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leaven of hatred and of feud deposited ing than deceiving. And certainly in all human convictions, still remains such an ardour ought to be felt here, there, but it can no longer find a re- for the honour and the moral repose sponse in society. It is abhorrent to of our society are, for a long stretch our manners, and still more to our laws. of time, at stake. It cannot remain The Will will soon be wanting, even in the state of apathy and disquietude, in hearts most inclined to this evil of langour and strife, in which it exists disposition, to give it effect. Those at present. The soul must have at who continue to preach irritation once more activity and more security, either in Christian communions among a firmer resting place, and a higher themselves, or from the philosophic flight; and a real pacification of the chair against Christianity, preach great contending intellectual powers with the voice of the dying, aban. can alone accomplish this. How, doned on a conquered field where then, is this to be brought about? I they persist in remaining. Here is shall grapple without hesitation with what is more likely to happen. Living the most prominent and gravest diffneither in peace nor at war, neigh- culty which besets this project-the bours without friendship, and jealous nature of Catholicism, and the condiwithout passion, Catholicism, Pro. tions on which alone it can subsist in testantism, and Philosophy, and with harmony with the new society which them society at large, will become has made with it, and on which it has low, cold, and feeble. Dignity and retaliated, such fierce war. But I force, which result from lively, moral leave out of consideration religious reciprocities, will both fail them. A questions, properly so called, questions dry and sterile spirit will pervade their which regard the intimate relations purely official and formal intercom- between God and man, in which the munications. And we shall see that salvation of the human soul is inter. state of indifference, at once disdainful ested. and subaltern, that naked frigidity of "Not that I regard these questions character, which must characterise with indifference; not that their imcommunities depending barely on the portance is not now what it has ever mechanism of human laws, on a bue been, immensely dominant. It is esreaucratic administration, devoid of sential, on the contrary, constantly to morality,—that is, of faith and devo. repeat this, for in our time it is too tion,-spread, harden, become perma. much forgotten. The real object, the nent, and in a manner legally and root, the essence of religion consists, in socially consecrated among men. Is it fact, in its spiritual properties. Its then to reach this goal that the human morality is valuable, no doubt, as the intelligence has for so many centuries rule of conduct of men in their interunfolded its resources with so much course with other men ; it is valuable brilliancy in our country? Is it to be also in calming the mind to resignaquelled at this barren and ignoble tion in the midst of the trials of life. term-at this degradation, that all These are the effects of religion upon mighty believing hopes, that all puis- the earth, where it occupies a vast sant moral energies have striven to space. But its sphere of action is gether, with so much exasperation, much wider, extends far beyond huand so much glory, for the mastery of man society and the world ; it binds our society ? No. They must save man to God, reveals to him the secret themselves, they must save our coun- of this awful communion, teaches him try from this shameful peril. They what he should believe, and what he must adopt, they must respect, they should do in his connexion with the must serve loyally our new social Almighty, and in his prospects of state. They must live in harmony eternity. These are indestructible with mutual respect." I say they must. facts, from which man may for a moAn immense advance is made in every ment withdraw his attention, but great design, when success is regard. which he cannot efface from his nature. ed as indispensable, as vital. The These are sublime wants, from which conviction of necessity gives to those he cannot dissever himself even when to whom this conviction is pleasing, he abuses and denies them. The logic great strength; to those to whom it of these facts, the satisfaction of these is displeasing, great resignation. A wants, that is to say, doctrine and its passionate desire is more sustain consequences, is truly religion, is especially the Christian religion, the first tion of spiritual and temporal things, which has really comprehended and she acted in the interest of her own embraced its objects. But in these dignity, and to establish her own li. questions, and in the doctrines in which berty. But she did more, she mainthey receive their more specific ex- tained the dignity of human nature, pression, there is nothing which excites and laid the foundations of liberty of conflict between Catholicism and civil conscience. The separation of spiritusociety. The State proclaims in this al and temporal things, the doctrine matter not only liberty but the rights of the church, and the separation of of the Church, and declares herself in the religious from the civil state, the competent to meddle with them. ... doctrine of the charte, the indepenUnder this point of view, therefore, dence of religious society in matters peace is assured, and may easily be of faith, the conquest of the Catholic maintained with sincerity between Ca- church in the first ages of our Europe, tholicism and our new society. The and liberty of conscience, the conquest real difficulty lies in the following con- of our new society;—these rest fundasideration. The