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blunders, which I have noted in my own proofs, and I confess it is something like a disappointment that the proofs one receives from 'N. & Q.'supply so scant à measure of this little amusement! So far as my experience goes the reader is exceptionally good there, but it is fair to writers to remark that many bulls and blunders that we make merry over in MR. RANDALL's article would probably be noticed by the writer when correcting the proof. For my own part, I write amid constant interruptions. I begin a sentence in one way one day, and when, after an interruption, I take it up some other day the result is likely to be a disjointed performance. This doubtless happens to most people, and when the dislocation appears in type the deformity probably makes itself apparent. But proofs also have to be corrected amid interruptions; and therefore I for one always feel most grateful for any marks of the reader which call attention when one makes a slip through whatever cause.

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In the Great Exhibition held in Dublin in 1871-on the Council, Fine-Art Selection and Hanging Committees of which I had the honour to be a miniature, painted on ivory, of Miss St. Leger was exhibited, also her diploma (or whatever the document is called), her apron, and some other relics. The miniature represents a person of middle age, of a firm and somewhat stern countenance. In his 'Romance of the Aristocracy' Sir Bernard Burke gives a full history of the whole occurrence, which has repeatedly been in print. It was said she never married.


Perhaps, on the other hand, we have a little right to complain of being sometimes too much bound down by hard and fast printers' rules. I confess that sometimes these are salutary, and emphasizing must not be allowed to run riot. But it is also a dangerous tyranny to crush out all individuality of style and orthography. Too much italic, too many small caps, the too frequent introduction of (what Germans by a happy verbum desideratum call a) Gedankenstrick, no doubt spoil the appearance of a page of calm English; but no one writes impressively but those who feel strongly, and those who feel strongly must be allowed some latitude in individualTHE CURTSEY (7th S. ix. 343, 451).—Board izing their writing. Here are just three instances. schools are not the only schools in which manners 1. When I am speaking of Leonardo da Vinci, no are neglected. There are plenty of "academies" one forces me to call him Leonard; why is my writ- and other "educational establishments" of a more ing of Raffaelle or Raffaello always uglified into pretentious sort of which the same complaint Raphael? 2. Why is my writing of the word might be made. The only school in which I can "rime" always altered into "rhyme"? 3. I have remember being taught to bow upon entering or an idea that in many cases a qualificative hyphened leaving was a village dame's school, kept by one on to a noun gives quite a different tone of Pleasant Allen. The curriculum there was of the thought from that conveyed by the same two simplest kind. It consisted of the Church Catewords used apart; e. g., I lately wrote "exquisitely-chism, the alphabet and easy spelling, "pot-hooks" " This last-the unworded," but my hyphen was not allowed to ap(on a slate), and "unpicking." pear. I hope I am not breaking confidence in ravelling of worsted stuffs afterwards used by the venturing to quote from the sonnet for the Bea- dame in the making of patchwork cushions, by trice celebration, with which I have been entrusted the sale of which she eked out her living-occupied While we boys "unpicked," by Sir Theodore Martin. I find that he uses the most of our time. byphen-word "maiden-modest " as a qualificative, the bigger girls would sew the patchwork covers. a most happy coinage in the place where it occurs. taught deportment, and I believe my "first firstIf we learnt little else, however, we were at least Had this been written for printing and the hyphen love" was excited by the beautiful curtseys of little crushed out, I venture to think it would have Annie Allen, a granddaughter of the dame's. greatly damaged the line. Such curtseys are rarely seen nowadays, but I have seen them occasionally within the last few C. C. B.


Among names very commonly misspelt might have been reckoned those of two eminent divines, Archbishop Whately and Dean McNeile. The printer of a recent historical tale, to the extreme disgust of the author, made a character say (in 1557), "What you told us not to." A certain


BETULA, THE BIRCH (7th S. ix. 328).-Enμúda seems generally to be taken for the birch, but Liddell and Scott quote Theophrastus, and say

supposed to be the birch tree. Of "Betulla" Facciolati gives no derivation, but quotes Pliny, i. 16, c. 18, "Arbor Gallica lentissima mirabili candore, atque tenuitate: ex quâ olim Consulares fasces plerumque fiebant." Vossius fancies it to be from the British bedu. Quayle says it is from the Celtic bertha; but Wachter is best, that it comes from Germ. wit, white, and so is albula, mirabilis candoris. Martinius, in his 'Lexicon,' quotes Rembertus Dodonceus, who supports the derivation from batuendo, running to batula and betula, from the use of this word for the fasces when the Romans had conquered Gaul.



