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The singing thrush as well as the lapwing has three well-known names, all of which are found in the Poet Laureate's poems:

When rosy plumelets tuft the larch,
And rarely pipes the mounted thrush.

'In Memoriam,' st. xci.
Sometimes the throstle whistled strong.
'Sir Launcelot and Queen Guinevere, a Fragment.'
Her song the lintwhite swelleth,
The clear-voiced mavis dwelleth.



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CITY LIGHTED WITH OIL (7th S. ix. 208, 296).— Wimbledon, a town with a population of more than twenty-five thousand, has for some years brilliant, but oil lamps cost less than gas; so until been lighted with oil. The illumination is not we can emerge into the full glare of the electric light, we shall probably continue to make darkness visible with oil. GEO. L. APPERSON. Wimbledon.

ENGLANDIC ENGLISH SPEAKING (7th S. ix. 425).-The Hon. J. Russell Lowell, when he was minister in England, and myself propagated the term "English speaking," which has been accepted and adopted by statesmen everywhere as expressing what it is intended to express. The suggestion for an alteration must have arisen under a mis

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impression, and "Englandic" does not meet the At the time referred to necessity of the case. "Anglo-Saxon race," which has now dropped out of use, was the term adopted. It was not accepted even by the Lowlanders, who have so much of the Anglo-Saxon inheritance, nor by the Highlanders, neither by Welsh nor Irish. Even in North America the term had its opponents. The St. George's societies of the United States and Canada had formed a union for joint action, and with the hope of bringing about co-operation with the St. Here, in Suffolk, the word mavis is in common Andrew's and St. David's societies, and, so far as The lapwing in North Yorkshire is called possible, with the Irish, but the Irish are generalso terfit and tewit. I have never heard it there ally divided into two societies. I was the correcalled plover. F. C. BIRKBECK TERRY. sponding secretary of the union here, and we In Dumfriesshire we sometimes call it the pees-formed a St. George's Society in London, for which We have not yet weep, sometimes the teewheet. I miss this last we got considerable support. variant in Jamieson's 'Dictionary,' which, however, acquired the desired influence, but we have done gives teewhoap as the form used in Orkney, and some very important work in promoting common tuguheit and teughit in other parts of the country. nationality. By the adoption of the term EngIn the Middle Ages the finely modulated, long-lish speaking" we acknowledge all in these islands drawn-out cry of the bird was interpreted into the and the United States, and we do not infringe word thevisnek ( Book of the Howlat' and 'Com- individual nationalities, neither do we accord a plaint of Scotland'). One might, therefore, fancy superiority to any one. We accept all of every that it must often have carried dismay to Border race-white, black, brown, the negroes of the hearts. Christie's Will, in Scott's ballad, was States, the Indians of Canada, the Republic of Liberia, the Raj of Labuan, the Kingdom of Hawaii. The idea has met with great approval among the native - born Australians, who are framing a nationality. We hope to bring in a large body from the growing number of the English speaking in Hindustan. I emphasized the idea by providing the now accepted formula of "the hundred millions of English speaking men." After the census of 1890 and 1891 this will probably reach one hundred and twenty millions, and possibly more. Thus a great confederation is shadowed out, of which the English language is the acknowledged tie, but which in reality pro

not without his emotions:

And as he pass'd the gallow-stane

He cross'd his brow and he bent his knee.
The peesweep quite likely gave him a bad turn too.


KINLIKE (7th S. ix. 444).-MR. WALFORD appears to take it, and plainly the quoted advertiser did, that this word must mean the same as kindred" used as an adjective. If so, one might ask, What is the use of it? But it can hardly be so. "Gout and kinlike affections 39 must mean 66 gout and affections which are like those akin to gout";

vides for a community of literature, religion, laws, and free institutions. To Mr. Lowell much gratitude is due for what he has done in this cause, and more particularly to Sir C. W. Dilke, whose labours for Greater Britain and Greatest Britain have had the widest influence. There may be a better term than "English speaking," and when found it can be applied, but " Englandic" will not effect the same purposes. It may be observed that though the French are making great efforts by the Alliance Française to maintain and introduce their language and to push out ours, there is no organization for the promotion of English. The St. George's societies have chiefly benevolent objects in North America, though the Sons of St. George are political. HYDE CLARKE.

