Sidor som bilder

ally the Duke of Orleans paid a considerable tri-
bute to induce the English to retire. See Martin,
'Histoire de la France,' vol. v. p. 525; Walsing-
ham, 'Historia Angl.,' A.D. 1412; and the 'London
Chronicle' of the same date. The Duke of Clarence
did not return to England till after his father's
death. That there could have been no serious en-
mity between Henry V. and his brother is shown
by the confidence reposed in the latter by the
former. All through the campaign in France
Clarence loyally co-operated with Henry, and per-
formed prodigies of valour. In 1418 he was with
the King before Harfleur; conducted the siege of
Caen, took Pont de l'Arche, and aided in the
investiture and capture of Rouen. He was with
Henry again at Melun, and was made Captain of
Paris in the same year. He was at Troyes with
Henry and his brother Richard on occasion of the
betrothal of Katherine to the King of England,
and when Henry went with his bride to be
crowned, Clarence was left commander of the army
and Constable of France. His father is said to
have described him as a man of violent and self-
willed disposition," negligent of the counsel of
more experienced advisers, and rash in action.
was this failing which led to the first disaster suf-
fered by the English army in France, and pre-
judiced the fortunes of England in that country,
resulting in his own premature death :-

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"Being betrayed by his scout-master, a Lombard, who had reported the number of the enemy to be far inferior to what it was, and having left behind him his billmen and archers, in whom his chief strength consisted, he precipitated himself, contrary to the advice of his captains, into a battle at Baugé, in Anjou, which province had sided with the Dauphin. On the French side were many Scotchmen; both sides fought with equal courage, and the Duke, mixing himself in the throng of the battle, and giving proofs of singular valour, dismounted and attacked singly Swinton, the Earl of Buchan, who wounded him in the face and finally dispatched him with his spear."

This was on Easter Eve, 1421. In consequence, Henry hanged every Scotchman he could take in France, on the plea that they were fighting against their own king, James I., who was in the English army. The spear with which Clarence was killed is said to have been in possession of Sir Walter Scott at Abbotsford. The duke's body was with difficulty recovered, but was finally brought to Canterbury and buried in the Cathedral, according to his own request, "at the feet of his father." He is commemorated on a monument in St. Michael's Chapel, in the same cathedral, by the side of his wife, Margaret, Countess of Kent, and widow of his uncle, the Earl of Somerset. The date of her marriage to Clarence is not known. She was sister and heir to Edmund, the last Holland, Earl of Kent. Her first husband was John Beaufort, natural son of John of Gaunt, created Earl of Somerset in 1397. She had one son by this marriage, who died Earl of Somerset in 1418.

The monument referred to is peculiar. In so far
as Thomas of Clarence is concerned it is a ceno-
taph only, since he is buried, as we have shown, in
another part of the cathedral. It represents three
figures: the Duchess in the centre, Thomas of
Clarence on her right, and Beaufort on her left
side. The motto for the duke's epitaph is more
singular still, for it requires, in order to preserve
the Latin metre, that the words Thomas and Clar-
ence should be read in an abbreviated form:-
Hic jacet in tumulo Tho. Dux. Clar. nunc quasi nullus,
Qui fuit in bello clarus, nec clarior ullus.

The will of this Clarence is also preserved in Nichols's 'Royal Wills,' p. 230, as made on July 10, 1417, before he left England to join the army in France. He founded a chantry for his own soul and those of his father and mother and other relatives in Canterbury Cathedral, and another chantry at "Newark in Leicestershire." Dugdale gives the long catalogue of his manors and lands. His widow became a nun at Sopwell Priory, where she died in 1440. He left no issue.

Noble, in his ‘History of the College of Arms,' p. 61, traces the origin of the Clarencieux Herald to this duke :

"Henry V. preferring the herald of his brother Thomas, constable of the kingdom, created him a King of Arms under the title of Clarencieux, and placed all the south of England under his care. Wm. Horseley was so created."

See for this dukedom Sandford's 'Genealogy,'
B. iv. 5, p. 309, and Dugdale's 'Baronage,' vol. ii.
p. 196.

P.S.-On p. 483, third line of the first column, "father" should be brother.

(To be continued.)