The derivation quoted by your correspondent appears in Francis Holyoke's Latin Dictionary,' 1640, with this addition: "Nam ex ea fasces conficiebant qui magistratibus solebant præferri." Adam Littleton's Latin Dictionary,' 1678, has the same derivation, and also the quotation from Pliny, after which is added: "Ergo vel est vox linguæ veteris Celticæ, quæ eadem fere erat cum Britannicâ, ut sit a Bedu facta formâ dimin. Camd.," &c. May not the derivation from bedw be correct? F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY.

Catafago ('Arab. Dict.') gives batālā, the birch.

TROYLLESBASTON (7th S. ix. 489).-Simply a
misprint for trayllebaston. Let me quote:-
"Trailbaston, a law term (F.-L.). Anglo-F. trayl-
bastoun, a term applied to certain lawless men. It
meant trail-stick or 'stick-carryer.' Fully explained
in Wright's Political Songs,' p. 383; but constantly
misinterpreted. The justices of traylbaston were ap-
pointed by Edw. I. to try them. From trail, verb; and
O.F. baston, a stick. See Trail and Balon."-Concise
Dictionary of English Etymology,' by W. W. Skeat.
Fuller information is given in my larger 'Dic-
tionary,' second edition, at pp. 654 and 831.

It is weary work to explain a thing for the third time to those who do not know where to look for information. WALTER W. SKEAT.

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COUPLET FROM POPE (7th S. ix. 448).-The title of Lord Carlisle's work is "Two Lectures on 'The Poetry of Pope' and on his own "Travels in America.' Delivered to the Leeds Mechanics' Institution and Literary Society, December 5th and 6th, 1850. Leeds, 1851." On p. 18 he says, after quoting the passage describing the death of Villiers, Duke of Buckingham :

"If any should object that this is all very finished and elaborate, but it is very minute-only miniature painting after all-what do you say to this one couplet on the operations of the Deity?—

Builds life on death, on change duration founds,
And gives the eternal wheels to know their rounds,
'Moral Essays,' Epistle iii., On the Use of
Riches,' 167, 168.

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See 'Trailbaston' in 'N. & Q.,' 7th S. iv. 408, I would beg any of the detractors of Pope to furnish me


W. C. B.

with another couple of lines from any author whatever
which encloses so much sublimity of meaning within
such compressed limits and such precise terms.'

GEORGE CRUIKSHANK'S WORKS (7th S. ix. 405). As illustrative of these let me note a book in two quarto volumes in my library, containing [Many similar replies are acknowledged.] 'Landscape - Historical Illustrations of Scotland and the Waverley Novels,' after drawings by TOBACCONIST (7th S. ix. 428).-If CURIOUS had eminent artists, n.d., published by Fisher, Son & given the name of the man he seeks, I might Co., London, Paris, and America. There are also possibly have given him better assistance. Kendal in it thirty-five comic illustrations by George is a very old tobacco-manufacturing town, and at Cruikshank, who seems to have found something the present time contains six factories; a large grotesque or amusing in all the novels, and sub-number for so comparatively unimportant a district. jects for caricature. Perhaps, however, in many of the etchings of this great artist there is something of the caricature to be found. The illustra

Samuel Gawith & Co., Great Aynum, and John E.
Gawith, Lowther Street, are probably the oldest.
They both claim to have been established in 1792,

so probably are both chips from the same block. Communication with either or both might elicit something.

No writing passes nowadays in taking out an ordinary licence. Like one for a dog, you furnish name and address, pay your money, and receive the licence. They were in vogue in 1700, and much earlier; what the practice was then I cannot say. A manufacturing licence is a more important proceeding. It is extremely unlikely, however, that the local Excise Office has preserved any documents of such date.

