiently level for cultivation, and especially fitted, as their Daturai meadows indicate, for the production of grass.

In conclusion, I may say that, as far as my limited knowledge uf such matters authorizes me to speak, I am satisfied that there is no region that is more favourable to the production rof sheep than much of the country I have described. It is everywhere healthy and well watered. I may add, too, that there is waterpower enough in the different counties composing my cougressional district, to move more machinery than human labour can ever place there--enough, certainly, to move all now existing in the Union. It is also a rich mineral region. The gold mines dre worked now to a considerable extent. The best ores of iron

finc crops

[ocr errors]
« FöregåendeFortsätt »