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In MR. MASKELL's interesting paper on this subject it is stated that the marriage of Lionel Duke of Clarence with Elizabeth de Burgh deferred till 1354." Allow me to remind your readers that some years since in 'N. & Q.' I was able to prove conclusively from the Michaelmas Issue Roll for 16 Edw. III. that this marriage took place in 1342. As I cannot give the reference to my paper, the Index being just now inaccessible, perhaps you will permit me to repeat the transcript from the Roll:

"To Bartholomew de Bourghassh, by his own hands, in payment of the entire sum expended by him, paid to divers men of London for divers jewels bought from them for the use of Elizabeth, daughter of W., late Earl of Ulster, for the espousals [sponsal] between Lionel, son of the Lord King, and the said Elizabeth, lately solemnised at the Tower of London; namely, for a golden crown set with stones, a girdle garnished with goldsmiths' work, a nouch and a tressure set with goldsmiths' work, and a ring with a ruby stone, which jewels were delivered to the said Elizabeth of the King's gift."—Sept. 9, 1342.

On Jan. 1, 1347, the Patent Roll names Elizabeth, daughter and heir of William, late Earl of Ulster, "lately married to our son Lionel " (Rot.


Pat., 20 Edw. III., part iii.); and Oct. 5, 1349, "Elizabeth our dearest daughter, wife of Lionel our son" (Rot. Pat., 23 Edw. III., part iii.).


Is MR. MASKELL correct in styling Lionel, son of Edward III., "Prince"? Were the younger sons of our kings ever known by this title before James II.? E. LEATON BLENKINSOPP.

Apotheticary, adj. (not in D.). 1606, Birnie, 'Kirk Burial,' p. 10 (1833): "On whom, after Anatomicall exinteration, Apotheticary applications are so excessively employed.'

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Appliable (earliest in D., 1499). Ante 1450, Colkelbie Sow,' 562:

So gentil in all his gestis and appliable. Assoin, sb. (latest in D., 1375). 1598, Record in Pitc., 'Crim. Tri.,' ii. 65: "The samin aucht nawyis be delayit in respect of ony assoinzie of seiknes."

Asound, Northern form of Aswooned (no instance in D.). 1607, Record in Pitc., Crim. Tri.,' ii. 525: "Scho

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THE NEW ENGLISH DICTIONARY': ADDENDA continewit ane lang space asound."

(See 7th S. v. 504; vi. 38, 347; vii. 12; viii. 4, 114;

ix. 224.)

Abscidit, pple. (not in D.). Ante 1450. Colkelbie Sow,' 779:

And frome thair ferm first rutit ground dewydit,
Thay may nocht than be natur, so abscidit,

Do fructifie and flureiss as afoir.

Avenant. Used as sb., 'Gawain and Gologras,' iii. 1: "Thus endit the avynantis with mekil honour." Averoyne (only one instance in D.). Ante 1400,' Pistill of Susane,' et. ix.:

Dasye and ditoyne, Ysope and averoyne. Awp-whap, curlew. Dunbar, Thistle and Rose,' 122: And bawd him be as just to awppis and owlis As unto pacokkes.

Bauchle, Bachle, v. D. has bauchle vilify, but not

Abraird, Abreird (in D. given only under "Braird").shamble (of a horse). Jamieson gives two instances, Henryson's Fables,' 3: "Springis the flowers and the corne abreird."

Acolythist (earliest instance in D., 1726). 1606, Birnie, 'Blame of Kirk Buriall,' p. 10 (reprint, 1833): "Vespilones or bear-men, whose peculiar calling was (being followed in rankes by the Acoluthists their friends, wherof now the Roman Bishops hes bereft them) to carry their corps."

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Actitate (not in D.). 1538, Indorsement on Petition (Pitcairn's Ancient Criminal Trials in Scotland,' i. 207): "Suerte being first funding to the Justice Clerk, and actitate in the bukis of Adjurnale, that he sal nocht breik his ward."

A-drigh (latest in D., 1513). 1614, Dittay' (Pitc., Crim. Tri.,' iii. 265): "Ever attending and following adreich upone the saide Johnne Mathow."

Affectiously (no instance in D. between 1430 and 1755). Circ. 1580, Sir R. Maitland, Complaint aganis the Lang Proces,' 23, Poems,' p. 50 (1830): "And him exhort, and pray affectiouslie.'

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Affile (latest in D., 1520). Circ. 1570, A. Arbuthnot, 'Miseries of a Puir Scolar,' st. vii.: "And to dissemble man my tung affyle" (Pinkerton's 'Anct. Scot. Poems,' 1786, p. 150).