HESIOD (7th S. ix. 268).-There were above thirty editions of Hesiod prior to 1737, in which year Thomas Robinson published his magnificent edition at Oxford, in which the number of fragments is stated to have been augmented, so that they had been gradually collected by some of the previous editors. All subsequent editions, except those for schools, contain them. A tripod was a common prize. Two are mentioned by Homer in Iliad,' xxiii., as given by Achilles at the games in honour of Patroclus-one for the chariot race

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(at v. 264), another for wrestling (v. 702). It can hardly, therefore, be regarded as symbolical, suggested in the query. W. E. BUCKLEY. The copy of Hesiod which I have is an early one of Dindorf's recension, with the fragments. Of these Göller, in a note on Thucydides (vol. ii. p. 295) notices a fragment which is not in this collection: "Vide Hesiodum apud Diodorum iv. 85. Hesiodi fragmentum non extat in collectione Dindorfiana-Hoíodos de & TONTÈS Dηoi Tovναντίον ἀναπεπταμένου τοῦ πελάγου Ωριώνα προσχῶσαι τὸ κατὰ τὴν Πελωριάδα κείμενον aкρwτýρLOV, K.T.A." This is probably in the new collections of fragments since then. But it is at least a supplement to that of Dindorf.


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EXECUTION OF CHARLES I. (7th S. ix. 446).– It is questionable if anything of importance can be added to what has already appeared elsewhere on the subject. Yet I should like to put on record in 'N. & Q.' one or two things connected with the matter which I do not think have before been noticed. In Burton's ' Historical Remarques of London,' published 1691, to which I have before now had occasion to refer, there is an engraving of the "Trial of the L. Strafford in W. Hall" and of his execution on Tower Hill. To the latter, of course, I particularly now refer, as Strafford is represented lying at his full length on the scaffold, with his head resting apparently on a piece of wood a few inches in height. This surely gives a

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clue to the actual position on the scaffold of those about to be executed in 1641. In 1649 Charles was beheaded, and it is not likely any great change in the method of decapitation took place between the two periods. In Sir Richard Baker's Chronicle of the Kings of England,' published 1674, only twenty-six years after Charles's death, it is stated the king when on the scaffold asked Col. Hacker if it (the block) could not be higher. Now if it was a block such as the one presently in the Tower, upon which Lords Kilmarnock and Balmerino were beheaded, the king could not have had any reason, I suppose, for asking the question.

It is also noteworthy that Baker informs us that irons were driven in the scaffold to force the king down by ropes if he should resist. Now, unless the body was to lie at full length, how could a block and rope force a man into a kneeling position, and so bend his head on a block two feet or so high?

In a small book in my possession, published 1682, there are copper-plates showing the executions of Lady Jane and her husband, and the only approach to a block is a small piece of wood, such as referred to at the execution of Strafford.



MANSERGH, in his reply at the latter reference, SPECTACLES IN ART (7th S. ix. 368, 470).—Mr. raises a further question, which I think I can answer. He refers to a portrait of Don Francisco de Quevedo-Villegas, in which that versatile author is depicted as wearing a pince-nez. Quevedo died in 1645, and I have contemporary evidence that some, at least, of his coevals and countrymen did not picture him with that adornment; for in the original edition of his verse translation of Epictetus and Phocylides, printed at Madrid in 1635, is a portrait of Quevedo wearing a doublet and collar, but no spectacles or glasses. The artist's name is Juan de Neart. EDWARD PERCY JACOBSEN.

