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the evidence which they now gave, Įt clear, unintentionally-her fall; and it appeared from their testimony that certainly did appear that, either while the deceased had been very far ad- she was falling, or immediately aftervanced in pregnancy ; that the pri- wards, he had more than once struck soner had had some dispute with her her with some violence, but not in a - being a most violent man, they said way to have alone caused her death, --and knocked her down, her head which the medical evidence showed to falling against the sharp corner of a have been occasioned by the injuries chest of drawers, which cut it open, which she had received upon her head, and the wound bled profusely; and in falling upon the drawers, added to that, while she was thus prostrate and the effects of violent excitement and insensible, the prisoner furiously kick- excessive liquor upon a person in her ed and struck her repeatedly-death, situation. The third witness brought on the same evening, or the evening forward against the prisoner wasafter, I forget which, being the conse- alas l_his own daughter, a little girl quence. As far as this evidence went, about five or six years of age, decently nothing, of course, could have been dressed in black. When her name more brutal than the conduct of the was called, the prisoner, with an agoprisoner ; but, on cross-examination of nized countenance, looked away from the first witness, a little ill-looking old the spot where she was to stand ; his woman, the mother of the deceased, lip quivered, his chest heaved ; and, in and who gave her evidence manifestly spite of his efforts, the tears forced under the ipfluence of the most bitter themselves from his eyes. Mr Justice resentment towards the prisoner, the Pattison observed his agitation, and case began to assume a very different seemed himself not a little affected aspect. It was wrung from her, after when he beheld the little thing that, in great prevarication, and also was esta. obedience to the summons of the loud. blished by other witnesses, that she had voiced officer, was brought into court, herself, on the evening in question, and placed close beside him, to give been drinking gin with the deceased, evidence which might seal the fate of at the residence of the latter, a mise. her father. She was so very short, rable cellar ; that she had herself that he handed over to the officer the fetched five quarterns of gin for the de. footstool he had been using, in order ceased on that occasion; that the de. that she might stand upon it; and ceased, and the witness, at her request, even then the head of the little withad frequently pawned all her hus- liess did but just come above the top band's clothes, and those of her child. of the witness-box, She was rather a ren--whom she had once or twice sent pretty-looking girl, and her face was to bed early in the afternoon, to enable very sad and pale. She did not, howher so to dispose of their clothes! That ever, cry, though her eyes seemed the prisoner was a pilot, a remarkably glued to the figure of her miserable steady and hard-working man, and father, who never once ventured to earned amply sufficient to enable him- look towards her, and whose tears, self and family to live in very comfort. silent evidence of the anguish he was able circumstances; but this accursed enduring, fell frequently. In all other propensity of his wife's had beggared respects he preserved a stern compo. them, and driven them from their for sure throughout the proceedings, mer comfortable dwelling to the “My child," said the Judge, as I wretched cellar in which had occurred thought with a little emotion, as he the catastrophe then the subject of en bent down his ear to her,-“ do you quiry. That on the evening in ques- know that you have come here to speak tion he had come home from the sea wet the truth?" and wearied, but found that every ar- « Yes, sir." ticle of his clothing had been pawned " And will you, my dear, speak the by his wife, and that his children were truth_and tell us all the truth, and lying in bed almost naked, their little nothing else ?" clothes having shared the same fate ; « Yes, sir." and that his wife was drunk, as was " What will become of you, do you also the first witness. Furious words think, if you tell a lie ?" very naturally ensued ; and it was un She paused ; the Judge repeated the der these truly exasperating circum- question; and she answered distinctly, stances that he had struggled with his " I shall be burned in everlasting fire." wife, so as to occasion-but, it was " Where did you learn that?"
66 The Bible, sir."
secution for a Nuisance, instituted by “ Have you ever been at school?" the Corporation of Liverpool against “ Yes, sir, at the Sunday school.” a Mr Muspratt, the proprietor of some
" She may be sworn,” said the extensive works for the manufacture of Judge ; and the oath was immediately alkali within the town of Liverpool. administered to her.