Government of the mentally on one and the same princi. Catholic Church consists in a power ple. In their applications and their in all matters of faith and salvation forms they vary; in their origin and which claims the character of infallimoral signification they accord thobility. I put aside, however mo. roughly. Herein there is consequently mentous they may be, all second ques- a medium of pacification and of har. tions respecting what conditions, and mony between Catholicism and the within what limits, this infallibility new society. . . . What is the exists, or to whom it belongs; whether obstacle to be encountered? One, ra. to the Popeor Councils, or to the Pope ther historic than rational, arising from and Councils united. I grasp the the past facts of the ancient life of the principle alone which pervades the two powers, much more than from Catholic faith under its every aspect. their prime principles and their actual This principle itself is founded on the relations. The separation between perpetuity of the Divine revelation, spiritual and temporal affairs had its faithfully preserved in the Church by origin in the chaos of the middle ages. tradition; and, in case of need, re. From thence it emerged like the sun newed by the inspiration of the Holy from a dark and stormy sky. Princi. Spirit, which ceases not to descend ples, powers, ideas, situations, were all upon the successor of St Peter, placed for a long time in this European world by Jesus Christ himself at the head of of ours prodigiously confused, obscure, the Church. This is the essential vital inconsequent, incomplete. For a long principle, the base and the pinnacle, time temporal things were mixed with the alpha and the omega of Catholic spiritual, and spiritual things with temcism. Before a power of such a nature, poral, deeply and inextricably, in the of such an origin, all discussion, all re. existence and constitution of Church sistance, all separation, is rebellious and State. Hence arose temptations The new society, the France of the and incentives frequent and terrible to Charte, has also her principle, which reciprocal usurpations. The confuhas become that of her Government. sion of facts, and the violence of pasIt is this, that all human power is fall. sions, strove incessantly together ible, and ought to be controlled and against the principle which had surged limited; that all human society, di. up to regulate and appease them. ... rectly or indirectly, in such or such But now, when those great ambi. measure, under such or such form, has tions which have troubled the world the right of controlling and limiting are no more than vain pretensions, it the power wbich it obeys.

behoves them to avoid with care the “I attempt not to attenuate the pro. last risk they have to run, that of fall. blem. I set forth with exactness the ing into ridiculous wranglings. Let two principles; they differ essentially; the two powers, instead of submitting it is said that they are at strife. They to the painful abasement of a momenwould truly be at strife if they ever met, tary replunge into the effete and puif they acted within the same sphere. trid elements of the old confusion, reBut here I again light upon the remedy cognise fully, in right and in fact, their which I have alluded to above. When mutual incompetence. Let each take the church, many centuries ago, insiste up its firm position in its own sphere, ed so perseveringly upon the distinc. and profess with energy its own prin. ciple; the Catholic Church, her infal. fected ; and also from the predomi. libility and religious order; the State, nancy, which was long excessive, in freedom of enquiry, and social order. the church, of the governing over the Not only will they then live in peace, vital principle, of ecclesiastical authobut they will respect and strengthen rity over a religious life. . . . What, each other, not merely in hollow sem. then, has saved Catholicism from shipblance, which would be unworthy of wreck ? The popular faith. The them both, but in earnest reality. . Government fell, but the Catholic . . . As to the benefits which people survived. M. de Montlosier would result from this pacification is right. In our days also, a cross to the Catholic Church and consti- of wood has saved the world. But tutional France, they are immense. this salvation is incomplete. The What is the great evil which disor. church is raised from the ground, ders our temporal society? The but souls languish. Catholicism is enfeeblement of authority. I speak wanting in faith, of a faith springnot of that force which compels obe- ing out of deep inward convictions. dience; never, perhaps, had power ... The situation of Protestantmore of it ; never, perhaps, so much; ism is more simple; some persons but of that authority which is ante. affect to believe it better. The generiorly recognised in principle and in ral spirit which, since 1830, has prea general manner, which is adopted vailed in our political and domestic and felt as a right, which has no need affairs and alliances, the analogy of recourse to force ; of that authority of principle between constitutional to which the heart and the understand. France and Protestant England, has ing yield a voluntary allegiance, which given rise to an opinion that Proteste speaks from on high with the empire antism is in favour. There are even not of constraint, and yet of necessity. some people who pretend to have disThis is truly authority. It is not, covered a grand conspiracy to render nevertheless, the only principle of the France Protestant. This absurdity social state. It suffices not for the has no need of confutation. A very government of men. But nothing can little time back Protestantism appeared suffice without it, neither reasonings not to be so well