Afterling late (not in D.). 1606, Birnie, Kirk Burial' (1833, p. 20): "That Heresie, whose afterling entry falling out in the dreg of all tymes doth render it suspect."

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Agateward (D. only 1647). 1530, Register of Privy Seal of Scotland,' Respite to Hectour M'Clane: "Cummand agaitwards to ye Kingis grace" (Pitc., 'Crim. Tri., i. 245*).

Alderman (D., "a magistrate in English and Irish cities and boroughs"). The title was formerly in use in Scotland also. 1488, Indorsation of Summons (Pitc., Crim. Tri.,' i. 10*): "Before thir witnes: Andro Busby alderman of Are,......with others diverse." 1562, Privilege of Exemption (ibid., i. 418*): "Provest Aldermenne Allakay lackey (not in D.). 1537, Sc. Ld. Treasurer's Accts. (Pitc., Crim. Tri., i. 289): "The Queenis Allakayis."

and Bailleis of our burrowes & cieties."

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Andersmes St. Andrew's Day (not in D.). 1604, Record in Pitc., Crim. Tri.,' ii. 437: "Murthour and Slauchter committit at Andersmes, I sax hundreth and tua yeiris."

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Ane-ass (not in D.). Dunbar, General Satyre,' 24:

Sa mony anis and mulis

Within this land was nevir hard nor sene.

to which add, 1610, Dittay' in Pitc., 'Crim Tri.,' iii. 78; "Tuik frome him his awin horse and cuist him upone ane bachillane naig.'

Badling. The quotation from the ballad, "Thingis in kynde desyris thingis lyke," in Pinkerton's 'Sc. Po.,' is dated "ante 1600." It might be circ. 1500, as this ballad is amongst the 'Ancient Poems' printed by Chepman and Myllar, 1508.

Bailiery (earliest in D., 1425). 'Sir Eglamour of Artois,' 651 ('Ancient Poems,' Edinb., 1827): Ilke officer in his balyhory.

Bairdin (?). 1501, G. Douglas, 'Pal, of Hon.,' iii. st. 9: This gudelie carvell, taiklit traist on raw,

Was on the bairdin wallis quite ouirthraw. Base, v-humble (D., 1538). 1505, G. Douglas, 'King Hart,' i, st, 22:

The bernis both wes basit of the sicht. Ballelour juggler (Fr. basteleur, Cotgrave; not in D.). 1591, Rob Stene's Dream,' p. 17 (Edinb., 1886): "That battelour he blinds your ee."

Bausy, adj. large, coarse (not in D.). Dunbar, 'Complaint to the King, 56:

And bausy handis to beir ane barrow. Bawd-hare (earliest in D., 1592). 1486, Bk. of St. Albans,' f. 4: "Bestis of the chace of the stenkyng fewte-the Baude."

Bayand-baying, ppl. adj. (2) (D., 1538). 1513, G. Douglas, En.,' iii. 1, 35:

Quhar, at the bayand costis syde of the sea.


to return to the original, and apparently the correct form of this word now so generally used? The priceless New English Dictionary' of Dr. Murray says: "Archaeo, ad. Greek apxaco- comb. form of apxatos, ancient, primitive (f. apxý, beginning). Formerly, and still occasionally, spelt archaioand then quotes many examples from 1607 (archaiology) down to the present form archæo. logy. As the diphthongs a and c are constantly confused in writing and printing, and neither of them is correct, the old form archaiology would be far better for future use. The examples quoted by Dr. Murray are too numerous to be given, but

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till his death the other day, when my brother obtained it from Mrs. Lewis, and took it to Eton, giving it over into the possession of the head master on May 3 last. The block was the lower other names, those of Milman, Lonsdale, Routh, school block, and on it appear carved, among Wellesley, and H. Hall, 1773.


LIST OF JACOBITE NOBLEMEN, 1745.-It has not hitherto been known that a list had been published; but on arranging my Jacobite papers found a printed 'List of Noblemen, Gentlemen, and others Attainted and Adjudged as Rebels SHAKSPEARE ALLUSION.-An allusion to Shakesince 24 June, 1745.' The list of names occupies speare which has hitherto escaped notice-at least three folio foolscap pages, and is docketed "A it does not occur in Ingleby's Century of Praise,' true Copy. D. Moncrieffe, Deputy King's Re-second edition, nor in Dr. Furnivall's 'Three Hunmembrancer." JAMES STILLIE. dred Fresh Allusions'-is to be found in a play entitled 'The Famous Tragedy of King Charles I.,' published anonymously in the year 1649. The allusion to Shakespeare appears in the "Prologue to the Gentry," and runs as follows:—


CURIOUS NOTICES.-A friend informs me that by the side of the main road about four miles from Canterbury he saw the following curious "Traction engines and other persons notice, taking water from this pond will be prosecuted." This is as good as a notice I once saw in a barber's window, "Hair cut while you wait."