The man was probably married; and if, which is doubtful, the present practice prevailed of the contracting parties attesting to their union under their own sign-manual, the signature would most readily be met with in the parish register, wherever the ceremony took place, which would very probably be in Kendal. J. J. Š.

SPALDINGHOLME, YORKS. (7th Ș. ix. 427).-The moor around Spaldington, in the East Riding, is called Spalding Moor. Here are several Holmes. We have Hasholme, Holme House, Holme Lodge, and the village of Holme-upon-Spalding-Moor, which is doubtless the "village" of Spaldingholme which your correspondent seeks.


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Sunt bona, sunt quædam mediocria, sunt mala plura, Quæ legis hic; aliter non fit, Avite, liber. 'Epigram,' I. xvi. (xvii.). W. E. BUCKLEY. THE CROWN OF IRELAND (7th S. viii. 467; ix. 72, 176, 257, 356).-MR. MARSHALL 'mends worse," which, being interpreted, means that he is practising somewhat successfully the art of groundshifting. But I cannot congratulate him on his adroitness. MR. MARSHALL'S qualification of his query is also, to use another metaphor, an attempted back door of escape, but it is too narrow to admit of exit, Anybody who knows what an Irish Ard-Righ was, knows that he wielded far more power than Henry VIII., the so styled (33 Hen. VIII.) de jure King of Ireland, whose "effective sway" was bounded by the English Pale, and that both Brian Boru and Roderic O'Conor, to instance two well-known cases, "ruled-not only claimed to rule-over the whole country as supreme king." If "effective sway" be the criterion of a monarch of Ireland, then James I., not Henry VIII., was

the first English sovereign entitled to be so regarded, for it was not till 1603 (at Hugh O'Neill's submission to Mountjoy) that "all Ireland," to use a modern writer's words, "for the first time became subject to English law." That any one of the long line of Irish Ard-Righs was not only de jure, but (what Henry VIII. was not) de facto monarch of Ireland, MR. MARSHALL can see for himself by a careful perusal of either the 'Annals of the Four Masters, D'Arcy McGee, Haverty, or any well-known history of Ireland. J. B. S.


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BEESTON CASTLE (7th S. ix. 407).—Camden simply says that Beeston Castle was built by Ranulph, the last Earl of Chester of that name.' This was in the year 1220, and we are told in the 'Beauties of England and Wales' (1801), s. v. "Cheshire," that

"the particulars reported of the history of this castle are not well authenticated. All that can be depended on is, that it devolved from the Earls of Chester to the Crown, and, after undergoing many vicissitudes, fell into ruins, in which state it was seen by Leland in the reign of Henry VIII. Being afterwards repaired, it partook of the changeable fate experienced by so many fortresses during the Civil Wars.”—Vol. ii. p. 243. Eventually the castle was dismantled "by orders of the Parliament." J. F. MANSERGH. Liverpool.

CHART OR CHARTLAND (7th S. ix. 308, 398).— There is a foot-note in Taylor's 'Words and Places, p. 360 (second edition), which informs the reader that "the word chart is identical with the hart (wood or forest) which we find in such German Forest, Hunhart, Lyndhart, &c.," which word, I names as the Hartz Mountains, the Hercynian think I may venture to say, has nothing to do with chart of the xápvn, xápvms, pedigree. Messrs. Parish and Shaw, in their 'Dictionary of the Kentish Dialect' (E. D. S.), have :

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that I have read this in Bodin's 'Demonomanie.' I know that I have read it somewhere. I may also add that the Indian story of the snake whose skin was destroyed is in Basile's 'Pentamerone'; and a similar story is in Straparola's work. E. YARDLEY.

Apropos to "eating salt," the well-known story of the Duke of Wellington will bear repetition :— "In 1809 [1806] he was sent to Hastings, that he might there busy himself in the discipline, the instruction, and all the minute details of a brigade of infantry. He discharged all the duties incident to his position with the most scrupulous exactitude. One of his friends, astonished at so much self-denial, asked him 'how he, who had commanded armies of 40,000 men in the field, and repeatedly received the thanks of Parliament, could put up with the command of a brigade.' The real fact is,' replied Sir Arthur, 'that I am nim-muk-wallah, as we say in the East, that is, I have eaten the King's salt; on that account I believe it to be my duty to serve without hesitation, zealously and actively, wherever the King and his Government may find it convenient to employ me.'"-Life,' by Gleig, p. 702.