established in France. repeatedly reiterated, nor self-interest I speak not of the Restoration. But well understood, nor the material pre- under the empire it was said that Proponderance of numbers. Wherever testantism had a republican tendency, this authority is wanting, however that its maxims were opposed to all great the physical force may be, obe- stable order, and to all strong power. dience is always precarious and base, The Protestant spirit and the revolu. always bordering on servility or rebel- tionary spirit were represented as belion. But Catholicism contains the ing closely allied. spirit of authority-of authority syste. “The same assertion is still repeated. matically conceived and organized, It has become the theme of a party laid down as a fundamental principle, who persevere in exhibiting Protestand carried out into practice, with antism as incompatible with social orgreat firmness in doctrine and a rare der, tranquillity of conscience, and the knowledge of human nature. . . . monarchy. Happily Protestantism is Catholicism is the greatest and most not a religion of yesterday in Europe. holy school of respect the world has It has an history to reply to this acever seen. France has been formed cusation. ... The French Reform. in this school, in spite of the abuses to ed Church ought especially to be exwhich human passions have often empt from this ridiculous reproach. turned its precepts. These abuses are She enjoys her new liberty with molittle to be feared in future, and the desty and gratitude. Never has a regreat benefits may flow from the in- ligious society been more disposed to culcation of the precepts, of which we show deference to the civil authority. have great need. Catholicism has ... Protestantism, therefore (we also its evils. Its coldness, its forma. have omitted the reasons as too ge. lity, its predominance of forms over nerally appreciated, and too trite to realities, of exterior ceremonies over be repeated to an English public], in interior convictions. But these evils this country can inspire no fears of a arise from the incredulity, mostly hy, political nature; and in a religious pocritical, of the eighteenth century, point of view it may effect much good, with which the present age is also in- but not in proselytizing and converte ing. Conversions on one side and on Its anchors are strong, and its perspecthe other will be henceforward ex- tives full of attraction to the imaginatremely rare; and the importance tion. It excels in giving at once ocwhich certain persons attach to them, cupation and repose to the soul, and either as a matter of gratulation or opens a welcome haven after great complaint, is somewhat puerile. fatigues ; for without leaving the heart Truly such conversions are facts most cold or idle, it spares it much effort, grave to those who are engaged in and lightens the burden of its responthem, but they are of no moment to sibility. For other minds, diseased society. France will not become Pro- also, and severed from religion, more testant; Protestantism will not perish intellectual and personal activity is in France. Among many other rea necessary. They also experience the sons, the following is decisive. It is want of returning to God and to a not between Catholicism and Protest. faith. But they have the habit of antism that a struggle for mastery ex- examining every thing for themselves, ists at present. Impiety and immorality and will receive nothing for truth are the enemies they both have to con- which results not from their own reatend with. To revive the influence of sonings. They would flee from infireligion is the work to which they delity, but liberty is dear to them ; and are jointly summoned; an immense there is in the religious bent of their work, for the evil thereby to be disposition, more thirst than lassitude. removed is immense. When one re. To these Protestantism may find access, flects with any seriousness upon this for, in urging upon them piety and evil—when one sounds, though but faith, it not only allows, but exhorts partially, its abysses, the moral state them to exercise their reason and their of the masses of our population, the liberty. It has been accused of cold. popular mind so vagrant, the popular ness, but wrongfully. In appealing heart so empty, desiring so much, incessantly to a free personal examinahoping so little, fluctuating so rapidly tion, Protestantism works its way from the fever to the languor of the deeply into the soul, and generates a soul, one is seized with melancholy and strong faith, in which the activity of dismay. Catholics or Protestants, the intelligence aliments the fervour of priests or laymen, whoever you are, if the heart, instead of extinguishing it. you are believers, do not molest each And by this characteristic it harmoother, but direct all your zeal towards nizes well with the spirit of the age, those who have no faith. There is your which was, in the days of its youth, at field, there is your harvest. An open once inquisitive and enthusiastic, as field for Protestantism as for Catholic eager for conviction as for liberty, and cism, where the one and the other may which, despite its momentary exhaus. find full occupation, and where each tion, has not changed its nature, but has peculiar aptitudes and peculiar will resume infallibly its double chamerits to labour profitably. We are racter. suffering under diverse moral maladies. “Let Catholicism and Protestantism Some are tossed with donbt, and a then never lose sight of our society. sickly wavering understanding. These Let them each, according to its pecnirequire the shelter of a port where no liar principle, seek out and medicine tempest can intrude, of a light which our social wounds, and cater to those never flickers, of a hand ever present moral