The alleged nuisance was thus deWas not this, dear Christopher, a scribed by the counsel for the prosecu. grievous sight to see? The little tion (Cresswell) :-“ The works cardaughter called to give evidence against ried on by Mr Muspratt are for the her father, on his trial for his life, for manufacture of alkali, in the course of the murder of her mother! Though which two processes are necessary : in a melancholy tone, and with a sad they first of all manufacture sulphuric manner, she gave her evidence with acid; and, using it together with comgreat propriety, clearly and firmly. mon salt, they manufacture salt-cake, Her tiny voice could be heard dis for the purpose of converting it into tinctly in all parts of the crowded but what is called black ash, or alkali, that silent court. She evinced, as was to being employed in the making of soap, be expected, a strong leaning towards as a cheap substitute for kelp, or Spaher father ; but she admitted that he nish barilla, which were formerly imhad twice struck her mother when she ported from foreign countries, and was lying bleeding on the floor. She used in the manufacture of soap. I also stated that her mother had several understand that the process by which times actually taken her-the little this article is manufactured is so congirl's-shoes and stockings off her feet, ducted as to discharge into the air, that she might pawn them for gin; and from the lower part of the works, more that she and the other children had or less of sulphuric acid gas, and from been often obliged to lie in bed, be the high chimney, in which the other cause their mother and grandmother part of the process is carried on, is dishad taken away their clothes for the charged a large quantity of muriatic vile purpose above mentioned ! Who acid gas. No person can pass within could listen to all this without feeling sight of these works without observing, the deepest commiseration towards the not only a quantity of black smoke unhappy prisoner? Till he had been escaping from the chimney, but also a hurried into the act with which he then white vapour, looking like a cloud of stood charged, he had always borne steam, which is carried along a consian unblemished character as a quiet derable distance from it in clear wearespectable man, who laboured hard ther, still remaining a compact body, to support his family, and who could not mixed with the air on either side. have kept them in comfort but for his I understand that this vapour comes wife's ruinous propensities to drink. originally from the chimney in the His counsel addressed the jury on his form of muriatic acid gas, but, speedily behalf with much earnestness, con- combining with the moisture of the tending that, on the whole of the evin atmosphere, it assumes the vaporous dence, the prisoner was entitled to an state, leaves the gaseous state, and is acquittal, or, at least, to a verdict of driven along in the state of vapour, as manslaughter. The Judge, however, a stream, whichever way the wind may directed the jury that there was no blow, and, being heavier than the at. evidence to support the charge of mospheric air, soon descends, producmurder, but that the prisoner had been ing the consequences which I will declearly guilty of manslaughter. He scribe to you. In the first place, with then recapitulated the evidence; and, respect to vegetation, I am told that it after a quarter of an hour's considera withers and destroys vegetation wheretion, the jury pronounced a verdict of ever it falls ; that the leaves become manslaughter. He was sentenced to shrivelled up and embrowned by it, eighteen months' imprisonment, with and ultimately fall; and, if it continues hard labour ; which, I must confess, in that direction for a sufficient length seemed to me, under the circumstances, of time, they will crumble into powder. a somewhat severe sentence.
Upon metals it has a very peculiar ac
tion. Brass is speedily tarnished by The only case in the Civil Court it, and a rust, or rather a bright red which possessed any thing worth no. rust, is produced by it, upon all metal. ticing here was a very interesting pro- lic articles_fenders, fire-irons, and all polished metallic articles, are speedily nesses swore that their fire-irons, &c. rusted by it ; so much so, that in half were constantly corroded ; another, an hour after any metallic article is that theirs, though subject to the same submitted to its action, you will find influence, were “ always bright and that it is entirely rusted. To the fair." One, that their furniture, the senses it is particularly disagreeable. papering of their rooms, and clothes There is a pungent, acid taste; it is hung out to dry, &c, were immediextremely irritating to the lungs ; it ately discoloured, and presently rotproduces a coughing as soon as it is in- ted; another, that though next-door haled, and a smarting about the eyes. neighbours, no such effects had been In short, it irritates wherever it comes experienced_or, if any had, they were in contact with the mucous membrane. easily referable to other causes. One, You may easily imagine that all this that whereas, before they and their is a source of great annoyance and of families had resided within the sphere loss."