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parish register at Lyme Regis, was born in that town in 1554. His father was John Summers, who was a merchant in that town, and was reputed to be of the same family with Sir John Somers, whose pedigree may be seen in William Tindale's 'History and Antiquities of the Abbey and Borough of Evesham,' p. 271; in Clutterbuck's "History and Antiquities of Hertford, vol. i. p. 457; and in Nash's 'Corrections and Additions to the Collections for the History of Worcester,' vol. ii. pp. 49 and 54. His arms were Vert and gules, a fess dancette, ermine, the same as were borne by the Somers family.

Sir George died at the Bermudas November 9, 1610/11, and his body was embalmed and carried to England by Capt. Mathew Somers, his nephew and heir, and buried at Whitechurch, in Dorsetshire; but the heart and bowels were interred on the spot where the town of St. George now stands, and a wooden cross erected to mark the place (Historical and Statistical Account of the Bermudas,' by William Froth Williams, p. 16; Smith's "History of Virginia,' book iii. pp. 118, 119).

Sir George Somers made his will, bearing date April 28, 1609, which was proved August 16, 1611, by John Somers, his brother and executor (Hutchins's History and Antiquities of Dorset,' vol. ii. pp. 75, 79); but an inquisition was held July 26, 1612, in which it was stated that Nicholas Somers, his cousin, was his heir ('Domestic Papers, James I., 1611–1618,' vol. lxxix.). It is inferred he was never married.

New York, U.S.


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The Registers of St. Alphage, Canterbury, 1558-1800. By Joseph M. Cowper. (Canterbury, Privately Printed.)

THIS volume, which is fittingly dedicated to Mr. J. Henniker Heaton, M.P. for the City of Canterbury, contains a large amount of matter of considerable general interest to genealogists, apart from those specially interested in Kent; for it records a number of baptisms, marriages, and burials of the various foreign importations roughly grouped together as Huguenot refugees, some of whom still remain, and form a distinct congregation in the city of Canterbury. Many of these were of Dutch and Flemish origin, and are generally distinguishable by the "Van" which forms part of their surnames, though, of course, not every Dutch or Flemish name has the "Van." Others were as clearly French, while some were neither French nor Dutcb, but Walloon. Specimens of all these classes may easily be traced in the present volume, of which Mr. Cowper may justly be proud. He has used eight different registers, he informs us, for the

purposes of this book, and some of the tales which he The dead set made at the registers with a view to falsifyhas to tell are both curious and full of instruction. ing the true position of the several children of Thomas Denne, Esq., is very remarkable, both for the pertinacity displayed and for the blunders which have eventually led to the exposure of the falsification by Mr. Cowper. Probably the will of Thomas Denne would disclose some parochial records show that Elizabeth was his eldest reason for so persistent an attempt at making the child. That there was a motive can scarcely be doubted, and £. s. d. in some shape, not as yet made clear to us, is the most probable moving cause. 'The Registers of St. Alphage, Canterbury,' contain a fair crop of quaint and rare Christian names and surnames, some of which, howby the language which he uses in his interesting introever, Mr. Cowper has apparently not understood, judging duction. Efham Grene, we believe, represents Euphemia, which is often abbreviated into Eufame and Effame in Scotland, where it is more common than in England. We have no doubt ourselves that Hesterjacoba Defar was not intended to bear a single portentous sesquipedalian name, but the two names Hester and Jacoba, the last being a frequent Dutch and Flemish baptismal name. Everel Sawyer clearly bore a name which also occurs as Averil, and which we have personally known under the fuller form of Everilda. Eden as a female Christian name we have also ourselves known. For surnames, Hedgcock, Marksusan, Slackman, Landman, Machine, Ouldmaide, Tyreman, Tymewell, are a few only which we have picked out, by way of samples, from the many which have caught our eye in glancing over the Washington should have an interest for American pages. Kerfoot, Slaughter, Cleaveland, Clemons, and readers, while the store of foreign names can hardly be more than hinted at in this brief notice. But we may say that De Villers and Du Toit should have an interest for the Cape of Good Hope, and that De Lasaulx reminds us of Sister Augustine, the Superior of the Hospitallers of St. Charles at Bonn, who in the world was Amalie von Lasaulx, herself the descendant of therefore, of kin to the Canterbury branch of the name. Huguenot refugees settled in Germany, and probably, Whole pages could be filled with suggestive names, both English and foreign, but space is limited, so we must content ourselves with thanking Mr. Cowper for his valuable labour of love, and expressing our hope that we may soon see on our table the other registers which he announces as ready.