[At Tynemouth appeared, some thirty or more years ago, the alarming announcement, "Visitors are cautioned against bathing within a hundred yards of this spot, several persons having been drowned here lately by order of the authorities."]

NATIONAL FLOWERS. (See 4th S. ii. 402.)-On the page above referred to, in regard to national flowers, it is asserted that as the national flower of England is the rose and that of France the flower-de-luce, so the corn-flower is the national flower of Prussia. Will your correspondent or some other reader kindly tell us the authority for

the statement?

Is the corn-flower the centaurea, so famous for curative qualities that it took its name from Chiron, the prince of Centaur doctors? If not the centaurea, what is it? How long has the corn-flower been chosen above all others by Prussians; and what was the ground of their preference?

Madison, Wis., U.S.


ETON SWISHING BLOCK.-The following may be interesting to Etonians, and is, I think, worthy of a record in 'N. & Q.' During some disturbance in or about the year 1863, one Lewis (a King's Scholar), then at Eton, abstracted the flogging block, with a view of saving it from destruction. Lewis shortly after obtained a postmastership at Merton College, Oxford, took it with him there, and on his death the block came into possession of his father, Dr. Lewis, in Glamorganshire. This story my brother, Mr. F. T. Bircham, of the Local Government Board, resident at Chepstow, got from Dr. Lewis, and at the same time a promise that the block should be given to my brother, to be returned to Eton. Dr. Lewis, however, kept it

Though Johnson, Shakespeare, Goff, and Davenant,
Brome, Sucklin, Beaumont, Fletcher, Shirley, want
The life of action, and their learned lines
Are loathed by the monsters of the times, &c.


BENBOW FAMILY. (See 3rd S. viii. 207, 277, 362; ix. 104; 6th S. viii. 496; ix. 73, 175, 238.) In February, 1703, the news was received_of the death of Admiral Benbow at Jamaica. His widow, being pensioned, probably continued to reside at Deptford, where it would appear that the youngest and unmarried daughter, Catherine, kept her widowed mother company till her death at Deptford on Dec. 14, 1722, having survived her In six months after, viz., husband twenty years. July 25, 1723, Catherine married Paul Calton, of St. Peter's, Cornhill, London, afterwards living away at Milton, near Abingdon, where a son, Benbow Calton, was baptized on Dec. 15, 1726. HUBERT TAYLOR.

HUNGARY WATER.-This fashionable medicine, or refreshment, used by women of rank in the last century, is often mentioned satirically by the critics of social manners in that age. It was, apparently, crude or rectified alcohol with a tincture or maceration "through it," as the traditional Irishman would say, of rosemary (vide The Young Ladies' School of Art,' to which I have elsewhere referred, p. 58):—

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rosemary; put them into a glass; retort and pour in as "Hungary water: Take a quantity of the flowers of much spirit of wine as the flowers can imbibe; dilute the retort well, and let the flowers macerate for six days; then distil it in a sand-heat."

In fact, this "Hungary water" was an elegant stimulant (with an innocent name) for " great ladies," and its use might be compared with that of chloral hydrate, chlorodyne, or morphia at the present day. Rosemary, of course, was formerly, though not now, "officinal."

In the same little book (p. 49) is incidentally mentioned, under "Dyeing of Thread," the colour


called "Isabella," the story of which is too well known for me to repeat: "Orange and Isabella, with fustick, weld, and rocou."

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On p. 143, For the Bite of a Mad Dog," I may note that the elder tree is said to be "called the boun-tree in some parts of Scotland"; and that a relic of superstition is also included, for the lady, having stated the supposed specific, adds: "And repeat the dose the next new and full moon after the first, till the cure is compleated."