of this pestiferous influence, they had It was impossible to mix in Liver- been healthy, plump, and ruddy, they pool society without hearing com- soon after became, and still were, displaints on all hands- whether well or eased, lean, and sallow; another exill founded-of the injurious effects actly reversed it, and swore that, if here alluded to; and the greatest in- any thing, their health had improved, terest was excited by the trial ; during and they had become fatter and rudthe whole of which, lasting nearly dier since they had come within the three days, the Court was excessively magic circle of Mr Muspratt's influcrowded. Society, in short, took up ence. One scientific chemist demonarms against Mr Muspratt, and you strated, by analysis and experiment, may guess the result. He fought the deleterious properties of the gas; stoutly, however, desperately contest. another, the well known Dr Thomson ing every inch of ground. The pro- from Glasgow, contradicted him. The secutors brought forward a host of one referred all the injurious effects witnesses to support the statement of which had been detailed by the witMr Cresswell ; to prove that their nesses clearly and unequivocally to health had suffered sensibly, grievous. the muriatic acid gas; the other de. ly, in consequence of these hated nied it, and accounted for them by “works ;” and their property, of al. reference to the agency of simple atmost every description, had been also mospheric air and carbonic acid gas. injured thereby to a very great extent. Forty witnesses were called for the Pawnbrokers said this abominable gas prosecution, and forty-tive for the deplayed the mischief with their various fendant. It took two whole days to deposits ; nurserymen and gardeners, collect this enormous heap of contrathat it utterly blighted their fruit, dictory evidence; and on the morning flowers, shrubs, vegetables, and trees; of the third, Mr Justice Coleridge dyers, that it discharged all their summed up the whole to the jury colours, and frustrated and confounded with great judgment and perspicaall their doings; cow-keepers, that city. I do not think that either their cattle languished and died—both party could have gathered from his their grass and their water being address to which side his opinion incontaminated by this execrable gas. clined, so nearly did he hold the There was, in short, a “ whole army" scale. The jury-a special one-reof sufferers, if not of martyrs. What tired, and after an absence of two a singular conflict of testimony there hours and a half, returned into Court was, to be sure! One class of wit with a verdict of GUILTY ; the con
* Nay, a Dr Pip-or some such name—from London, came down specially for the purpose of proving to such of the gude folk of Liverpool as chose to pay a shilling for it ('tis an ill wind that blows nobody good) that muriatic acid gas, so far from being a noxious agent, was an infinitely salutary one, corrective of disease, promotive of health! Nay, positively-I saw it in his handbills--that it was, besides, or might be made (I forget which) a powerful agent in the abolition of negro slavery!!! Whether or not this philosopher came down ex moris motu, or at the instance of Mr Muspratt, I know not. I saw him in Court, ostentatiously taking notes of the evidence; but he was not called upon for his own.
sequence of which has been, and will of excuses and explanations. Havbe most serious to the defendant, who ing heard a good deal of the beaumust now give up his expensive works, tiful and affecting service at the Church and either pull them down, or convert for the Blind, I determined to attend them, if possible, to other purposes. the morning service there. I shall This seems, however, but fair and not soon forget it. As I entered-havreasonable ; for why should one citi. ing first deposited a trifle in the plate zen benefit and enrich himself at the at the door for the asylum-sweet expense of his fellow.citizens, their voices, blended with the organ, were comforts, property, and health ? My chanting the Psalms; and through picown judgment, or that of an impartial tured and stained windows fell a “dim listener, was satisfied that the case religious light.” The window over was made out against the defendant. the altar had a large painting of Christ
The case was exceedingly interesting, rising from the dead; near it was anand repaid the attention with which I other-most appropriate of Christ had listened to it. It commenced on healing the blind. My feelings were Thursday, and terminated on Satur. completely subdued by the scene. I day, April 7, and as soon as I had have reasons for feeling peculiar symheard the verdict I quitted the Court, pathy towards the blind; and it went to make arrangements for returning to to my heart to hear their melodious town on the ensuing Monday.
