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wider; the hills form more extensive swells; there are no hedges or divisions ; and the trees are either collected in clumps and masses, round the villages, or form large woods and forests that sweep over hills and dales, and sometimes shade the whole hori. zon with a dark border The roads are generally lined either with fruit trees, or lofty elms, sometimes in double and triple rows. These rows, however, as there are no fences, do not obstruct the view; and the eye may generally range over an immense tract of plains and hills, of wood and tillage, and' not unfrequently expatiate over an ocean of corn waving for miles around without interruption, and presenting no other variety than the tints which its own motion and the passing clouds cast over it. Cultivation, if we except the neighb urhood of Paris, seems to have been carried on every where with the utmost vigor; and not a spot of earth appears to have escaped the vigilance and the industry of the husbandman.* Roads wide, straight, generally paved in the middle, and always excellent, intersect this scene of fertility, and conduct the traveller from post to post with ease and rapidity. p. 4, 5.
So far the picture is pleasing: but its colors will lose much of their brilliancy when I inform you, that the villages and towns are crowded with beggars, and that whenever you stop, your carriage is instantly surrounded with a groupe of objects the most miserable and disgusting. In a country where the poor and distressed are abandoned to the charity of individuals, the number of niendicants must be greater than in one where public provision is made for the suffering class : this is true; yet the number, who in France fall under that denomination, seems to me far beyond the usual proportion, especially as idleness in a country so well cultivated, can scarcely be the cause of such poverty; nor is it a mere pretence employed to extort donations, as the haggard looks, the nakedness, and oftentimes the ulcers and the deformities of the claimants too clearly prove its reality. In truth, there is great poverty in France; and however fertile the soil, a very small portion of its produce seems to fall to the lot of the common people.' p.6, 7.
Mr. Eustace adds, that besides this poverty, there is also a great appearance of depopulation, which is especially evidenced by the ruinous state of most of the towns. The operations of agriculture are carried ou by old men, women, and children; (there are supposed to be twelve women to one effective man!!) and few, indeed, he adds, of any other description, are to be seen, either in the fields, on the roads, or in public places.
* "I speak here not of the real but of the apparent cultivation. I suspect that our English farmers would discover much bad husbandry; the breed of cattle, of sheep, of swine, is most strikingly bad : and the quantity of stock very small indeed. An observation which, however, I do not mean to extend beyond the country between Calais a: d Paris.' Eustace's Letter, p. 5, Note.
· These exertions, premature in boys, and misplaced in women, must not only check the growth of the rising generation, but eventually degrade the sex, whose virtues are principally domestic, and whose charms shed their best influence around the fire-side, and give to home all its attractions. Add to this evil, another of equal magnitude ; employment of children in their infancy, by calling them away from home, withdraws them from the control, and deprives them of the instructions and the example of their mothers, instructions and example of all others the most important, because to them the infant owes the first ideas of decency, the first emotions of piety, the sentiments and the manners that raise the citizen above the savage, the Christian above the barbarian. To deprive children, therefore, of this early tuition, and to let them loose unrestrained in the fields, is to abandon them to the innate corruption of their own hearts, and to fit them beforehand for guilt and profligacy. Accordingly, vice and ferocity seem imprinted on the countenances of many of the rising generation; and have effaced those features of joy and good humour, and that merry grimace, which was supposed to characterize even the infants of ancient France.' p. 8, 9.
We refer our readers to the pamphlet itself for a description of Paris, given with Mr. Eustace's usual felicity of pencil, and conveying, by minute discriminating touches, the evident likeness of what lie depicts. Above forty pages are occupied with architectural observations on the public edifices and recent improvements in the capital. But I have dwelt, perhaps,
too long,' he says on the material part of Paris--you are impatient to hear something about the manner and character
of the modern Parisians. The following description of what they once were, will be recognised as nicely accurate.
• Has the Revolution altered their ancient habits, or are they still the same good-humoured and lively people, proud of themselves, and indulgent to others, content with the amusement of the day, with little foresight or retrospect, polite and attentive, always desirous to please, and not unfrequently very pleasing ?--Alas! no my friendso many deeds of blood, so many scenes of misery, so many years of military oppression, and such a familiarity with injustice and slaughter, must be supposed not only to have checked the native sprightliness of the race, but to have instilled into it a considerable portion of gloom and ferocity.' p. 60, 61.
In assigning the causes of this deterioration of character, he remarks,
Now what was the spirit of the French army under Napoleon ; a spirit of atheism and vice almost incredible. The French soldier was taught to adore his emperor and to obey his officers, and this was his only creed, his only daty: beyond this he was abandoned to his own discretion, that is to his passions and to his ignorance ; and encouraged to give every appetite its full play. Hence those scenes of rapine, lust, and cruelty, exhibited in Spain and Portugal, and all the accumulated woes of unhappy Germany. I shall be told without doubt by the panegyrists of Napoleon, that soldiers of all nations are disorderly and vicious, and that the British army itself has left some memorials of its lawless spirit at Bajadoz and St. Sebastian. But if armies, formed of individuals, whose minds, in general at least, hare been seasoned by christian instruction, and whose consciences, however denled, are yet alive to the distinction between right and wrong, and awake to the pangs of remorse, and the terrors of divine vengeance; if armies acting under officers of principle, honour, and humanity, and kept in constant check, not only by the authority of their superiors, but by the more powerful influence of the opinion and the estimation of their Christian countrymen, are yet so depraved and so mischievous, so apt to indulge foul passions, and to perpetrate deeds of cruelty, what must an army bę, when free from all these wholesome restraints, when ignorant and regardless of virtue and of vice, without fear of God, without respect for themselves or their fellow-creatures, without one thought or one wish beyond the moment, and scoffing alike at the hopes and the terrors of immortality.' p. 64, 65.