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CLEPHANE (7th S. ix. 229, 358).-Clephane is a family name; they were seated at Carslogie, and it is not topographical. It is probably personal, and to be traced to A.-S. clyppan, "to enclose, to hold, to grasp or seize." It appears that the founder of the race lost a hand, whereupon his feudal monarch steel-hand," ingeniously constructed, supplied a as a substitute. Clyppan, as a nickname, might easily be corrupted to Clephane; indeed, we have the allied form clifian, with the sense of " adhesive." A. HALL.

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METRICAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND (7th S. viii. 88, 158, 238, 317, 398; ix. 218, 358).-Though not suitable for the purpose of giving a child of from seven to eight years of age, according to the wish of N. L. B. (viii. 88), on account of its great length and being devoted to but one reign, it may be interesting to add, "The Reigne of Henry the Second [in verse], written in seaven books. By His Majesties [Charles I.] command. By [Thomas May] 1633," 12mo., portrait by Vaughan. J. CUTHBERT WELCH, F.R.S.

The Brewery, Reading.

GENEALOGICAL (7th S. ix. 427).—The best thing is to buy the little publication Records and Record Hunting,' by Mr. Rye, which gives much

valuable information as to what to search.


JOHN MILTON'S BONES (7th S. ix. 361,396,473).— It may perhaps interest MR. TOWNSHEND to know that I compiled the note on this subject from the original matter, which I came across quite accidentally and independently, and was not aware that Mr. Ashton's book contained anything on the

subject until the article was practically finished, when I took a suggestion from his work in the shape of Leigh Hunt's lines on the lock of hair and Shakespeare's epitaph, which I thought I might do without fear of being accused of plagiarism. Moreover, with the exception of a few introductory remarks, Mr. Ashton's article on the subject is merely a verbatim reprint of Neve's pamphlet and 'Nine Reasons,' &c., which I used C. L. THOMPSON. in the original.

A very curious pamphlet of fifty pages was issued in 1790 by "Philip Neve of Furnival's Inn," entitled :

A Narrative of the Disinterment of Milton's Coffin in the Parish-Church of St. Giles, Cripplegate, on Wednesday, 4th of August 1790; and of the Treatment of the Corpse, during that and the following day. Second Edition, with Additions. [Postscript, pp. 16.] London: Printed for T. & J. Egerton, Whitehall, MDCCXC. The details are almost too disgusting to be reprinted. The pamphlet gives a very minute description of every incident of the discovery and exhibition of the remains "at first for 6d., and afterwards for 3d. and 2d., each person," and the author gives forcible reasons and facts to prove that Milton's body was found, shown, and broken up for relics. He adds:

"In recording a transaction which will strike every liberal mind with horror and disgust, I cannot omit to declare that I have procured those relics, which I possess, only in the hope of bearing part in a pious and honourable restitution of all that has been taken." And this was some of" the hair which Mr. Taylor took from the forehead and carried it home."


"MY FATHER'S AT THE HELM "" (7th S. ix. 449).-Miss Mary Louisa Boyle's poems are not published in book form. She has, however, published the following works :—

The Bridal of Melcha. 1844.

The Forester. A Tale of 1688. 1839.

• The State Prisoner. A Tale of the French Regency. 1837.

Tangled Weft. Two Stories. 1865.

And the biographical catalogues of the pictures at
Longleat and Panshanger, lately published by
Eliot Stock.

Woodland Gossip. Translated from the German. 1864.

THE PRINCESS ELIZABETH STUART (7th S. ix. 444).-What reason has NEWPORT for supposing that a detective was sent down? Did the mysterious stranger announce himself as an emissary of the Home Secretary? And may he not have been the dishonest agent of a dishonest dealer in curiosities? A. H. CHRISTIE.