The Index Library. Parts XXV.-XXVII, (British Record Society.)

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IN the present issue we have the first instalment of the work which the British Record Society has been formed in order to carry on, with Mr. C. I. Elton, Q.C., M.P., ag the chairman of its council, and the originator of the scheme, Mr. W. P. W. Phillimore, B.C.L., as its honorary secretary and editor. This triple number, for the quarter January to March of the current year, contains the conclusion of the valuable Index to the Signet Bills, 1584-1624,' with introduction and lexicographical index; a continuation of the Lichfield Wills and Administra tions, 1510-1652,' embracing parts of letters B (1613-24) and D (1562-75) and the whole of C (1562-1624), as well as a continuation of the Chancery Proceedings, Car. I.,' and the 'Berkshire Wills and Administrations, 15081652,' from Carter to Curre, in alphabetical order. These facts will give some notion of the field already covered by the issues of the new society, while of its future undertakings may be enough to note that Sir James Hannen has given the society permission to print an index to the wills proved in the Prerogative Court, 1383-1558, and it is also proposed to print an index to

Sussex wills, to 1652. With so wide a field of practical
utility before it, and with the prospect of being joined
by the Index Society, we cannot doubt that the British
Record Society has every prospect of a long and useful
career as a publishing society, if only its work receives
adequate support from the large class of persons to whom
it must be of the greatest advantage to possess these
keys to the various records scattered through the length
and breadth of the land, which are at present neither
known by nor accessible to the mass of the British and
American students of family history. We believe, there-
fore, that the British Record Society meets a widely
felt want, and we hope that it will receive the hearty
support of genealogists on both sides of the Atlantic.
Horatio Nelson and the Naval Supremacy of England.
By W. Clark Russell, with the Collaboration of Wil-
liam H. Jaques. (Putnam's Sons.)
SOUTHEY'S' Life of Nelson' is one of the best biographies
in the language. So far as it goes it is well-nigh per-
fect; but much has come to light that was unknown
when Southey wrote, and there were subjects of interest
that could not be discussed when the actors were living,
where a writer has a free hand now. So far as style is
concerned, the volume before us must rank lower than
the older book, but for almost all purposes of instruction
we should estimate it far higher.

A special feature is the summary of foreign history which is supplied. The study of this renders more intelligible the home history, which is written from a moderately Conservative standpoint. The Parnell Commission also occupies a section to itself. In the second portion, or "Chronicle," events are very closely followed, the result of the cricket contests between Oxford and Cambridge and Harrow and Eton and those of the Henley Regatta being given. Full obituary notices form a portion of the scheme, references to these being facilitated by an ample index. In all respects the Annual Register maintains its high position. Almost alone among works of reference, it increases annually in value, and has nothing to fear from rivalry. In a sense to N. & Q., linking what is worthiest of preservation in its extending row of goodly volumes are complementary the present with what of interest is recoverable from the past.

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THE Handy Assurance Journal of William Bourne, F.S.S., corrected up to date, has now been issued.

THE Bookbinder is now published by Messrs. Rathby, Lawrence & Co., Limited. No diminution of energy or value attends the exchange, and the recent numbers, both in letterpress and illustrations, appeal to the amateur of fine bindings as well as to the binder himself.