voices, clear and soft, engaged with Monday was the day appointed for cheerful energy in devotional service. opening the railroad between London I was particularly struck with the simand Birmingham, all of which had plicity of their style—the distinctness been completed except the middle and precision of their enunciation. thirty miles, which was to be passed There were evidently some superior in omnibusses ; and the question with voices, male and female, among them; us was, whether we should avail our and I turned round to look-the sight selves of that opportunity, or content almost overcame me. The gallery ourselves with the railroad to Bir- over the entrance was devoted to the mingham, and then go on to London blind people and to the organ; and, by coach. The latter was the course standing in a row, along the front of it, we determined upon adopting, for there were about fifteen or eighteen women were divers objections to the other, of various ages, neatly and uniformly both speculative and practical; and we dressed--behind being the men, sevetherefore took our places for Monday ral of whom were grey-headed—the morning at half-past six, paying down shape and appearance of their eyes too on account L.3. Most of our brethren plainly indicating the grievous behad either preceded us, or dispersed reavement they had suffered. They to various sessions, which I had made were all singing-poor souls!— with up my mind not to attend. I had pro- the utmost energy, as if their hearts mised to dine with some relatives at joined in the act. I could not restrain Chester on the Sunday, purposing to my feelings, which were painfully exset off by the eight o'clock steam-boat, cited. As 1, from time to time, glanced and return, of course, in the even at the touching spectacle they affording. Would you believe it?_my usual ed, and listened to their thrilling voices, luck attended me, most excellent and I could not help thinking of old Hoexperienced traveller that I was ! for mer's simple and beaůtiful description when I got down to the quay, I had the of the blind Demodocus:satisfaction of seeing the steam-boat - Tóraser Mowa''spíanos, didou 8 ayatov hissing away nearly a mile off, having started precisely at eight, and I reach
Ti xaxóy TE, ing the water-side about five minutes after eight. There was no other boat
coldnv.* starting till half past eleven, so I gave But, dear Christopher, you are famiit up, and was obliged to write a letter liar with the whole of the beautiful
• For want of a better (Pope's not being at hand), the ladies will accept the following literal version :
Him the Muse loved, and gave both good and ill ;
passage*_recollecting the tears shed wind blowing fiercely in our faces all by the simple-hearted warrior, as he the way we went, and the sun shining listened to the song of the blind bard, -- which had been rather a rarity du. and endeavoured, hiding his head in ring our stay at Liverpool, the weather his mantle, to conceal his emotions having been wretched beyond descripfrom the beholders. So, indeed, after tion-an almost constant succession of a sort, was it with me. My feelings rain, sleet, snow, hail, fog, windwere differently excited, however, cutting north-easterly winds, such as when, between the prayers and the gave almost all of our brethren and sermon, the anthem was sung by two of ourselves rathersevere colds. We dined the blind, a gray-haired man and the at six. Q. lay down on the sofa, tired chief of the female singers. Imagine with his walk; I went out to do what the feelings with which I listened to I am in the habit of doing whenever these fearful and sublime words from I spend a Sunday at a strange placethe Revelations, sung with admirable namely, go to the various places of effect, both chastely and powerfully, worship, and see-I trust with a cusometimes both singing together, at riosity not entirely unjustifiable or others alternately :
irreverent-the mode in which differ“ I was in the Spirit on the Lord's ent sects of Christians carry on public day, and heard behind me a great worship. You know,dear Christopher, voice, as of a trumpet,
that I am too sincere a Christian in “Saying, I am Alpha and Omega, my heart-detesting, however, fanati. the first and the last.
cism to think of presumptuously “ And I turned to see the voice that attempting to turn any thing into rispake with me; and being turned, dicule, or present it under a droll or I saw one like unto the Son of Man, exaggerated aspect, that is manifestly clothed with a garment down to the the result of sincerity, however errofeet, and girt about the paps with a neous or delusive I may consider it to golden girdle.
be. Yet I fancy it to be perfectly “ His head and his hairs were white warrantable, and not entirely uninlike wool, as white as snow; and his structive, to describe accurately such eyes were as a flame of fire ;
scenes as follow, and to give a faith« And his feet like unto fine brass, ful description even of the painful as if they burned in a furnace; and and monstrous scene which will folhis voice as the sound of many waters; low last. The result in my mind of and his countenance was as the sun much enquiry, and experience, and obsbineth in his strength.
servation through life, has been to fill “ And when I saw him, I fell at me with thankfulness for the existhis feet as dead. And he laid his ence of such an establishment as the right hand upon me, saying unto me, Church of England, of which I am, Fear not, I am the first and the last; and may I die, a member.
“I am he that liveth, and was dead; A little way down Mount Pleasant, on and behold, I am alive forever. the right-hand side, was a good-sized more.” |
building, which I found to be a WesIt may be questionable whether this leyan Methodist chapel. It was crowdsublime passage be calculated for mu- ed even to the door; for it seemed that sic, at least for any one's music but one of their favourite preachers—a that of the glorious Handel; my in Mr Newton-was preaching “ a mistense interest in the anthem was de- sionary sermon," i.e. a sermon in aid rived, not from the character of the of a society for sending out missionamusic, but from the feelings excited ries to the heathen in foreign counby the occasion—the scene, the place, tries. With some difficulty I got in. the singers-above all, the awe-inspir- to the gallery, which was perfectly ing nature of the words themselves. stuffed with people--scarce an inch I shall not soon forget that Sunday even of standing-room to be had. I morning.
had a pretty good view of the preachQ. and I took a very long walk er, who, in his plain clothes, stood in immediately afterwards, along the sea the pulpit, using abundant gesticulashore-say seven or eight miles, the tion and emphasis, turning fully
* 'odvor, o, 63-96.
† Rev, i, 10-18.