IRONMONGER (7th S. ix. 346, 418).—This word is of very much greater age than the citations given would suggest. In the Gloucester eyre of 1221 mention is made of "Walterus Ironmangere”

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demned to wear black dresses under "the burning sun of Syria," to use the opening words of 'Ivanhoe's' sister romance 'The Talisman.' In the same

(Pleas of Crown, Gloucester, 1221,' Plea No. 21, ed. Prof. Maitland, 1884). GEO. NEILSON. It is perfectly clear that there was an Iron-edition, vol. ii. p. 71, "Some hilding fellow" is mongers and a Grocers' corporation, for the arms of both will be found in Burton's Historical Remarques,' published 1691. The former was incorporated in Edward IV.'s time, the latter in Edward III.'s reign. The Company of Apothecaries was incorporated in King James I.'s reign. From a marginal note, Pepperers were first so called in 1345. ALFRED CHAS. JONAS. Swansea.

SILVER BOX (7th S. ix. 328).-I have one similar, without the inlaid garter. Mine came through the Lane family (Jane Lane, who helped King Chrrles to escape to Bristol), probably a present from the Stuarts. I have also other J. C. presents in acknowledgment.

THE LUDDITES (7th S. ix. 485).-See The Risings of the Luddites, Chartists, and Plugdrawers,' by Frank Peel, second edition, 12mo., Heckmondwike, Senior & Co., 1888, pp. 354. The author has collected a large amount of information from people on the spot who remembered the Luddites, and in some cases had stood in their ranks. All interested in the subject should possess the little volume. The Luddites are referred to in the 'Rejected Addresses' (1812, p. 3):

Who makes the quartern loaf and Luddites rise?
Who fills the butchers' shops with large blue flies?
J. T. F.
Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham.

English and Italian PronuNCIATION (7th S. vii. 487; viii. 92).—The remarks on the English and Italian languages that are made by Howell in his 'Familiar Letters,' ed. 1650, may be considered worthy of being added to those previously noted. He writes:

"Translations are but as turn-coated things at best, specially among languages that have advantages one of the other, as the Italian hath of the English, which may be said to differ one from the other as silk doth from cloth, the common wear of both countries where they are spoken: And as cloth is the more substantiall, so the English toung, by reason 'tis so knotted with consonants, is the stronger, and the more sinewy of the two; But silk is more smooth and slik, and so is the Italian toung compar'd to the English."-Vol. iii. p. 33.

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same edition, vol. ii. p. 333, Bunce is made to say, printed some hiding fellow." In The Pirate,' 66 Captain Cleveland is in love-Yes-Prince Volscius is in love; and, though that's the cure for laughing on the stage, it is no laughing matter here." "Cure" is, of course, a misprint for cue. In Woodstock,' in the same edition, vol. ii. p. 373, Scott is made to say, "Cromwell, accustomed to such arts of enthusiasm among his followers." Of course "arts of enthusiasm" should be "starts of enthusiasm."

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In the cheap edition of Kingsley's 'Alton Locke,' lately published, in a quotation from Shelley in chap. xxxii., "Saxon Alfred's olive-cinctured brow" appears as Saxon Alfred's olive-tinctured brow," scarcely an appropriate epithet for the yellow-haired blue-eyed Saxon"!

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In the little "Canterbury Poets" edition of
Keats, 1886, the lines in the Ode to Psyche,'
Their lips touched not, but had not bade adieu,
As if disjoined by soft-handed slumber,


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appears as,

And while his heart responsive wrung. In both my one-volume editions of Scott's 'Poems,' 1852 and 1857, the line is correctly printed. Ohe! jam satis est. JONATHAN BOUCHIER.

A quaint error occurs in the fourth edition of Brewer's 'Reader's Handbook of Allusions,' which has not been noticed before. Don John (s. v.) is said to be brother of Leonato, Governor of Messina; whereas he is, of course, bastard brother to Don Pedro, Prince of Arragon ('Much Ado').

J. A. J.

In the edition of Mr. Davenport Adams's 'Dictionary of English Literature' which I possess (no date on title-page, but issued in parts in 1879-80) there is a far more serious error than those already mentioned in 'N. & Q.' The article "AntiJacobin" confuses the celebrated short-lived weekly with its monthly successor the AntiJacobin Review, which lasted for more than twenty years. The contributions of Hookham Frere and Canning are said to have appeared in the latter instead of in the former.

Another unfortunate error occurs in the notice

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