A REPRINT in lithographed facsimile of a MS. volume of the time of Queen Elizabeth is proposed by Mr. George Weddell, of 20, West Granger Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. The title will be "Ye Apothecarie his Booke of Recepts agaynst alle maner of sicknesses; also howe to bake meates, to make Uskabaughe, to die clothe or woole and diuers usefull thinges besydes."

DR. EDLESTON's reprints of the Gainford parish registers will be completed very shortly by the issue of the third section, containing the deaths. The volume will be published by Mr. Elliot Stock.

Simms, will be issued by subscription by Mr. C. A. 'BIBLIOTHECA STAFFORDIENSIS,' compiled by Rupert

munications concerning Staffordshire authors and publiLomax from the "Johnson's Head," Lichfield. Comcations are invited.

'LONDON CITY,' by Mr. W. J. Loftie, will be issued by subscription by Messrs, Field & Tuer. It will be profusely illustrated.

Notices to Correspondents.

Nelson's heroic career has had an effect on the English mind which is shared by no other soldier or sailor of the modern time. Marlborough, Wellington, and Clive bad strong political parties opposed to them, and while alive were hated by a section (we believe but a small one) of their fellow countrymen. Nelson was a sailor only. He seems to have not permitted his thoughts to travel in political directions. His death, too, after a series of noble exploits, in the midst of a very great naval victory, appealed strongly to the imagination of his countrymen. The authors have told their story well, and have not indulged in the intemperate language which some delight in as to the fate of Caracciolo. We had hoped that this volume would have set at rest the questions that are always cropping up as to the death and burial of Lady Hamilton; but here we find nothing new. It is not in the events of remote ages only that the historian is embarrassed by conflicting testimony. The authors tell us that "she bad found a friend in a Mrs. Hunter, who, when the unfortunate Emma had breathed her last, placed the dead woman in a cheap deal coffin, covered with a pall formed of a white curtain and a black silk petticoat. A piece of ground just outside Calais had been consecrated, but there was no English Protestant clergyman to be found, and the funeral service was read, at Mrs. Hunter's request, by an Irish half-pay officer! Not a vestige of the grave existed in 1833. The late Dr. Doran in that year sought for it, and found its locality entirely traditionary." On the other hand, the writer of this notice has heard from a quarter likely to be well informed that in Lady Hamilton's latter days she was a member of the Church of Rome, and was buried with the rites usual in that body, the British consul at Calais being present at the ceremony. GEORGE L. APPERSON ("Falstaff not a Coward").-See The Annual Register for the Year 1889. (Rivingtons.) 'N. & Q.,' 2nd S. ii. 869; iii. 62. Consult 'On the ChaWITH no word of introduction or preface, wholly super-racter of Sir John Falstaff,' by J. O. Halliwell, 12mo., fluous in the case of a work so firmly established in 1841. public favour, without even a number on the title-page, the new volume of the Annual Register makes its appearance. Since the establishment in 1863 of the new series, the Annual Register has become the inseparable companion of the statesman, the writer, and all who care to keep a faithful record of the past. From the successive volumes a history of the last quarter of a century, its politics, literature, art, science, might be compiled,

We must call special attention to the following notices: ON all communications must be written the name and as a guarantee of good faith. address of the sender, not necessarily for publication, but

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately. To secure insertion of communications correspondents must observe the following rule. Let each note, query, or reply be written on a separate slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and such address as he wishes to appear. Correspondents who repeat queries are requested to head the second communication "Duplicate."


Editorial Communications should be addressed to "The Editor of 'Notes and Queries ""-Advertisements and Business Letters to "The Publisher "-at the Office, 22, Took's Court, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.C.

We beg leave to state that we decline to return communications which, for any reason, we do not print; and to this rule we can make no exception.

