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A BIBLICAL AND THEOLOGICAL
EXPLANATORY OF THE
HISTORY, MANNERS, AND CUSTOMS OF THE JEWS,
AND NEIGHBOURING NATIONS
WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE MOST REMARKABLE PLACES AND PERSONS
AND NOTICES OF JEWISH AND CHRISTIAN SECTS AND HERESIES.
BY RICHARD WATSON.
(REVISED BY THE AMERICAN EDITORS.)
ΔΙΜΗΝ έςιν ακύμαντος, και τείχος αρραγές, και σύργος ασεισος, και δόξα αναφαίρετος, και ο πλα
άτρωτα, και ευθυμία αμάραντος, και ηδονή διηνεκής, και πάντα οσα αν ειποι τις καλά, των θείων γραφών και συνεσία.--CHRYSOSTOM.
(An intimate acquaintance with the Holy Scriptures is a secure haven, and an impregnable bulwark,
and an immovable tower, and imperishable glory, and impenetrable armour, and unfading joy, and per petual delight, and whatever other excellence can be uttered.)
PUBLISHED BY B. WAUGH AND T. MASON,
OFFICE, 14 CROSBY-STREET.
J. Collord, Printer.
“ Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1832, by B. Waugh and T. Mason, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Southern District of New York."
PREFACE BY THE AUTHOR.
in the following Dictionary, compiled from the best sources ancient and modern, with the addition of many original articles, the selections have been made with reference to what was thought most useful; and thus many things of minor importance, usually found in similar works, have been excluded. Every article too, taken from preceding Dictionaries, has been carefully weighed, and in a great number of instances modified, corrected, or enlarged; and numerous other writings variously illustrative of the Holy Scriptures have been made to contribute a portion of their information under different heads. This general acknowledgment renders a particular reference to the works made use of unnecessary. The fact is, that many of the most valuable of them are compilations from preceding compilations, and so have no title to be referred to as original authorities ; while in other instances the articles in this Dictionary have been collected from several sources, and so altered, or combined with original corrections or enlargements, that it would be difficult to assign each portion to its proper original. Where, however, any particulars of fact or history required confirmation, the authority has been given.
It will be observed that all the places and persons mentioned in the Bible have not been noticed, for this would only have made the same unprofitable display of proper names which is seen in several other Dictionaries ; but those have been selected on which any thing important for the right understanding of the Scriptures seemed, more or less, to depend. The same rule has been observed as to the natural history of the Bible, on which department great light has been thrown by Dr. Harris, whose learned work has been rather freely used. The leading sects and heresies, ancient and modern, have also been introduced; but with no design to embody a complete account of religious opinions : those only, therefore, have been inserted with which it is most necessary that the theological student should have a general acquaintance.
All that is important in those useful modern works which have been published upon the manners and customs of the east will be found embodied under different heads so far as it tends to elucidate the sacred volume ; and many interesting extracts are given from the most intelligent of our modern travellers in Palestine, and neighbouring countries, pointing out the prescz.t condition of places celebrated in sacred geography, and especially when the account illustrates and rendere remarkable the fulfilment of prophecy.
At the close of the whole, a complete alphabetical list of proper names occurring in the Bible, with their significations and right pronunciation, is appended.
LONDON, August 20, 1831.