wants which they are, respecto uphold their faltering steps. They tively, most adapted to satisfy. In demand from religion rather support this task lies their true mission, their for their feebleness, than aliment for efficacious mission, not in eyeing each their activity. In raising them it must other constantly with hostility, and re. sustain them ; in touching their heart newing old controversies. In general, it must subdue their intelligence; in controversy has but little effect, and animating their interior sensibilities, that not of a religious kind. . . . it must, at the same time, and above They should, therefore, discard conall, impart to them a profound senti. troversy, and bend all their energies ment of security. Catholicism is mar. to their joint and yet separate work. vellously suited to this character so Thus they may live in peace not only frequent in our days. It has satisfac. with our new society, but with each tions for desires, and remedies for suf- other. ... This alliance must ferings. It possesses at the same time take place. I repeat, it must. I close the art of subjugating and of pleasing as I commenced this paper, by insisting on this necessity. Peace be- fundity of impious assumption of the tween religious creeds is at present Divine power in such designs; and it imposed on them all by our social is precisely a design of this kind, most state. Harmony in liberty is their flagrantly set forth, that the Essay of legal condition, it is the Charte. M. Guizot unfolds. The French in Let them adopt it, then, heartily as a their Great Revolution attempted to fact; let them render a loving obedi. usurp a dominancy of this sort. Their ence to this rule. I fear not the dis will was to destroy, their will was to repute of a false prophet in predicting create, their will was to mould and that religion will gain by it as much wield all the elements of human soas society,” &c. &c.

ciety, just as if they had to work upon

plastic matter to be shaped by the A production more completely hands of the artificer. And this French than the one from which we abrupt, impatient, arbitrary wilfulness have laid such ample extracts before they called freedom. It is much the our readers, we believe was never be- same now. Persecution, in principle fore given to the world. Almost at least, they abjure ; liberty, especi. every moral and mental characteristically intellectual liberty, and liberty of of Frenchmen, and of Frenchmen, too, conscience, they proclaim emphaticalof the highest class of mind, is therein ly; but whilst they believe it within exhibited with a distinctness, a bre. their competence, as it were, to orga. vity, and a burnish of artful phrases nize all mental energies, however di. and bastard logic which it wellnigh verse in nature, and make them act tortures the sense to contemplate with together as parts of the same machine, in so narrow a compass.

towards the fulfilment of certain temIn what other country than France, poral and national purposes, there is upon the face of the whole earth, would the sublimation of tyranny in the very a statesman undertake, not to restrain conception. Yet what else does M. external actions, but to dictate, ex ca. Guizot propose ? All the great conthedrâ, to mind, regarding the thoughts flicting opinions of men within the and convictions of men on the most French territory are, he affirms, to vital topics, as subject, even in their hear his voice, and kiss and be friends. intellectual and spiritual develope. He considers them, therefore, as susments, to the mouldings and limita- ceptible of yielding obedience to some tions of a barely political and social intellectual fiat external to themselves. expediency? In what other country However absurd this phrase may in the world could religious creeds sound, it simply expresses the suband philosophy be viewed barely as stance of M. Guizot's meaning. But material fucts, to be dealt with, not in let us examine his propositions a little their outward forms, but in their in- closer. ward life, in the same manner as if He would bring about a pacifica. they were purely conventional institu- tion between the three powers: Ca. tions : For it is to the inward life of tholicism, Protestantism, and PhiloCatholicism, Protestantism, and Philo- sophy. But this is only possible in sophy, that M. Guizot addresses his one way, viz: by neutralizing them dogmatic dialectics. Despite the re- all. It is in vain to say that each may fining verbal distinctions he makes, find separate work without interfering this is the fact. He would regulate the with the others. They are in a most internal spirit of faith in France, under prominent sense relative existences. its two broad divisions, as well as that Take away their mutual relations of of the infidelity of indifference which opposition, and they become at best he calls philosophy. In this we dis- but feeble prevarications. Their mucern the radical passion of Frenchmen tually antagonistic qualities constitute, for organizing, as they callit, all things. wherein they differ, their very essence. Mind itself they would manage as It is preposterous to maintain that the a great military chief would manage doctrines of each can be zealously masses of material force under his propagated, without hostile reference command. They would array and or to the doctrines of the other two, espeder it, and send a detachment here cially when they are all placed in active and a detachment there, under diffe- juxta position : for they are severally rent captains and different banners, at variance, not on points of acknowto achieve certain conquests which ledged minor importance, but on the they deem desirable. There is a pro. most vital questions of revelation. It

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