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QUERIES:-University Centenary Medals, 46-The Real
Shape of the Earth-Heligoland-Adventures of Young
John Bull'-'Recueil de Diverses Poesies de Sieur D***'-
"Pro olla," 47-"Rump and dozen -Bt. George-The
Telephone-How to Catalogue a Library'-"Ictibus
agrestis"-Bray-Surname of Queen Elizabeth-J. B. Smith
-B. Warcop-Cornelis Tromp-Divorce of George I., 48-
J. Chalon-A Sad Disappointment'-"Died of: Rage"-
Unicorn-Authors Wanted, 49.

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REPLIES:-De la Poles, 49-Chapman's All Fools,' 50-
Regimental Messes-Population of Medieval Scotland, 51-
Grangerizing-Americanisms, 52-English Psalter, 53-Rake
-St. Saviour's, Southwark-St. Mary Overy, 54-Dr. Scargill
-St. Vitus's Dance-James Smyth, 55-Family of Barwis-
Burnsiana-Morden College-Happify, 56-Dr. Daniel Scott
-French of "Stratford atte Bowe"-Great Ormes Head, 57
-Alcatras-Statue of George IV.-Church Services in Nor-
man French-Barwell and Warren Hastings, 58.
NOTES ON BOOKS:-Jusserand's 'English Novel of the Time
of Shakespeare-Earl of Dundonald's Autobiography of a
Seaman'-Le Strange's 'Palestine under the Moslems'-
Masson's Works of De Quincey'-Littlehales's Layman's
Prayer Book-Lee's 'Stratford-on-Avon.'
Notices to Correspondents.



Lord Lucas is fast, and will bee the Last
because hee's soe learned a Peere.

His Law will not doe 't nor his Logicke to boot,
though hee make the cause never so cleare.

Lord St. Johns indeed was presently freed

Shee did promise and vow hee was innocent now
For which hee may thanke his wife,
And would bee soe all his life.


There's dainty Jacke Russell, that makes a great bustle
and bledd three tymes in a day

But a Caulier swore that hee was to bleed more
before hee gott cleare away.


Sir Frederike Cornwallis, without any malice
who carryes more Gutts then crimes
has the fortune to hitt, and be counted a witt
which hee could not in former tymes.


Ned Progers looks pale, but what does hee ayle?
(ffor hee dyets with that fat Drolle),

hee must dwindle at length, that spends all his strength
att the grill and the litle hole.


Wee prisoners all pray, that brave Shirley may
bee gently assest in your books
Cause under the line, hee has payd a good fine
to the poore Common-wealth of the Rooks.


VERSES ON THE CAVALIERS IMPRISONED IN Dicke Nicols (they say) and Littleton stay
Lybell of the persons impryson'd, 1655.
[Endorsement by Hyde.]


Though the governing part cannot finde in their heart to free the Imprisoned throng

Yett I dare affirme, next Michaelmas terme wee'l sett them all out in a Songe.

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ffor the Governour's owne delight
One serves hym with play, att Tennis by day,
And the other with smoaking at night.


Jacke Paston was quitt, by his hand underwritt
But his freedome hee hardly enjoyed
ffor as it is sayd, hee drunke hymselfe dead
on purpose to make his bond voyde.


Tom Panton wee thinke, is ready to sinke
if his friends doe not lend theyr hands
Still lower he goes, and all men suppose
hee swallow'd up in the quicke sands.

ffor the rest nott here nam'd I would not bee blam'd
As if they were scorn'd by our Lyricke
ffor Waller intends to use them as ends
to patch up his next Panegyrick.


And now to conclude I would not bee rude
Nor presse into Reason of State
But surely some cause besydes the knowne laws
has brought us unto this sad fate.


Must wee pay the faults, of our Argonauts
and suffer for other men's synns,

Cause like sylly Geese they have mist of the Fleece
poore Prisoners are ahorne to their skyns.


Jaymaica relations, soe tickle the nations
And Venables looks soe sullen

That everyone cryes the designe was as wise
As those that are fram'd at Cullen.

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