H. DE B. H.

SUPERSTITION IN MANSFIELD.-The following newspaper cutting, referring to the observance of New Year, 1890, seems of interest sufficient to deserve a place in 'N. & Q.':

"At the Mansfield police court on Saturday a young man named Ebenezer Allwood was brought up in custody charged with assaulting a young woman of respectable family, named Mary Frisby, at Mansfield on New Year's morning. The case brought to light an extraordinary bit of superstition on the part of the girl's mother, which there is no doubt was the primary cause of the assault. The young woman attended the midnight service at the parish church, and returned home a few minutes past twelve o'clock; but the mother, believing in the superstition that it is unlucky for a female to enter the house on New Year's morning before, a man, told the daughter that neither her father nor brother had yet come home, and she was to wait about until they came to enter the house first. The girl, in consequence, went for a stroll, the morning being moonlight, and returned to the house five times, but, as her father and brother had not returned, the mother kept the door locked. For the sixth time she went for a walk along the streets, this being about a quarter to one o'clock, when the prisoner met and assaulted her."



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WATERLOO.-It is to be regretted that the pamphlet describing the fight at Waterloo, which is sold to visitors at the panorama now exhibiting is not more accurate. It repeats the silly, and oft denied, order attributed to Wellington, "Up Guards and at them"; it also reasserts that the duke met Blucher after the battle at La Belle Alliance farm, which the duke himself emphatically denied. But the worst error occurs in describing, and showing on the plan, the gallant 52nd Regiment in a position quite different from that which it occupied at the close of the day. It then was in line on the right of our Guards, and as the French advanced up the hill its colonel, Sir John Colborne,

suddenly wheeled it to the left, and fired volleys into the flank of the French column, which broke and fled. This was the turning point of the struggle, and credit for it should be given to the 52nd, whose fire, followed by a charge, was ably seconded by the advance of the English Guards under Maitland. Owing to the defection of the Belgian troops this part of Wellington's line, the right, was at this time the weakest, being almost unsupported, so that the advance of about six thousand infantry in columns seemed destined to burst through it. Fortunately the 52nd was a well led and strong battalion; it had marched on the ground with more than one thousand men, number in excess of any other English regiment in the fight. The writer of the pamphlet places the 52nd on the wrong side (the left) of the main road leading from Brussels to Genappe, and it is a pity he had not carefully studied Capt. Siborne's valuable model of the battle in the museum of the Royal United Service Institution.


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RESTORATION OF A PARISH REGISTER: LAMBOURNE, CO. ESSEX.-The early register of this parish was sent anonymously by Parcel Post to the rector on June 4, 1889. The parcel, which bore the post-mark "Essex Road, N.," contained a slip of paper, on which was written, "Found in an old box, please acknowledge in Standard." An acknowledgment from the Rev. G. F. Wright, Rector of Lambourne, of safe receipt, appeared in the Standard of June 7, 1889. There are two paper fly-leaves at the beginning and end of the volume; the burials, 1705-9, are on one of the end paper leaves, and on the last a list of burials in 1788, but these appear again in their proper place in No. 4 register. The writing and spelling seem to indicate that the latter page is a memorandum by some illiterate person. On the first paper leaf is a note that "This Booke belongeth unto the Parish of Lamborne in the County of Essex. Anno Domini 1681. J. L., Curate" (i. e., John Lavender). On the second leaf appears, in Bishop Wynyff's very neat handwriting, "Memorandum that ye Paraphrase of Erasmus belonginge to ye Parish Church of Lamborne is in the custodie of Thomas Wynnyff now Parson of Lamborne, and is by him to be restored againe to the use of ye church." The volume is of parchment, and contains entries of baptisms from Sept. 2, 1582, to Oct. 24, 1709; marriages from Nov. 29, 1584, to Oct. 6, 1708; and burials from Feb. 6, 1584, to Feb. 16, 1708/9. This early register has now been privately printed by Mr. F. A. Crisp, of Grove Park, Denmark Hill, London, S.E. An interesting account of Lambourne, by G. B., with views of the church and Dews Hall, will be found in Gent. Mag., 1821, vol. xci. part ii. pp. 297-8.



84, Myddelton Square, Clerkenwell.