Such an army is a confederacy of banditti, a legion of demons, let loose upon the creation to disfigure and to destroy its beauties. Now, into this school of wickedness every youth in France was compelled to enter; and it is easy to imagine the deep, the indelible impression which the blasphemies, and the crimes of so many thousand fiends, must make upon the minds of boys of seventeen.' p. 65, 66.
We must make room for two more extracts. The first suggests many important reflections, in which we have not room to indulge. Mr. Eustace's usual accuracy leaves us little occasion to harbour any doubts in regard to the circumstances which he advances as facts.
It lias been stated by some of the newspapers in England, that Protestantism has made considerable progress in France, and that Protestant churches are common both in Paris and in the country towns This statement is inaccurate. In Paris there are oply three Protestant temples, for so they are called, and those are of no magnitude, nor can their congregations be numerous. In the northern provinces there are no Protestants; and even in the two southern provinces, where they were formerly most numerous, they do not, I believe, increase. The truth is, that the only religious contest now carried on in France, is not between Catholics and Protestants but between Christians and unbelievers. The Catholic religion has a peculiar hold upon the feelings of a Frenchman; it is interwoven with the whole history of the nation; it combines its influence with the glory of the French arms, with the charins of French literature, with the fame of French heroes, and with the virtues of French worthies. If a Frenchman is a Christian he must naturally be a Catholic; he considers the two appellations as synonimous, and
takes or rejects the system on the whole and without distinction.»
The other passage that we shall quote, closes a train of reflections upon the French Revolution, which took place, says Mr. Eustace, “in a country where there was no public virtue, and no public opinion.'
'What has been the result of this tremendous revolution ? what have been its benefits? has it improved the literature of France ? has it produced one single historian, one poet, one sound philosopher ? No: literature is on the decline; its utility is disputed; the dry sciences have usurped its place ; and the language itself tends to barbarism. Has it improved even military tactics? No: the art of war consists in carrying a post, or gaining a battle with the least possible bloodshed. Was this the art of the French generals, and above all, of Napoleon? They gained their end by, numbers, by bloody sacrifices, by a prodigality of carnage. Has it ameliorated the manners, and improved the principles of the nation ? No; it corrupted their morals, and perverted their principles ; had it lasted one generation more, France would have been inhabited by monsters, and Europe would have been compelled to wage against it a war of extermination. What then has it produced? It has deluged Europe with blood, and covered France with ruins and with graves.' p. 95, 96.
Art. IX. A Course of Lectures ; containing a Description and sys
tematic Arrangement of the several Branches of Divinity: accompanied with an Account both of the principal Authors, and of the Progress which has been made at different Periods, in Theological Learning. By Herbert Marsh, D.D. F.R.S. Margaret Professor of Divinity. Part III. On the Interpretation of the Bible. pp. 121. Price 3s. Deightons, Cambridge. Rivingtons, London.
1813. COMMUNICATIONS of a literary or theological nature,
from the Margaret Professor, whether they be made viva coce from the divinity chair, or through the medium of the press, are always acceptable to us. His comprehensive knowledge of the subjects of which he treats, the lucid' order in which he arranges thein, and the perspicuity of his language, recommend him as a writer; dignified manner, and clear and forcible enunciation, distinguish him as a speaker. For his labours in the department of Biblical Criticism he is entitled to our thanks. We wish him health and leisure to accomplish the objects of his professional studies; and shall be happy to accompany him into any of the walks of Biblical literature into which he may conduct us.
In this portion of the lectures, which relates to the interpretation of the Bible, many remarks will be found worthy
the attention of every student for the ministry in every class of professing Christians. An acquaintance with the principles of sacred Criticism, and the knowledge of the rules of Biblical Interpretation, are primary considerations with every man who fills the office of Expositor of the word of God.
It is the combination of genuine learning with true piety, which. makes the “ workman that needeth not to be ashamed.”
As Criticism and Interpretation are not unfrequently confounded, the Author commences his thirteenth lecture, by explaining the relation which the latter bears to the former. The object of Biblical Criticism, he justly remarks, is to ascertain what an author actually wrote--the words which came from his pen : the object of Interpretation, to ascertain the author's meaning—the import of his words. Before a writer, or a speaker, attempts the exposition of a Book, he should obtain a correct copy of it ;--every comment ought to be founded on a genuine text. The Criticism of the Bible must therefore precede the Interpretation of the Bible.
To every Christian-to all who believe the Scriptures to be the word of God, it must surely appear important to possess the sacred writings in the greatest attainable purity. The only way in wbich we could possess the rery reords of the original writers, would be, either by having the Autographs,the different books in the very hand-writing of their respective *Authors, or a copy of those books exactly resembling the originals. The Autographs have perished ; --no book of the Bible is preserved in the band-writing of its author; nor does any copy exist which is an exact transcript from an Autograph. Should any person suppose that the New Testament has remained invariably the same through seventeen centuries, and has been conveyed to us in its pristine purity, his error may easily be corrected, if he will use liis reflection on indisputable facts. The supposition is correct, as it regards the doctrines and the precepts of Scripture, and as it relates to the Books of Scripture in the main; but incorrect in respect of the words of Scripture. Many persons, it should seem, have never put to themselves the following very obvious questions. Since the art of printing was not invented before the middle of the fifteenth century, in what form did the Scriptures exist previously to that invention ?--and when they were first printed, in what wanner did the first editors proceed in committing them to the press ? The first part of the question, is answered by the fact, that the Scriptures existed in a written form, on parchment and paper, nearly fourteen hundred years; and as new copies were wanted, to supply the loss and waste of old ones, and to answer the demand of those who wished to procure them, they were written out from