INSCRIPTION TO K. ALFRED, AT LITTLE DRIFFIELD.-On May 23 the Archbishop of York reopened the church at Little Driffield, in the East Riding of Yorkshire. On the north wall of the chancel there is a modern inscription: "Within this Chancel lies interred the Body of Alfred, King of Northumberland, who departed this Life January 19th, A.D. 705, in the 20th Year of his Reign. Statutum est omnibus semel mori." Whether he was so buried or not has caused much controversy, into which it is not necessary to enter here. The ancient chroniclers record his death at Driffield on 19. Cal. Ianuarij "; see, e.g., 'Florence of Worcester,' 1592, p. 262; but this is December 14, not January 19. Notice the text, which is Heb. ix. 27 (in Allen's Yorkshire,' iii. 422, we have "et" for est; and in Ross's Celebrities of the Yorkshire Wolds,' 1878, p. 20, "semil" for semel). The text as it stands flatly contradicts 1 Cor. xv. 51, where, however, the Vulgate differs. But in Heb. ix. 27, the Vulgate has "statutum est hominibus semel mori." The confusion of hominibus

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with omnibus is possibly due to some late Latin or early Italian version, in which the initial h would disappear. The confusion is not recent either in Latin or English. Omnibus is printed in the margin of p. 245 a, of an edition of Peter Lombard, Paris, 1553. It also occurs on the sheath of a Bristol sword, 1670, Proc. Soc. Ant., second series, xii. 327. "All" occurs twice in a careful reprint of Pearson 'On the Creed '(1659), edited by James Nichols, 1848, pp. 433, 541; and twice in the 'Works' of W. Romaine (ob. 1795), 1837, pp. 467, 817. It is also found in a sermon by Canon Liddon, printed in the Contemporary Pulpit, January, 1887, p. 55, but it is only fair to add that for the printing the preacher held himself in no way responsible.

W. C. B.

THE COMMONWEALTH FLAG.-In 'Woodstock,' chap. viii., there are a couple of mistakes which, considering Sir Walter Scott's partiality to the study of heraldry, are very curious. The banner of Eng. land, he says, was no longer flying over the Round Tower at Windsor; "in its room waved that of the Commonwealth, the cross of St. George, in its colours of blue and red, not yet intersected by the diagonal cross of Scotland, which was soon after assumed, as if in evidence of England's conquest over her ancient enemy." It is possible that he did not know that the Commonwealth did not, at any time, carry on its banner the diagonal cross of Scotland intersecting St. George's cross; but he certainly did know that St. George's cross has no blue about it. J. K. L.

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editor is Mr. Justin Winsor, Librarian of Harvard University, and the second chapter, which contains the passage in question, is by himself. After alluding to the Irish settlement in the island, which appears to have been the earliest of all, and to have been displaced by the Norse immigration into Iceland towards the end of the ninth century, Mr. Winsor proceeds :—

"Here Columbus, when, as he tells us, he visited the island in 1477, found no ice. So that, if we may place reliance on the appreciable change of climate by the precession of the equinoxes, a thousand years ago and and found these Christian Irish there, the island was not more, when the Norwegians crossed from Scandinavia the forbidding spot that it seems with the lapse of centuries to be becoming."

climate of Iceland within historic times, this canIf any appreciable change has taken place in the not have arisen from any directly astronomical cause. The precession of the equinoxes can never produce any climatic change, consisting as it does

in a conical motion of the earth's axis round a point in its centre. The diminution in the obliquity of the ecliptic is a different phenomenon, due to planetary perturbation. So far as it goes it tends, of course, to diminish the range of change in seasonal temperature; but its whole extent is small, amounting only to about 45" in a century. During the last thousand years the obliquity has only changed by about 7', and since the time of Columbus less than 2. Surely Mr. Winsor's language is calculated to give a wrong impression with regard to what that great navigator noticed! That he should have found "no ice" in Iceland would indeed have been extraordinary. What really surprised him seems to have been to find an open sea much further to the north, in which it was possible to sail without being blocked in by the ice. The Norwegians at first gave the island the name of Snjaland, or Snowland, but afterwards changed this to Island, probably on account of the masses of drift ice frequently carried to its western shores from the coast of Greenland. The word is signifies ice in the Scandinavian tongues. It was the same also in Old German and in Anglo-Saxon, though in modern German it has become eis, and in English ice. W. T. LYNN.


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PREPENSE. In the phrase "malice prepense" the etymology of prepense is not very easy. I give it as from Lat. pra, beforehand, and the French penser. Godefroy's O.F. Dictionary gives an example (s.v. "Porpenser") of the phrase "de malice pourpensee. This may seem decisive, but it is not so. Scheler (s.v. "Pour ") points out the extraordinary confusion, in French, between pour, O. F. por (properly Lat. pro), and par (Lat. per); and he might have included F. pré- as well. The confusion seems to be one of long standing, for in the second section of the 'Laws of William the i

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